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Přerov, Czech Republic

Sitko J.,Comenius Museum | Heneberg P.,Charles University
Parasitology International | Year: 2015

Structure and pattern of helminth component communities parasitizing grebes and loons are poorly understood. Here we analyze the prevalence, intensity and diversity of helminths in 505 Czech grebes (Podiceps cristatus, Podiceps nigricollis, Tachybaptus ruficollis) and loons (Gavia arctica, Gavia stellata) collected between 1962 and 2014. The species richness of helminth component communities ranged from 31. ±. 8 (P. cristatus) to 50. ±. 4 (G. stellata) species, with helminth load similar in all five host species, but with strong differences in prevalence and intensity of infection at a helminth species-specific level. The dominance was low, ranging from 0.11 (P. cristatus and G. stellata) to 0.21 (P. nigricollis). Dominant species (>. 25% prevalence) in P. cristatus were Confluaria sp., Tylodelphys clavata, Echinochasmus coaxatus, Petasiger neocomense and Ligula colymbi; in P. nigricollis and T. ruficollis: Confluaria sp. and Tatria sp.; in G. arctica and G. stellata: Tetrabothrius microcephalus, Stephanoprora denticulata, Cryptocotyle concava, Diplostomum gavium and Ichthyocotylurus erraticus; in G. stellata only: Echinochasmus (Monilifer) spinulosus. Four (12%) of the grebe digenean species were not locally acquired (with non-sympatric intermediate hosts) despite the fact that they represented 25% of digenean individuals found. In loons, five (28%) of digenean species and striking 38% of individuals found used the non-sympatric intermediate host species. Component communities of grebes were similar to each other (Sørensen similarity index 0.47-0.65) but differed strongly from those hosted by loons (0.00-0.20). We present the first systematically collected evidence of intra-annual changes of helminth component communities in grebes, and provide 20 new host records. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Sitko J.,Comenius Museum | Heneberg P.,Charles University
Parasitology International | Year: 2015

The composition, structure and pattern of helminth assemblages associated with the storks (Ciconiidae), ibises and spoonbills (Threskiornithidae) are poorly understood. Here we analyze the prevalence, intensity and diversity of the helminth component communities associated with the white stork Ciconia ciconia and black stork Ciconia nigra, and notice the findings of helminths on Eurasian spoonbill Platalea leucorodia and glossy ibis Plegadis falcinellus obtained in the Czech Republic in years 1962-2013. Comparison with datasets from multiple European countries supports the existence of well-defined local helminth component communities, which are subject to strong geographic variation. The estimated diversity of the helminth component communities reached 11.0. ±. 1.6 ( C. ciconia) and 12.5. ±. 5.4 ( C. nigra) species, with the Berger-Parker dominance index reaching only 0.24 and 0.21, respectively. Typically, the dominant species ( Chaunocephalus ferox, Tylodelphys excavata and Dictymetra discoidea in C. ciconia, and Cathaemasia hians and Dicheilonema ciconiae in C. nigra) were considered as local, with intermediate host species available onsite. Altogether 10 of the 11 species with known life cycle were capable to complete their life cycle locally, which is in strong contrast with the situation in Czech egrets and herons. In C. ciconia and C. nigra, the highest helminth load was in juveniles, whereas Echinostoma sudanense, absent in the juveniles, was associated with intermediate hosts absent in the study area. Relative prevalence and frequency of helminths associated with male and female C. ciconia was similar to each other. The first systematically collected evidence of the intra-annual changes of the helminth assemblages in storks is provided. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Four specimens of Skrjabinus skrjabini, were isolated from two out of 93 red-backed shrikes (Lanius collurio) examined during 1962-2012. The species have been re-described and the generic diagnosis amended. Eight species of the genus have been validated: S. aenigma, S. indicus, S. latus, S. pancreaticus, S. rarus, S. skrjabini, S. similis, and S. sp. of Oshmarin (1970). Others have been reclassified as Platynosomum (P. dicruri, P. gracile, and P. talischense with synonyms P. butei and S. sp. of Oshmarin (1963)) and Zonorchis (Z. francolini, and Z. petiolatus with synonyms S. biliosus, S. gvozdevi, S. popovi). Skrjabinus petrovi is a synonym of Brachydistomum ventricosum. Lubens lubens determited by Bhuta & Khan (1975) is a synonym of S. aenigma. © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien. Source


Summary: Microtrema gen. n. and Microtrema barusi sp. n. are described from the intestine of Prunella modularis in the Czech Republic. Genus and species have the following features: Body claviform, widest in region of ventral sucker. Tegument densely covered with tiny spines. Suckers small, widely separated. Oral sucker globular, subterminal. Ventral sucker globular, equatorial. Prepharynx very short or absent. Pharynx small, fine. Oesophagus divided into two short intestinal branches ending blindly anterior to testes. Testes globular, lateral, in region of ventral sucker. Vesicula seminalis small, genital pore in short distance before ventral sucker and opening of uterus. Bursa cirri and cirrus absent. Ovary globular, median, between testes. Mehlis' gland long oval, posterior to ovary. Vitellarium weakly developed, in two lateral clusters composed of small follicles. Uterus in posterior part of body, with many eggs, covering vitellarium and partly ventral sucker. Excretory vesicle V-shaped, pore terminal. © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien. Source


Sitko J.,Comenius Museum | Heneberg P.,Charles University
Parasitology International | Year: 2015

Helminths parasitizing the ardeid birds are poorly understood, and the majority of studies are limited to checklists and records of novel host-parasite interactions. Here we analyzed the prevalence, intensity and diversity of the helminth component communities associated with an extensive cohort of the five most common Czech herons (Ardea cinerea, Ardea alba, Nycticorax nycticorax, Botaurus stellaris and Ixobrychus minutus) collected in the years 1962-2013. Comparison with Ukrainian datasets supports the existence of local helminth component communities, subject to strong geographic variation. The diversity of the component communities ranged between 37.3 ± 9.6 (A. cinerea) and 2.5 ± 1.1 (I. minutus) species. Similarly, the frequency of particular helminths differed by over one order of magnitude, whereas the helminth load differed by over two orders of magnitude. Typically, the dominant species (Echinochasmus beleocephalus, Uroproctepisthmium bursicola, Posthodiplostomum cuticola, Apharyngostrigea cornu, Desmidocercella numidica and Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus) were considered local, with intermediate host species available onsite, as represented by freshwater mollusks. Of the digeneans, 52% of the species likely infected their definitive hosts outside the study area, frequently utilizing invertebrates of salt or brackish waters. For A. cinerea, the largest number of species was in adult males; however the helminth load of the adults was lower than in their juvenile counterparts. This study provides the first systematically collected evidence for the intra-annual changes of the helminth assemblages in herons. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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