Columbia University in the City of New York, or simply Columbia University, is an American private Ivy League research university located in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of Upper Manhattan in New York City. It is the oldest institution of higher learning in the State of New York, the fifth oldest in the United States, and one of the country's nine Colonial Colleges founded before the American Revolution. Today the university operates Columbia Global Centers overseas in Amman, Beijing, Istanbul, Paris, Mumbai, Rio de Janeiro, Santiago and Nairobi.The university was founded in 1754 as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain. After the American Revolutionary War, King's College briefly became a state entity, and was renamed Columbia College in 1784. The University now operates under a 1787 charter that places the institution under a private board of trustees, and in 1896 it was further renamed Columbia University. That same year, the university's campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights, where it occupies more than six city blocks, or 32 acres .The university encompasses twenty schools and is affiliated with numerous institutions, including Teachers College , Barnard College, and the Union Theological Seminary, with joint undergraduate programs available through the Jewish Theological Seminary of America as well as the Juilliard School.Columbia annually administers the Pulitzer Prize. 101 Nobel Prize laureates have been affiliated with the university as students, faculty, or staff, the second most of any institution in the world. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities, and was the first school in the United States to grant the M.D. degree. Notable alumni and former students of the university and its predecessor, King's College, include five Founding Fathers of the United States; nine Justices of the United States Supreme Court; 43 Nobel Prize laureates; 20 living billionaires; 28 Academy Award winners; and 29 heads of state, including three United States Presidents. Wikipedia.
Hillman E.M.C.,Columbia University
Annual Review of Neuroscience | Year: 2014
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a unique view of the working human mind. The blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal, detected in fMRI, reflects changes in deoxyhemoglobin driven by localized changes in brain blood flow and blood oxygenation, which are coupled to underlying neuronal activity by a process termed neurovascular coupling. Over the past 10 years, a range of cellular mechanisms, including astrocytes, pericytes, and interneurons, have been proposed to play a role in functional neurovascular coupling. However, the field remains conflicted over the relative importance of each process, while key spatiotemporal features of BOLD response remain unexplained. Here, we review current candidate neurovascular coupling mechanisms and propose that previously overlooked involvement of the vascular endothelium may provide a more complete picture of how blood flow is controlled in the brain. We also explore the possibility and consequences of conditions in which neurovascular coupling may be altered, including during postnatal development, pathological states, and aging, noting relevance to both stimulus-evoked and resting-state fMRI studies. © Copyright ©2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source
Yuste R.,Columbia University
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2015
For over a century, the neuron doctrine - which states that the neuron is the structural and functional unit of the nervous system - has provided a conceptual foundation for neuroscience. This viewpoint reflects its origins in a time when the use of single-neuron anatomical and physiological techniques was prominent. However, newer multineuronal recording methods have revealed that ensembles of neurons, rather than individual cells, can form physiological units and generate emergent functional properties and states. As a new paradigm for neuroscience, neural network models have the potential to incorporate knowledge acquired with single-neuron approaches to help us understand how emergent functional states generate behaviour, cognition and mental disease. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source
Brittenham G.M.,Columbia University
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011
A 16-year-old boy with sickle cell anemia undergoes routine screening with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography to assess the risk of stroke. This examination shows an abnormally elevated blood-flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery. The hemoglobin level is 7.2 g per deciliter, the reticulocyte count is 12.5%, and the fetal hemoglobin level is 8.0%. Long-term treatment with red-cell transfusion is initiated to prevent stroke. A hematologist recommends prophylactic iron-chelating therapy. Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source
Columbia University | Date: 2016-01-11
Methods of controlling a nitrification reaction in a biological nitrogen removal reactor to favor partial nitrification of ammonia to nitrite instead of complete oxidation of ammonia to nitrate are disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods include the following: maintaining a pH in the reactor within a range that promotes growth of ammonia oxidizing bacteria; maintaining a concentration of dissolved oxygen in the reactor within a range that limits the ammonia oxidizing bacteria from completing nitrification; selecting an operational solids retention time within a range suitable for maintaining increasing concentrations of the ammonia oxidizing bacteria in the reactor while reducing concentrations of nitrite oxidizing bacteria in the reactor; and increasing a concentration of free ammonia in the reactor thereby inhibiting growth of the nitrite oxidizing bacteria in the reactor.
University of Missouri and Columbia University | Date: 2015-11-19
The present invention provides a method and apparatus for tissue, such as an allograft, storage and preservation for extended periods of time at room temperature in a sterile tissue culture chamber. The invention further provides a process for maintaining the sterility of tissue using the apparatus as described.