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Lasorella A.,Columbia University Medical Center | Benezra R.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Iavarone A.,Columbia University Medical Center
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2014

Inhibitor of DNA binding (ID) proteins are transcriptional regulators that control the timing of cell fate determination and differentiation in stem and progenitor cells during normal development and adult life. ID genes are frequently deregulated in many types of human neoplasms, and they endow cancer cells with biological features that are hijacked from normal stem cells. The ability of ID proteins to function as central 'hubs' for the coordination of multiple cancer hallmarks has established these transcriptional regulators as therapeutic targets and biomarkers in specific types of human tumours. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Tycko B.,Columbia University Medical Center | Tycko B.,Columbia University
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2010

Allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM) and allele-specific gene expression (ASE) have long been studied in genomic imprinting and X chromosome inactivation. But these types of allelic asymmetries, along with allele-specific transcription factor binding (ASTF), have turned out to be far more pervasive-affecting many non-imprinted autosomal genes in normal human tissues. ASM, ASE and ASTF have now been mapped genome-wide by microarray-based methods and NextGen sequencing. Multiple studies agree that all three types of allelic asymmetries, as well as the related phenomena of expression and methylation quantitative trait loci, are mostly accounted for by cis-acting regulatory polymorphisms. The precise mechanisms by which this occurs are not yet understood, but there are some testable hypotheses and already a few direct clues. Future challenges include achieving higher resolution maps to locate the epicenters of cis-regulated ASM, using this information to test mechanistic models, and applying genome-wide maps of ASE/ASM/ASTF to pinpoint functional regulatory polymorphisms influencing disease susceptibility. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Mayeux R.,Columbia University Medical Center | Stern Y.,Columbia University Medical Center
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine | Year: 2012

The global prevalence of dementia has been estimated to be as high as 24 million, and is predicted to double every 20 years until at least 2040. As the population worldwide continues to age, the number of individuals at risk will also increase, particularly among the very old. Alzheimer disease is the leading cause of dementia beginning with impaired memory. The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease include diffuse and neuritic extracellular amyloid plaques in brain that are frequently surrounded by dystrophic neurites and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles. The etiology of Alzheimer disease remains unclear, but it is likely to be the result of both genetic and environmental factors. In this review we discuss the prevalence and incidence rates, the established environmental risk factors, and the protective factors, and briefly review genetic variants predisposing to disease. © 2012 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press all rights reserved.

Ginsberg H.,Columbia University Medical Center
Cardiovascular diabetology | Year: 2013

The term cardiometabolic disease encompasses a range of lifestyle-related conditions, including Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), that are characterized by different combinations of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, including dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia/insulin resistance, and vascular inflammation. These risk factors individually and interdependently increase the risk of CV and cerebrovascular events, and represent one of the biggest health challenges worldwide today. CV diseases account for almost 50% of all deaths in Europe and around 30% of all deaths worldwide. Furthermore, the risk of CV death is increased twofold to fourfold in people with T2D. Whilst the clinical management of CV disease has improved in Western Europe, the pandemic of obesity and T2D reduces the impact of these gains. This, together with the growing, aging population, means the number of CV deaths is predicted to increase from 17.1 million worldwide in 2004 to 23.6 million in 2030. The recommended treatment for MetS is lifestyle change followed by treatment for the individual risk factors. Numerous studies have shown that lowering low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels using statins can significantly reduce CV risk in people with and without T2D or MetS. However, the risk of major vascular events in those attaining the maximum levels of LDL-C-reduction is only reduced by around one-third, which leaves substantial residual risk. Recent studies suggest that low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (<1 .0 mmol/l; 40 mg/dl) and high triglyceride levels (≥1.7 mmol/l; 150 mg/dl) are independent risk factors for CV disease and that the relationship between HDL-C and CV risk persists even when on-treatment LDL-C levels are low (<1.7 mmol/l; 70 mg/dl). European guidelines highlight the importance of reducing residual risk by targeting these risk factors in addition to LDL-C. This is particularly important in patients with T2D and MetS because obesity and high levels of glycated hemoglobin are directly related to low levels of HDL-C and high triglyceride. Although most statins have a similar low-density lipoprotein-lowering efficacy, differences in chemical structure and pharmacokinetic profile can lead to variations in pleiotropic effects (for example, high-density lipoprotein-elevating efficacy), adverse event profiles, and drug-drug interactions. The choice of statin should therefore depend on the needs of the individual patient. The following reviews will discuss the potential benefits of pitavastatin versus other statins in the treatment of patients with dyslipidemia and MetS or T2D, focusing on its effects on HDL-C quantity and quality, its potential impact on atherosclerosis and CV risk, and its metabolic characteristics that reduce the risk of drug interactions. Recent controversies surrounding the potentially diabetogenic effects of statins will also be discussed.

Dall'Armi C.,Columbia University Medical Center | Devereaux K.A.,Columbia University Medical Center | Di Paolo G.,Columbia University Medical Center
Current Biology | Year: 2013

Macroautophagy is an essential cellular pathway mediating the lysosomal degradation of defective organelles, long-lived proteins and a variety of protein aggregates. Similar to other intracellular trafficking pathways, macroautophagy involves a complex sequence of membrane remodeling and trafficking events. These include the biogenesis of autophagosomes, which engulf portions of cytoplasm at specific subcellular locations, and their subsequent maturation into autophagolysosomes through fusion with the endo-lysosomal compartment. Although the formation and maturation of autophagosomes are controlled by molecular reactions occurring at the membrane-cytosol interface, little is known about the role of lipids and their metabolizing enzymes in this process. Historically dominated by studies on class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (also known as Vps34) and its product phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate, as well as on the lipidation of Atg8/LC3-like proteins, this area of research has recently expanded, implicating a variety of other lipids, such as phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol, and their metabolizing enzymes in macroautophagy. This review summarizes this progress and highlights the role of specific lipids in the various steps of macroautophagy, including the signaling processes underlying macroautophagy initiation, autophagosome biogenesis and maturation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Brown A.S.,Columbia University Medical Center
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2014

The "Kraepelinian dichotomy" between schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) has been a dominant force in our thinking on the classification of these mental disorders. Emerging evidence indicates that these 2 disorders overlap significantly with regard to epidemiology, clinical presentation, genetic susceptibility, structural neuroanatomy, and treatment. Prenatal infection and immunologic dysfunction appear to be risk factors for both SZ and BD; some of these gestational exposures are present in both disorders while others may be specific to 1 or the other of the 2 syndromes. In this paper, we shall review prior studies of prenatal infections and immunologic insults in schizophrenia and BD, including exposures which overlap and which differ between these disorders, discuss the potential utility of maternal infection as one strategy toward developing a more biologically meaningful diagnostic classification system, and propose new recommendations for future research aimed at dissecting these 2 disorders from one another at the etiologic level. © 2015 The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

Kim T.-W.,Columbia University Medical Center
Neurotherapeutics | Year: 2015

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and represents one of the highest unmet needs in medicine today. Drug development efforts for AD have been encumbered by largely unsuccessful clinical trials in the last decade. Drug repositioning, a process of discovering a new therapeutic use for existing drugs or drug candidates, is an attractive and timely drug development strategy especially for AD. Compared with traditional de novo drug development, time and cost are reduced as the safety and pharmacokinetic properties of most repositioning candidates have already been determined. A majority of drug repositioning efforts for AD have been based on positive clinical or epidemiological observations or in vivo efficacy found in mouse models of AD. More systematic, multidisciplinary approaches will further facilitate drug repositioning for AD. Some experimental approaches include unbiased phenotypic screening using the library of available drug collections in physiologically relevant model systems (e.g. stem cell-derived neurons or glial cells), computational prediction and selection approaches that leverage the accumulating data resulting from RNA expression profiles, and genome-wide association studies. This review will summarize several notable strategies and representative examples of drug repositioning for AD. © 2014, The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc.

Walsh B.T.,Columbia University Medical Center
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2011

A disturbance in eating behavior is the defining characteristic of the clinical eating disorders, Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder. Surprisingly little research has been devoted to assessing objectively the nature of the eating disturbances in these disorders, to elucidating what factors contribute to the development and persistence of these disturbances, or to describing how they change with treatment. This review, which is based on a Mars lecture delivered at the 2010 meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior, reviews objective information about the nature of the disturbances of eating behavior in eating disorders. These data suggest that more detailed knowledge of eating behavior is an essential component of a full understanding of eating disorders and may provide a foundation for studies of pathophysiology and for the development of new treatment methods. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Tang P.,Columbia University Medical Center
Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons | Year: 2011

The ulnar and radial collateral ligaments are primary stabilizers of the thumb metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint. Injury to these ligaments can lead to instability and disability. Stress testing is essential to establish the diagnosis. Complete tear is diagnosed on physical examination when the proximal phalanx of the thumb can be angulated ulnarly or radially on the metacarpal head by 30° to 35° with the MP joint in either zero degrees of extension or 30° of flexion. Lack of a firm end point or angulation measuring >15° on stress testing compared with the contralateral thumb MP joint are also indicative of complete tear. Partial ligament injuries may be managed nonsurgically, but complete tears are usually managed surgically. Various techniques are used to reattach the ligament to bone, including suture anchors and, less commonly, repair of midsubstance tears. Options for managing chronic injuries include ligament repair, ligament reconstruction with a free tendon graft, and arthrodesis of the MP joint.

Honig L.S.,Columbia University Medical Center
Archives of Neurology | Year: 2012

Dementia disorders are characterized by clinicopathological criteria. Molecular understandings of these disorders, based on immunohistochemical studies, biochemical investigations, genetic approaches, and animal models, have resulted in advances in diagnosis. Likewise, translational research has allowed us to apply our increasing basic scientific knowledge of neurodegeneration to the rational development of new investigational therapies based on our current understanding of disease pathogenesis. This review discusses the application of translational research to both diagnosis and treatment of dementia disorders. The development of biomarkers has yielded imaging and biochemical methods that assist the physician more than ever in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementias, especially Alzheimer disease. New diagnostic criteria for disease are based on these molecular-based techniques. And these biomarkers are of potential use in monitoring disease activity during therapeutic trials. Translational investigations likewise have led toward new avenues in targeted dementia research. This is particularly so in the development and testing of disease-modifying treatments that might slow or deter progressive deterioration. Recent clinical trials have not been based on empirical trials of established drugs but, rather, on trials of drugs shown, through experiments in biochemical, cell culture, and animal models, to interfere with known elements of the pathogenetic cascade of Alzheimer disease. ©2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

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