Walsh B.T.,Columbia University Medical Center
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2011
A disturbance in eating behavior is the defining characteristic of the clinical eating disorders, Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder. Surprisingly little research has been devoted to assessing objectively the nature of the eating disturbances in these disorders, to elucidating what factors contribute to the development and persistence of these disturbances, or to describing how they change with treatment. This review, which is based on a Mars lecture delivered at the 2010 meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior, reviews objective information about the nature of the disturbances of eating behavior in eating disorders. These data suggest that more detailed knowledge of eating behavior is an essential component of a full understanding of eating disorders and may provide a foundation for studies of pathophysiology and for the development of new treatment methods. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Kim T.-W.,Columbia University Medical Center
Neurotherapeutics | Year: 2015
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and represents one of the highest unmet needs in medicine today. Drug development efforts for AD have been encumbered by largely unsuccessful clinical trials in the last decade. Drug repositioning, a process of discovering a new therapeutic use for existing drugs or drug candidates, is an attractive and timely drug development strategy especially for AD. Compared with traditional de novo drug development, time and cost are reduced as the safety and pharmacokinetic properties of most repositioning candidates have already been determined. A majority of drug repositioning efforts for AD have been based on positive clinical or epidemiological observations or in vivo efficacy found in mouse models of AD. More systematic, multidisciplinary approaches will further facilitate drug repositioning for AD. Some experimental approaches include unbiased phenotypic screening using the library of available drug collections in physiologically relevant model systems (e.g. stem cell-derived neurons or glial cells), computational prediction and selection approaches that leverage the accumulating data resulting from RNA expression profiles, and genome-wide association studies. This review will summarize several notable strategies and representative examples of drug repositioning for AD. © 2014, The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc.
Brown A.S.,Columbia University Medical Center
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2014
The "Kraepelinian dichotomy" between schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) has been a dominant force in our thinking on the classification of these mental disorders. Emerging evidence indicates that these 2 disorders overlap significantly with regard to epidemiology, clinical presentation, genetic susceptibility, structural neuroanatomy, and treatment. Prenatal infection and immunologic dysfunction appear to be risk factors for both SZ and BD; some of these gestational exposures are present in both disorders while others may be specific to 1 or the other of the 2 syndromes. In this paper, we shall review prior studies of prenatal infections and immunologic insults in schizophrenia and BD, including exposures which overlap and which differ between these disorders, discuss the potential utility of maternal infection as one strategy toward developing a more biologically meaningful diagnostic classification system, and propose new recommendations for future research aimed at dissecting these 2 disorders from one another at the etiologic level. © 2015 The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Tang P.,Columbia University Medical Center
Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons | Year: 2011
The ulnar and radial collateral ligaments are primary stabilizers of the thumb metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint. Injury to these ligaments can lead to instability and disability. Stress testing is essential to establish the diagnosis. Complete tear is diagnosed on physical examination when the proximal phalanx of the thumb can be angulated ulnarly or radially on the metacarpal head by 30° to 35° with the MP joint in either zero degrees of extension or 30° of flexion. Lack of a firm end point or angulation measuring >15° on stress testing compared with the contralateral thumb MP joint are also indicative of complete tear. Partial ligament injuries may be managed nonsurgically, but complete tears are usually managed surgically. Various techniques are used to reattach the ligament to bone, including suture anchors and, less commonly, repair of midsubstance tears. Options for managing chronic injuries include ligament repair, ligament reconstruction with a free tendon graft, and arthrodesis of the MP joint.
Honig L.S.,Columbia University Medical Center
Archives of Neurology | Year: 2012
Dementia disorders are characterized by clinicopathological criteria. Molecular understandings of these disorders, based on immunohistochemical studies, biochemical investigations, genetic approaches, and animal models, have resulted in advances in diagnosis. Likewise, translational research has allowed us to apply our increasing basic scientific knowledge of neurodegeneration to the rational development of new investigational therapies based on our current understanding of disease pathogenesis. This review discusses the application of translational research to both diagnosis and treatment of dementia disorders. The development of biomarkers has yielded imaging and biochemical methods that assist the physician more than ever in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementias, especially Alzheimer disease. New diagnostic criteria for disease are based on these molecular-based techniques. And these biomarkers are of potential use in monitoring disease activity during therapeutic trials. Translational investigations likewise have led toward new avenues in targeted dementia research. This is particularly so in the development and testing of disease-modifying treatments that might slow or deter progressive deterioration. Recent clinical trials have not been based on empirical trials of established drugs but, rather, on trials of drugs shown, through experiments in biochemical, cell culture, and animal models, to interfere with known elements of the pathogenetic cascade of Alzheimer disease. ©2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.