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Baltimore Highlands, MD, United States

Bellavia M.,University of Palermo | Bellavia M.,Euro Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology IEMEST | Tomasello G.,University of Palermo | Tomasello G.,Euro Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology IEMEST | And 20 more authors.
Medical Microbiology and Immunology | Year: 2013

In this work, we propose that for further studies of the physiopathology and treatment for inflammatory bowel diseases, an integral view of the conditions, including the triad of microbiota-heat shock proteins (HSPs)-probiotics, ought to be considered. Microbiota is the complex microbial flora that resides in the gut, affecting not only gut functions but also the health status of the whole body. Alteration in the microbiota's composition has been implicated in a variety of pathological conditions (e.g., ulcerative colitis, UC), involving both gut and extra-intestinal tissues and organs. Some of these pathologies are also associated with an altered expression of HSPs (chaperones) and this is the reason why they may be considered chaperonopathies. Probiotics, which are live microorganisms able to restore the correct, healthy equilibrium of microbiota composition, can ameliorate symptoms in patients suffering from UC and modulate expression levels of HSPs. However, currently probiotic therapy follows ex-adiuvantibus criteria, i.e., treatments with beneficial effects but whose mechanism of action is unknown, which should be changed so the probiotics needed in each case are predetermined on the basis of the patient's microbiota. Consequently, efforts are necessary to develop diagnostic tools for elucidating levels and distribution of HSPs and the microbiota composition (microbiota fingerprint) of each subject and, thus, guide specific probiotic therapy, tailored to meet the needs of the patient. Microbiota fingerprinting ought to include molecular biology techniques for sequencing highly conserved DNA, e.g., genes encoding 16S RNA, for species identification and, in addition, quantification of each relevant microbe. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Corrao S.,Istituto Euro Mediterraneo di Science e Tecnologia | Corrao S.,University of Palermo | Anzalone R.,University of Palermo | Iacono M.L.,Istituto Euro Mediterraneo di Science e Tecnologia | And 21 more authors.
Open Biology | Year: 2014

Heat-shock protein (Hsp)10 is the co-chaperone for Hsp60 inside mitochondria, but it also resides outside the organelle. Variations in its levels and intracellular distribution have been documented in pathological conditions, e.g. cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here, we show that Hsp10 in COPD undergoes changes at the molecular and subcellular levels in bronchial cells from human specimens and derived cell lines, intact or subjected to stress induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Noteworthy findings are: (i) Hsp10 occurred in nuclei of epithelial and lamina propria cells of bronchial mucosa from non-smokers and smokers; (ii) human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) and lung fibroblast (HFL-1) cells, in vitro, showed Hsp10 in the nucleus, before and after CSE exposure; (iii) CSE stimulation did not increase the levels of Hsp10 but did elicit qualitative changes as indicated by molecular weight and isoelectric point shifts; and (iv) Hsp10 nuclear levels increased after CSE stimulation in HFL-1, indicating cytosol to nucleus migration, and although Hsp10 did not bind DNA, it bound a DNA-associated protein. © 2014 The Authors. Published. Source

Cappello F.,Euro Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology IEMEST | Cappello F.,University of Palermo | Gammazza A.M.,University of Palermo | Piccionello A.P.,Euro Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology IEMEST | And 10 more authors.
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets | Year: 2014

Introduction: Hsp60 (Cpn60) assembles into a tetradecamer that interacts with the co-chaperonin Hsp10 (Cpn10) to assist client polypeptides to fold, but it also has other roles, including participation in pathogenic mechanisms. Area covered: Hsp60 chaperonopathies are pathological conditions, inherited or acquired, in which the chaperone plays a determinant etiologic-pathogenic role. These diseases justify selection of Hsp60 as a target for developing agents that interfere with its pathogenic effects. We provide information on how to proceed. Expert opinion: The information available encourages the development of ways to improve Hsp60 activity (positive chaperonotherapy) when deficient or to block it (negative chaperonotherapy) when pathogenic. Many questions are still unanswered and obstacles are obvious. More information is needed to establish when and why autologous Hsp60 becomes a pathogenic autoantigen, or induces cytokine formation and inflammation, or favors carcinogenesis. Clarification of these points will take considerable time. However, analysis of the Hsp60 molecule and a search for active compounds aimed at structural sites that will affect its functioning should continue without interruption. No doubt that some of these compounds will offer therapeutic hopes and will also be instrumental for dissecting structure-function relationships at the biochemical and biological (using animal models and cultured cells) levels. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

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