Comenius Museum

Přerov, Czech Republic

Comenius Museum

Přerov, Czech Republic
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Heneberg P.,Charles University | Sitko J.,Comenius Museum
Parasitology International | Year: 2017

The Pegosomum Ratz, 1903 are digenean parasites of piscivorous birds. They exhibit few morphological autapomorphies and some of their identification features (number of collar spines) can be altered before or during fixation. Several re-classifications within the genus were suggested, but they have never been supported by molecular analyses. We addressed the synonymization of species within Pegosomum asperum/saginatum complex suggested by Dubinin, Dubinina and Saidov. We analyzed one nuclear (ITS2) and two mitochondrial (CO1, ND1) loci of two central European species of Pegosomum, namely Pegosomum asperum (Wright, 1879) Ratz, 1903 and Pegosomum saginatum (Ratz, 1898) Ratz, 1903. Our combined molecular and comparative morphological analyses confirmed the validity of the two Pegosomum spp. Both species had highly similar morphology and occurred sympatrically in the gall bladder and bile duct of Ardea alba (Linnaeus, 1758). P. saginatum occurred more frequently in hosts infected concurrently with P. asperum. We also provided host-, age- and sex-specific prevalence and intensity of infections, and comparative measurements of the two Pegosomum spp. based on an extensive dataset collected from 1962 to 2016. These species can be morphologically distinguished based on the extent of vitellarium, which reached anteriorly to the pharynx in P. asperum but extended anteriorly to the midline of the esophagus in P. saginatum. The species also differed in the cirrus diameter (P. asperum ≥ 447, P. saginatum ≤ 447). © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Sitko J.,Comenius Museum | Heneberg P.,Charles University
Parasitology International | Year: 2015

Helminths parasitizing the ardeid birds are poorly understood, and the majority of studies are limited to checklists and records of novel host-parasite interactions. Here we analyzed the prevalence, intensity and diversity of the helminth component communities associated with an extensive cohort of the five most common Czech herons (Ardea cinerea, Ardea alba, Nycticorax nycticorax, Botaurus stellaris and Ixobrychus minutus) collected in the years 1962-2013. Comparison with Ukrainian datasets supports the existence of local helminth component communities, subject to strong geographic variation. The diversity of the component communities ranged between 37.3 ± 9.6 (A. cinerea) and 2.5 ± 1.1 (I. minutus) species. Similarly, the frequency of particular helminths differed by over one order of magnitude, whereas the helminth load differed by over two orders of magnitude. Typically, the dominant species (Echinochasmus beleocephalus, Uroproctepisthmium bursicola, Posthodiplostomum cuticola, Apharyngostrigea cornu, Desmidocercella numidica and Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus) were considered local, with intermediate host species available onsite, as represented by freshwater mollusks. Of the digeneans, 52% of the species likely infected their definitive hosts outside the study area, frequently utilizing invertebrates of salt or brackish waters. For A. cinerea, the largest number of species was in adult males; however the helminth load of the adults was lower than in their juvenile counterparts. This study provides the first systematically collected evidence for the intra-annual changes of the helminth assemblages in herons. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Sitko J.,Comenius Museum | Heneberg P.,Charles University
Parasitology International | Year: 2015

The composition, structure and pattern of helminth assemblages associated with the storks (Ciconiidae), ibises and spoonbills (Threskiornithidae) are poorly understood. Here we analyze the prevalence, intensity and diversity of the helminth component communities associated with the white stork Ciconia ciconia and black stork Ciconia nigra, and notice the findings of helminths on Eurasian spoonbill Platalea leucorodia and glossy ibis Plegadis falcinellus obtained in the Czech Republic in years 1962-2013. Comparison with datasets from multiple European countries supports the existence of well-defined local helminth component communities, which are subject to strong geographic variation. The estimated diversity of the helminth component communities reached 11.0. ±. 1.6 ( C. ciconia) and 12.5. ±. 5.4 ( C. nigra) species, with the Berger-Parker dominance index reaching only 0.24 and 0.21, respectively. Typically, the dominant species ( Chaunocephalus ferox, Tylodelphys excavata and Dictymetra discoidea in C. ciconia, and Cathaemasia hians and Dicheilonema ciconiae in C. nigra) were considered as local, with intermediate host species available onsite. Altogether 10 of the 11 species with known life cycle were capable to complete their life cycle locally, which is in strong contrast with the situation in Czech egrets and herons. In C. ciconia and C. nigra, the highest helminth load was in juveniles, whereas Echinostoma sudanense, absent in the juveniles, was associated with intermediate hosts absent in the study area. Relative prevalence and frequency of helminths associated with male and female C. ciconia was similar to each other. The first systematically collected evidence of the intra-annual changes of the helminth assemblages in storks is provided. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Heneberg P.,Charles University | Sitko J.,Comenius Museum | Bizos J.,Charles University
Parasitology International | Year: 2015

Species of the family Prosthogonimidae are considered the most pathogenic poultry trematodes worldwide, affecting particularly low intensity farming in rural areas. Adults of Prosthogonimus occur mainly in the bursa of Fabricius, oviduct and cloaca of ducks, geese, fowl and other birds feeding at least occasionally on dragonflies or damselflies (Odonata). We analyzed the central European species of the Prosthogonimidae, namely Prosthogonimus cuneatus, Prosthogonimus ovatus, Prosthogonimus pellucidus and Prosthogonimus rarus. We sequenced three nuclear (ITS2) and mitochondrial (CO1, ND1) DNA loci of four species isolated from Anas clypeata, Anas strepera, Anas platyrhynchos, Aythya ferina, Passer domesticus and Turdus merula. Intra- and inter-specific sequence variability revealed that all four species represent distinct well-defined entities. Our data, combined with previously published studies, suggest the return of the name Prosthogonimus rarus Braun, 1901 for Schistogonimus rarus (Braun, 1901). The genus name Schistogonimus Lühe, 1909 is considered a junior synonym of Prosthogonimus Lühe, 1899. We identified the existence of two clades, one represented by P. cuneatus and P. pellucidus, and another one formed by P. ovatus and P. rarus. We also provide comparative measurements of these four central European prosthogonimids, and address their tissue specificity, host-specific prevalence (based on the extensive bird cohort examined in years 1962-2014), and for some bird hosts we address also differences in the prevalence of Prosthogonimus spp. in natural and near-natural wetlands in comparison with fishponds utilized for intense carp production. We provide an updated key to European Prosthogonimus spp. based on their morphological characters. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


HENEBERG P.,Charles University | SITKO J.,Comenius Museum | BIZOS J.,Charles University
Parasitology | Year: 2016

The Brachylaimoidea are digenean parasites of vertebrates, including humans, domestic animals, poultry and wild game. Numerous Brachylaimoidea, particularly adults of Brachylaima and Leucochloridium, are difficult to identify to species. We provide and analyse sequences of two nuclear (18S rDNA, ITS2) and two mitochondrial (CO1, ND1) DNA loci of central European species of the Brachylaimoidea, namely Leucochloridium holostomum, Leucochloridium paradoxum, Leucochloridium perturbatum, Leucochloridium subtilis, Leucochloridium vogtianum, Urotocus rossitensis, Urogonimus macrostomus, Michajlovia migrata, Leucochloridiomorpha lutea, Brachylaima arcuatus, Brachylaima fuscata and Brachylaima mesostoma. We identified three clades in the genus Leucochloridium, which do not correspond to the previously suggested subgenera Neoleucochloridium, Papilloleucochloridium and Leucochloridium. We reject classification of Urotocus and Urogonimus in Leucochloridiinae, and, instead, re-establish the subfamilies Urotocinae and Urogoniminae. We synonymize the genus Renylaima with the genus Brachylaima. We reject M. migrata as a member of Leucochloridiinae sensu stricto or Brachylaimidae suggested by some previous authors. We found that the previously sequenced Glaphyrostomum sp. does not cluster with any hitherto sequenced Brachylaimidae. We also provide comparative measurements of the examined central European Brachylaimoidea, address the the specificity of their localization in the host and discuss their host-specific prevalence and intensity of infections based on the extensive dataset of birds examined in 1962–2015. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016


Okulewicz A.,Wrocław University | Sitko J.,Comenius Museum
Helminthologia (Poland) | Year: 2012

Summary: Parasitic helminths were the probable cause of death of 41 passeriform birds (29 adults and 12 juveniles in their first year of life) caught in the net during the spring and autumn ringing (1986-2010). The birds (1 Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, 1 House Martin Delichon urbica, 2 Blue Tit Cyanistes caeruleus, 9 Great Tit Parus major, 3 Willow Tit Poecile palustris, 1 Great Reed Acrocephalus arundinaceus, 1 Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita, 3 Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla, 2 Dunnock Prunella modularis, 1 Magpie Pica pica, 5 Robin Erithacus rubecula, 9 Common Blackbird Turdus merula and 3 Song Thrush T. philomelos) were caught in the environs of Přerov (Czech Republic). The helminths: trematodes, tapeworms, nematodes and hook worms, were located in the intestine, glandular and muscular stomach, cloaca, rectum, gall bladder, liver, pulmonary cavity, air sac, nasal and orbital cavity and subcutaneous tissue of the hosts. The intensity of invasion with different species of parasites was up to 734 per host. Some parasites Brachydistomum ventricosum, Mosesia sittae, Aprocta cylindrica, Diplotriaena tridens were acquired at the wintering grounds. All the helmniths were heteroxenous, with development cycle involving intermediate hosts (invertebrates) which are part of the birds' diet. © 2012 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.


Sitko J.,Comenius Museum | Zalesny G.,Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences
Journal of Helminthology | Year: 2014

In the present study we investigated two ecologically distinct populations of T. merula for the presence of helminths. We wished to determine whether urban populations of blackbirds had reduced helminth fauna compared to birds from forest habitats. Birds were caught in two ecologically distinct sites located in the eastern part of the Czech Republic. A total of 320 birds were examined. The first site was located in Prerov where the birds were obtained from a typical urban population, and the second site was Zahlinice, which constitutes a typical forest area. As a result of parasitological examination, 30 helminth species belonging to Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda and Acanthocephala were recorded from both sites: 29 species were found in the forested site and 15 in the urban site. The overall prevalence of infection was 93.1% and differed significantly between the sites (Zahlinice 97.2%, Prerov 85.1%). The mean species richness was almost three times higher in the forest population (3.37 ±Â 0.10) than in the urban one (1.78 ±Â 0.11). The clear qualitative and quantitative differences in the helminth community of T. merula obtained from two ecologically disparate localities show that urbanization leads to a significant reduction in the helminth fauna of a bird which is highly adapted to synanthropic habitats, while still remaining common in its original forest habitat. © Cambridge University Press 2012.


Sitko J.,Comenius Museum
Helminthologia | Year: 2012

Summary: A survey of 29 species of trematodes found in the Czech Republic in 530 herons of 8 species: Ardea cinerea 436 species examined (21 species of digeneas determined), A. purpurea 2 (4), Egretta alba 34 (7), E. garzetta 2 (3), Nycticorax nycticorax 28 (2), Ixobrychus minutus 19 (0), Botaurus stellaris 8 (5), Ardeola ralloides 1 (3) is presented. The species recorded for the first time in the Central Europe - Clinostomum heluans, Nephrostomum ramosum and Pygorchis affixus which has been brought from the wintering grounds in Africa, Echinochasmus militaris and Saakotrema metatestis brought by juvenile birds from breeding ground in the South Europe. Ophiosoma patagiatum and Posthodiplostomum brevicaudatum found for the first time in the Czech Republic. © 2012 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.


Summary: Microtrema gen. n. and Microtrema barusi sp. n. are described from the intestine of Prunella modularis in the Czech Republic. Genus and species have the following features: Body claviform, widest in region of ventral sucker. Tegument densely covered with tiny spines. Suckers small, widely separated. Oral sucker globular, subterminal. Ventral sucker globular, equatorial. Prepharynx very short or absent. Pharynx small, fine. Oesophagus divided into two short intestinal branches ending blindly anterior to testes. Testes globular, lateral, in region of ventral sucker. Vesicula seminalis small, genital pore in short distance before ventral sucker and opening of uterus. Bursa cirri and cirrus absent. Ovary globular, median, between testes. Mehlis' gland long oval, posterior to ovary. Vitellarium weakly developed, in two lateral clusters composed of small follicles. Uterus in posterior part of body, with many eggs, covering vitellarium and partly ventral sucker. Excretory vesicle V-shaped, pore terminal. © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.


Four specimens of Skrjabinus skrjabini, were isolated from two out of 93 red-backed shrikes (Lanius collurio) examined during 1962-2012. The species have been re-described and the generic diagnosis amended. Eight species of the genus have been validated: S. aenigma, S. indicus, S. latus, S. pancreaticus, S. rarus, S. skrjabini, S. similis, and S. sp. of Oshmarin (1970). Others have been reclassified as Platynosomum (P. dicruri, P. gracile, and P. talischense with synonyms P. butei and S. sp. of Oshmarin (1963)) and Zonorchis (Z. francolini, and Z. petiolatus with synonyms S. biliosus, S. gvozdevi, S. popovi). Skrjabinus petrovi is a synonym of Brachydistomum ventricosum. Lubens lubens determited by Bhuta & Khan (1975) is a synonym of S. aenigma. © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.

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