Love B.L.,Columbia College at South Carolina |
Smith L.S.,Wingate University
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy | Year: 2014
Purpose. The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy and safety of linaclotide in the management of chronic constipation (CC) and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) are reviewed. Summary. Linaclotide (Linzess, Forest Pharmaceuticals) is a 14-amino acid peptide indicated for the treatment of adults with CC and IBS-C. Linaclotide acts on guanylate cyclase-C receptors on the luminal membrane to increase chloride and bicarbonate secretions into the intestine and inhibit the absorption of sodium ions, thus increasing the secretion of water into the lumen and improving defecation; the drug is minimally absorbed into the systemic circulation. Linaclotide is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for oral once-daily administration at doses of 145 μg for CC and 290 μg for IBS-C. In placebo-controlled Phase III clinical trials, linaclotide significantly increased weekly spontaneous bowel movements and complete spontaneous bowel movements (CSBMs) while reducing abdominal pain in patients with CC. In patients with IBS-C, linaclotide was demonstrated to be effective in meeting FDA-recommended endpoints such as reductions of at least 30% from baseline in abdominal pain scores and CSBM frequency. The most common adverse effect of linaclotide is diarrhea, which was reported in 16-20% of clinical trial participants. Conclusion. Linaclotide is an important advance in the treatment of CC and IBS-C, with a novel mechanism of action resulting in accelerated intestinal transit. In clinical trials, linaclotide demonstrated efficacy relative to placebo for treatment of both CC and IBS-C. Linaclotide's adverse effects are generally mild and confined to the gastrointestinal tract.
Li N.,University of British Columbia |
Chen M.,Columbia College at South Carolina |
Truong S.,University of British Columbia |
Yan C.,Georgia Regents University |
Buttyan R.,University of British Columbia
Prostate | Year: 2014
Background Gli2, a transcription factor in the Hedgehog pathway, is overexpressed in castrate-resistant prostate cancer (PCa). Previously we showed that Gli2 overexpression increased transcriptional activity of androgen receptor (AR) and conferred androgen growth-independence to normally growth-dependent PCa cells. Here we localized the regions of AR-Gli2 protein interaction and determined the domains within Gli2 needed for AR co-activation. Methods Co-immunoprecipitation and GST-pulldown assays were used to define AR-Gli binding domains. Co-activation assays using androgen-responsive promoter reporters were used to define Gli2 regions needed for AR co-activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were used to confirm nuclear interactions of Gli2 with AR in PCa cells. Result The Gli2 C-terminal domain (CTD) is sufficient for AR co-activation. Two elements within the CTD were required: (1) an AR binding domain within aa628-897; and (2) at least part of the Gli2 transactivation domain within aa1252-1586. In turn, Gli2 binds the tau5/AF5 ligand-independent activation domain in the AR N-terminus. Mutations in the WxxLF motif in tau5/AF5 greatly diminished binding to Gli2-CTD. Gli2 interaction with AR tau5/AF5 was further substantiated by the ability of Gli2/Gli2-CTD to co-activate truncated AR splice variants (AR-V7/ARV567es). ChIP assays confirmed that Gli2 associates with chromatin at androgen response elements found near androgen-responsive genes in LNCaP cells. These assays also showed that AR associates with chromatin containing a Gli-response element near a Gli-responsive gene. CONCLUSION Our findings indicate that Gli2 overexpression in PCa cells might support development of castration resistant PCa through AR co-activation and suggests that AR might modulate transcription from Gli2. Prostate 74:1400-1410, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rizzo J.D.,Medical College of Wisconsin |
Brouwers M.,McMaster University |
Hurley P.,American Society of Clinical Oncology |
Seidenfeld J.,American Society of Clinical Oncology |
And 9 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2010
Purpose: To update American Society of Hematology/American Society of Clinical Oncology recommendations for use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in patients with cancer. Methods: An Update Committee reviewed data published between January 2007 and January 2010. MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library were searched. Results: The literature search yielded one new individual patient data analysis and four literature-based metaanalyses, two systematic reviews, and 13 publications reporting new results from randomized controlled trials not included in prior or new reviews. Recommendations: For patients undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy who have a hemoglobin (Hb) level less than 10 g/dL, the Update Committee recommends that clinicians discuss potential harms (eg, thromboembolism, shorter survival) and benefits (eg, decreased transfusions) of ESAs and compare these with potential harms (eg, serious infections, immune-mediated adverse reactions) and benefits (eg, rapid Hb improvement) of RBC transfusions. Individual preferences for assumed risk should contribute to shared decisions on managing chemotherapy-induced anemia. The Committee cautions against ESA use under other circumstances. If used, ESAs should be administered at the lowest dose possible and should increase Hb to the lowest concentration possible to avoid transfusions. Available evidence does not identify Hb levels ≥ 10 g/dL either as thresholds for initiating treatment or as targets for ESA therapy. Starting doses and dose modifications after response or nonresponse should follow US Food and Drug Administration-approved labeling. ESAs should be discontinued after 6 to 8 weeks in nonresponders. ESAs should be avoided in patients with cancer not receiving concurrent chemotherapy, except for those with lower risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Caution should be exercised when using ESAs with chemotherapeutic agents in diseases associated with increased risk of thromboembolic complications. Table 1 lists detailed recommendations. Copyright © 2010 American Society of Hematology and American Society of Clinical Oncology. All rights reserved.
Wang H.,Albany Medical College |
Jiang M.,Vanderbilt University |
Cui H.,Albany Medical College |
Chen M.,Columbia College at South Carolina |
And 5 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biology | Year: 2012
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a common mediator of cellular stress response signaling and is often aberrantly expressed in prostate cancer. We report here that ATF3 can directly bind the androgen receptor (AR) and consequently repress AR-mediated gene expression. The ATF3-AR interaction requires the leucine zipper domain of ATF3 that independently binds the DNA-binding and ligand-binding domains of AR, and the interaction prevents AR from binding to cisacting elements required for expression of androgen-dependent genes while inhibiting the AR N- and C-terminal interaction. The functional consequences of the loss of ATF3 expression include increased transcription of androgen-dependent genes in prostate cancer cells that correlates with increased ability to grow in low-androgen-containing medium and increased proliferative activity of the prostate epithelium in ATF3 knockout mice that is associated with prostatic hyperplasia. Our results thus demonstrate that ATF3 is a novel repressor of androgen signaling that can inhibit AR functions, allowing prostate cells to restore homeostasis and maintain integrity in the face of a broad spectrum of intrinsic and environmental insults. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.
Jarkowski A.,University of Rochester |
Norris L.A.,Columbia College at South Carolina |
Trinh V.A.,University of Houston
Annals of Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2014
Objective: To examine the current controversies and discuss consensus recommendations regarding treatment sequencing and the role of BRAF inhibitor at disease progression. Data Source: An English-language literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed (1966-May 2014), using the keywords advanced melanoma, ipilimumab, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, dabrafenib, vemurafenib, BRAF inhibitor, trametinib, MEK inhibitor, and treatment sequencing was conducted. Data were also obtained from package inserts, meeting abstracts, and clinical registries. Study Selection and Data Extraction: All relevant published articles and abstracts on ipilimumab, vemurafenib, dabrafenib, and trametinib were reviewed. Clinical trial registries and meeting abstracts were used for ongoing studies. Data Synthesis: The availability of new agents has made therapy selection more complex. Immunotherapy supporters reason that immunotherapy offers the best chance for long-term benefit and does not compromise the antitumor activity of subsequent BRAF inhibitors. Targeted therapy advocates rely on the high probability and rapid onset of response to BRAF inhibitors. Currently, there is insufficient evidence regarding the role of BRAF inhibitor at disease progression. Conclusions: Therapy should be individualized based on patient- and disease-specific factors. Immunotherapy represents the best option for durable remission; however, targeted therapy is more appropriate for patients who are symptomatic or have rapidly growing tumors. The novel therapies have also demonstrated meaningful intracranial activity; thus, the presence of brain metastases should be taken into consideration in selecting therapy. Limited data exist about the continuation of BRAF inhibitors after therapeutic failure. Active research is ongoing to define the best option for patients with BRAF inhibitor refractory disease. © The Author(s) 2014.
Levina E.,Columbia College at South Carolina |
Chen M.,Columbia College at South Carolina |
Carkner R.,Ordway Research Institute |
Shtutman M.,Columbia College at South Carolina |
Buttyan R.,Vancouver Prostate Center
Prostate | Year: 2012
Acquired intratumoral steroidogenesis is involved in progression of prostate cancer to castration resistant disease (CRPC) and a target for improved therapeutics. Recent work has shown that prostate cancer cells can acquire steroidogenic activity as they progress to a therapeutic-resistant state. However, benign prostate stromal cells (PrSCs) also have steroidogenic potential though they are often overlooked as a source of intratumoral androgens. Here, we present preliminary studies showing that the steroidogenic activity of primary human PrSCs is significantly increased by exposure to a Hedgehog agonist (SAG) or by transduction of PrSCs with lentiviruses that expresses active Gli2 (Gli2ΔN), a transcription factor that is triggered by Hh signaling. Comparative gene expression profiling on Chips, that was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR, revealed that hedgehog agonist treatment induced in these cells expressions of hedgehog target genes (Gli1, Ptch1, and SCUBE1) plus a specific cadre of genes involved in cholesterol/steroid biosynthesis, metabolism, and transport. Genes involved downstream in steroid hormone generation, including CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 were also induced. Both the hedgehog agonist and the Gli2-expressing lentivirus significantly increased the output of testosterone (T) from PrSCs that were supplemented with dihydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an adrenal precursor of T. Finally, knockdown of Gli2 by siRNA suppressed the ability of SAG to induce this response. Collectively, our data indicate that hedgehog/Gli signaling may be a factor in acquired intratumoral steroidogenesis of a prostate tumor through its actions on stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment and an influence for the development of CRPC. Prostate 72:817-824, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hawes E.M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Maxwell W.D.,Columbia College at South Carolina |
White S.F.,Sullivan University |
Mangun J.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Lin F.-C.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Journal of Primary Care and Community Health | Year: 2014
Purpose: Medication errors related to hospital discharge result in rehospitalization and emergency department (ED) visits, yet no systematic approach has been implemented nationally to decrease these medication errors. Pharmacist involvement during postdischarge transitions of care may be an important strategy to prevent and correct medication discrepancies and reduce costly rehospitalization and ED visits. Methods: This prospective, randomized, open-label, pilot study evaluated the effect of a pharmacy clinic visit focused on medication reconciliation and patient education after hospital discharge on the incidence of rehospitalization and ED visits and the resolution of medication discrepancies. Results: Of the 61 subjects included in the study, 33 (54%) had medication discrepancies identified at discharge. Fifty percent of medication discrepancies were resolved in subjects randomized to the pharmacist intervention arm compared with 9.5% in the usual care arm (P =.015). Patients randomized to the intervention arm had significantly lower rates of the primary composite outcome of 30-day rehospitalization and ED visits compared with the usual care arm (0% vs 40.5%, P <.001). Conclusion: A pharmacist-driven intervention focused on patient education and medication reconciliation after discharge improved medication use and reduced health care resource utilization in this pilot study. © The Author(s) 2013.
Bennett C.L.,Columbia College at South Carolina
Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011
Methods developed by the Southern Network on Adverse Reactions project, the only state-funded pharmacovigilance program in the nation, are invaluable in identifying rare and serious drug events and in disseminating related safety reports quickly throughout the medical community. An important discovery was identifi cation and reporting of an association of rituximab and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients without human immunodefi ciency virus (HIV). A recent investigation identifi ed 57 patients with rituximab-associated PML, including bone marrow samples, brain biopsies, and autopsy materials from patients with lymphoma and PML who tested positive for JC virus. The investigation identifi ed an association of rituximab-chemotherapy administration and PML, although a causal relationship remains an area of active investigation. Additional investigations evaluated the epidemiology of PML in the oncology setting before and after the introduction of rituximab for lymphoma treatment. Focused analyses investigated risk factors for development of this rare complication. Further studies are needed to investigate the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and risk factors for PML developing among HIV-negative cancer patients who receive rituximab and chemotherapy.
Bobadilla R.V.,Columbia College at South Carolina
Critical Care Nurse | Year: 2016
The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology in 2014 published a focused update of the 2007 and 2012 guidelines for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). The management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is described in a separate guideline published in 2013. The focused updates to the guidelines contain updated recommendations for dual antiplatelet therapy, including use of the P2Y12 inhibitor ticagrelor, which was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Nurses caring for patients with acute coronary syndrome must have a good understanding of the current treatment guidelines for such patients, to help ensure delivery of evidence-based care. This review article uses a case study-based approach to describe how the new guidelines affect clinical decision making when choosing appropriate antiplatelet therapy for patients with NSTE-ACS or STEMI, depending on the patient's clinical history and presenting characteristics. © 2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.
Bennett C.L.,Columbia College at South Carolina
Journal of general internal medicine | Year: 2012
Identification of serious adverse drug reactions (sADRS) associated with commonly used drugs can elude detection for years. Reye's syndrome (RS), nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients were recognized in 1951, 2000, and 1998, respectively. Reports associating these syndromes with aspirin, gadodiamide, and epoetin, were published 29, 6, and 4 years later, respectively. We obtained primary information from clinicians who identified causes of these sADRs and reviewed factors contributing to delayed identification of these toxicities. Overall, 3,500 aspirin-associated RS cases in the United States, 1,605 gadolinium-associated NSF cases, and 181 epoetin-associated PRCA cases were reported. Delays in FDA regulation of over-the- counter medications and administration of aspirin to children contributed to development of RS. For NSF, in 1996, the Danish Medicine Agency approved high-dose gadodiamide administration to chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients undergoing MR scans. Overall, 88 % of Danish NSF cases were from two hospitals and 97 % of United States' NSF cases were from 60 hospitals. These hospitals frequently administered high-doses of gadodiamide to CKD patients. Another factor was the decision to administer linear chelated contrast agents versus lower risk macrocyclic chelated agents. For PRCA, increased use of subcutaneous epoetin formulations to CKD patients, in part due to convenience and cost-savings considerations, and a European regulatory requirement requiring removal of albumin as a stabilizer, led to toxicity. Overall, 81, 13, and 17 years elapsed between drug introduction into practice and identification of a causal relationship for aspirin, erythropoietin, and gadodiamide, respectively. A substantial decline in new cases of these sADRs occurred within two years of identification of the offending drug. Clinicians should be vigilant for sADRs, even for frequently-prescribed pharmaceuticals, particularly in settings where formulation or regulatory changes have occurred, or when over-the-counter, off-label, or pediatric use is common.