Columbia University in the City of New York, or simply Columbia University, is an American private Ivy League research university located in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of Upper Manhattan in New York City. It is the oldest institution of higher learning in the State of New York, the fifth oldest in the United States, and one of the country's nine Colonial Colleges founded before the American Revolution. Today the university operates Columbia Global Centers overseas in Amman, Beijing, Istanbul, Paris, Mumbai, Rio de Janeiro, Santiago and Nairobi.The university was founded in 1754 as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain. After the American Revolutionary War, King's College briefly became a state entity, and was renamed Columbia College in 1784. The University now operates under a 1787 charter that places the institution under a private board of trustees, and in 1896 it was further renamed Columbia University. That same year, the university's campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights, where it occupies more than six city blocks, or 32 acres .The university encompasses twenty schools and is affiliated with numerous institutions, including Teachers College , Barnard College, and the Union Theological Seminary, with joint undergraduate programs available through the Jewish Theological Seminary of America as well as the Juilliard School.Columbia annually administers the Pulitzer Prize. 101 Nobel Prize laureates have been affiliated with the university as students, faculty, or staff, the second most of any institution in the world. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities, and was the first school in the United States to grant the M.D. degree. Notable alumni and former students of the university and its predecessor, King's College, include five Founding Fathers of the United States; nine Justices of the United States Supreme Court; 43 Nobel Prize laureates; 20 living billionaires; 28 Academy Award winners; and 29 heads of state, including three United States Presidents. Wikipedia.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: INTERFAC PROCESSES & THERMODYN | Award Amount: 320.97K | Year: 2011
The goal of this research grant is to elucidate the mechanism and predictively understand the physics of coiling patterns obtained when thin flexible elastic filaments (rods) are deposited onto rigid substrates. The investigation requires the complementary interplay between high-precision model experiments and computational geometric mechanics codes. An important aspect of the project is the porting of techniques from the field of computer graphics as predictive engineering tools. The first stage of research examines the base configuration, in which a rod is injected onto a static or moving conveyor belt, generating a series of coiling patterns. The transitions between coiling phases are mapped and rationalized through mathematical modeling. The second stage of research examines more complicated forms of loading of the thin rod including (a) torsion as a control parameter to precisely generate the coiling patterns, (b) aerodynamic drag of the hanging filament, and (c) adhesion onto the substrate. The third stage studies coiling over non-flat complex topographies, seeking to develop a generalized statistical description of the resulting coiling trajectories.
The construction of more predictive models for the motion of flexible filaments will help addressing engineering problems spanning a wide range of physical scales: from micro-fabrication of electronic components using the coiling of nanotubes, serpentine interconnects for stretchable electronics, and 3D-printing technologies, to the laying down of transoceanic cable and pipelines onto the seabed in a more efficient and resilient manner. A mathematical, physical and scalable understanding of the deformation of filaments is also a step towards addressing the fundamental question of how geometry governs the mechanics of thin structures; a topic that is currently receiving interest from both the physics and mechanics communities. The computational codes developed in this project will be broadly disseminated. These, together with the gained fundamental understanding, will serve as new design tools for engineers and physicists who deal with slender filaments in diverse fields including automotive-, aerospace-, biomedical-, civil-, environmental-, geological-, and mechanical-engineering.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Cyber-Human Systems (CHS) | Award Amount: 499.90K | Year: 2014
In addition to being the essential fabric of the worlds fashion industry, textiles are important components for automotive, aeronautical, architectural, and defense applications. Yet textile prototyping and design (whether for garments, upholstery or composite materials) is an arduous and expensive process. This research project seeks to understand and advance the role of new additive manufacturing technologies (commonly referred to as 3D printing) in the design and prototyping of textile products. The PIs goal is to develop 3D printing hardware and computer software that enable engineers to prototype textile designs more quickly and economically, and with greater control over a broad gamut of mechanical, optical, and electrical characteristics such as aerodynamic drag, adhesion, heat regulation, friction, elasticity, porosity, density, electrical conductivity, and visual appearance. Beyond individual textiles, project outcomes will support the fabrication of complete products that do not require considerable stitching and assembly, and which may include curved shapes too difficult to cut from flat panels and/or complex composite assemblies too costly to fabricate via traditional methods. To achieve these objectives, the PIs will develop: a library of highly-optimized textile units that can be combined using a new language of textile functionality to form a vast array of possible textiles; computer optimization software that enables precise control of textile properties; a computer program that allows users to visually and interactively design complex textile products; and a specialized 3D Printer that is able to precisely fabricate textiles involving multiple materials.
Technically speaking, this project will create the first complete hardware/software pipeline for digital design and fabrication of textiles using multi-material 3D printing. The first fundamental step in this pipeline is constructing parameterized meta-material templates that provide users with high-level knobs for tuning the behavior and large-scale properties of a textile. Next, the ability to interactively simulate the behavior of a virtual textile will be achieved by combining continuum homogenization and data-driven methods; the PIs will develop an interactive design tool that employs first order sensitivity analysis tied to the physical simulation, to enable designers to navigate the huge space of possible designs at both the micro and macro levels. A new language for functionally specifying textile designs that employs a reducer-tuner model will allow engineers and designers to specify meta-materials in terms of desired behavior and performance, enabling designs with guarantees on their characteristics and compliance with standards. Printing volumes for current 3D printers are limited; however, by incorporating computational textile folding into the pipeline, the PIs system will be able to print very large designs in much smaller folded configurations. Solution of the folding problem will involve nonlinear, non-convex, optimization with unilateral contact constraints. Finally, textiles and garments will be printed using both off-the-shelf 3D printers and a novel low-cost, high-resolution, modular 3D printing platform that is capable of printing with up to 12 different materials that vary in mechanical and appearance properties. In addition to photopolymer materials, the PIs plan to extend hardware capabilities to 3D print structures using co-polymers and solvent-based materials. More information about this project is available online at http://textiles.csail.mit.edu/