Columbia College at South Carolina

Columbia, SC, United States

Columbia College at South Carolina

Columbia, SC, United States
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Bian J.,Columbia College at South Carolina
Chinese journal of cancer | Year: 2016

As a standard way for prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC), colonoscopy has been used for CRC screening in the United States for more than one decade. An article entitled "Assessing Colorectal Cancer Screening Adherence of Medicare Fee-For-Service Beneficiaries Age 76 to 95 Years" recently published at the Journal of Oncology Practice reports the trends in overuse of CRC screening services among average-risk elderly populations at the age of 76-95 years. Several reasons for overusing colonoscopy have been postulated, and some strategies for reducing overuse of CRC screening services have also been proposed.

Shrader S.,University of Kansas | Dunn B.,Columbia College at South Carolina | Blake E.,Columbia College at South Carolina | Phillips C.,Columbia College at South Carolina
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education | Year: 2015

Objective. To determine the impact of incorporating standardized colleague simulations on pharmacy students’ confidence and interprofessional communication skills. Design. Four simulations using standardized colleagues portraying attending physicians in inpatient and outpatient settings were integrated into a required course. Pharmacy students interacted with the standardized colleagues using the Situation, Background, Assessment, Request/Recommendation (SBAR) communication technique and were evaluated on providing recommendations while on simulated inpatient rounds and in an outpatient clinic. Additionally, changes in student attitudes and confidence toward interprofessional communication were assessed with a survey before and after the standardized colleague simulations. Assessment. One hundred seventy-one pharmacy students participated in the simulations. Student interprofessional communication skills improved after each simulation. Student confidence with interprofessional communication in both inpatient and outpatient settings significantly improved. Conclusion. Incorporation of simulations using standardized colleagues improves interprofessional communication skills and self-confidence of pharmacy students. © 2015, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. All rights reserved.

Love B.L.,Columbia College at South Carolina | Smith L.S.,Wingate University
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy | Year: 2014

Purpose. The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy and safety of linaclotide in the management of chronic constipation (CC) and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) are reviewed. Summary. Linaclotide (Linzess, Forest Pharmaceuticals) is a 14-amino acid peptide indicated for the treatment of adults with CC and IBS-C. Linaclotide acts on guanylate cyclase-C receptors on the luminal membrane to increase chloride and bicarbonate secretions into the intestine and inhibit the absorption of sodium ions, thus increasing the secretion of water into the lumen and improving defecation; the drug is minimally absorbed into the systemic circulation. Linaclotide is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for oral once-daily administration at doses of 145 μg for CC and 290 μg for IBS-C. In placebo-controlled Phase III clinical trials, linaclotide significantly increased weekly spontaneous bowel movements and complete spontaneous bowel movements (CSBMs) while reducing abdominal pain in patients with CC. In patients with IBS-C, linaclotide was demonstrated to be effective in meeting FDA-recommended endpoints such as reductions of at least 30% from baseline in abdominal pain scores and CSBM frequency. The most common adverse effect of linaclotide is diarrhea, which was reported in 16-20% of clinical trial participants. Conclusion. Linaclotide is an important advance in the treatment of CC and IBS-C, with a novel mechanism of action resulting in accelerated intestinal transit. In clinical trials, linaclotide demonstrated efficacy relative to placebo for treatment of both CC and IBS-C. Linaclotide's adverse effects are generally mild and confined to the gastrointestinal tract.

Callahan P.M.,University of Georgia | Hutchings E.J.,University of Georgia | Kille N.J.,University of Georgia | Chapman J.M.,Columbia College at South Carolina | Terry A.V.,University of Georgia
Neuropharmacology | Year: 2013

The development of novel therapeutic agents for disorders of cognition such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) is of paramount importance given the ever-increasing elderly population, however; there is also considerable interest in any strategy that might enhance the clinical efficacy of currently available treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an adjunctive treatment strategy to memory enhancement, namely combining the commonly prescribed acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) donepezil, with a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of α7 nicotinic-acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs), PNU-120596. The treatment strategy was evaluated in a (non-spatial) spontaneous novel object recognition (NOR) task in young rats; a water maze spatial learning and recall procedure in aged, cognitively-impaired rats, and a delayed match to sample (working/short term memory) task in aged rhesus monkeys. In all three experiments a similar drug response was observed, namely that donepezil administered alone improved task performance in a dose-dependent manner; that PNU-120596 administered alone was without significant effect, but that the combination of PNU-120596 with a subthreshold dose of donepezil was effective. The positive effect of the drug combination appeared to be α7-nAChR mediated given that it was blocked in the NOR task by the selective α7-nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA). Collectively, these data indicate that PNU-120596 increases the effective dose range of donepezil in learning/memory-related tasks in young and age-impaired animal models. The results suggest that α7-nAChR-selective PAMs like PNU-120596 have potential as adjunctive treatments with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (e.g., donepezil) for age-related illnesses such as AD as well memory disorders not necessarily associated with advanced age. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Blake E.W.,Columbia College at South Carolina | Powell P.H.,Columbia College at South Carolina
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education | Year: 2011

Objective. To develop and implement an elective course to increase pharmacy students' awareness of legislation that might affect the pharmacy profession and to promote advocacy for the profession. Design. Students participated in class discussions regarding current legislative issues and methods to advocate for the pharmacy profession. Assignments included a student-led presentation of the advocacy agendas for various pharmacy organizations, a take-home examination, participation in class debates, and a legislative presentation. Assessment. Forty-eight students enrolled in the elective course over 3 years. Assignments and class participation were assessed using grading rubrics. At the end of the semester, students completed a questionnaire to assess the overall benefit of the course. Conclusions. Participation in an elective course devoted to pharmacy political advocacy increased awareness of legislation and the desire to become involved in pharmacy organizations to promote the pharmacy profession.

Jarkowski A.,University of Rochester | Norris L.A.,Columbia College at South Carolina | Trinh V.A.,University of Houston
Annals of Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2014

Objective: To examine the current controversies and discuss consensus recommendations regarding treatment sequencing and the role of BRAF inhibitor at disease progression. Data Source: An English-language literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed (1966-May 2014), using the keywords advanced melanoma, ipilimumab, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, dabrafenib, vemurafenib, BRAF inhibitor, trametinib, MEK inhibitor, and treatment sequencing was conducted. Data were also obtained from package inserts, meeting abstracts, and clinical registries. Study Selection and Data Extraction: All relevant published articles and abstracts on ipilimumab, vemurafenib, dabrafenib, and trametinib were reviewed. Clinical trial registries and meeting abstracts were used for ongoing studies. Data Synthesis: The availability of new agents has made therapy selection more complex. Immunotherapy supporters reason that immunotherapy offers the best chance for long-term benefit and does not compromise the antitumor activity of subsequent BRAF inhibitors. Targeted therapy advocates rely on the high probability and rapid onset of response to BRAF inhibitors. Currently, there is insufficient evidence regarding the role of BRAF inhibitor at disease progression. Conclusions: Therapy should be individualized based on patient- and disease-specific factors. Immunotherapy represents the best option for durable remission; however, targeted therapy is more appropriate for patients who are symptomatic or have rapidly growing tumors. The novel therapies have also demonstrated meaningful intracranial activity; thus, the presence of brain metastases should be taken into consideration in selecting therapy. Limited data exist about the continuation of BRAF inhibitors after therapeutic failure. Active research is ongoing to define the best option for patients with BRAF inhibitor refractory disease. © The Author(s) 2014.

Levina E.,Columbia College at South Carolina | Chen M.,Columbia College at South Carolina | Carkner R.,Ordway Research Institute | Shtutman M.,Columbia College at South Carolina | Buttyan R.,Vancouver Prostate Center
Prostate | Year: 2012

Acquired intratumoral steroidogenesis is involved in progression of prostate cancer to castration resistant disease (CRPC) and a target for improved therapeutics. Recent work has shown that prostate cancer cells can acquire steroidogenic activity as they progress to a therapeutic-resistant state. However, benign prostate stromal cells (PrSCs) also have steroidogenic potential though they are often overlooked as a source of intratumoral androgens. Here, we present preliminary studies showing that the steroidogenic activity of primary human PrSCs is significantly increased by exposure to a Hedgehog agonist (SAG) or by transduction of PrSCs with lentiviruses that expresses active Gli2 (Gli2ΔN), a transcription factor that is triggered by Hh signaling. Comparative gene expression profiling on Chips, that was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR, revealed that hedgehog agonist treatment induced in these cells expressions of hedgehog target genes (Gli1, Ptch1, and SCUBE1) plus a specific cadre of genes involved in cholesterol/steroid biosynthesis, metabolism, and transport. Genes involved downstream in steroid hormone generation, including CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 were also induced. Both the hedgehog agonist and the Gli2-expressing lentivirus significantly increased the output of testosterone (T) from PrSCs that were supplemented with dihydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an adrenal precursor of T. Finally, knockdown of Gli2 by siRNA suppressed the ability of SAG to induce this response. Collectively, our data indicate that hedgehog/Gli signaling may be a factor in acquired intratumoral steroidogenesis of a prostate tumor through its actions on stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment and an influence for the development of CRPC. Prostate 72:817-824, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Bennett C.L.,Columbia College at South Carolina
Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

Methods developed by the Southern Network on Adverse Reactions project, the only state-funded pharmacovigilance program in the nation, are invaluable in identifying rare and serious drug events and in disseminating related safety reports quickly throughout the medical community. An important discovery was identifi cation and reporting of an association of rituximab and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients without human immunodefi ciency virus (HIV). A recent investigation identifi ed 57 patients with rituximab-associated PML, including bone marrow samples, brain biopsies, and autopsy materials from patients with lymphoma and PML who tested positive for JC virus. The investigation identifi ed an association of rituximab-chemotherapy administration and PML, although a causal relationship remains an area of active investigation. Additional investigations evaluated the epidemiology of PML in the oncology setting before and after the introduction of rituximab for lymphoma treatment. Focused analyses investigated risk factors for development of this rare complication. Further studies are needed to investigate the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and risk factors for PML developing among HIV-negative cancer patients who receive rituximab and chemotherapy.

Bobadilla R.V.,Columbia College at South Carolina
Critical Care Nurse | Year: 2016

The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology in 2014 published a focused update of the 2007 and 2012 guidelines for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). The management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is described in a separate guideline published in 2013. The focused updates to the guidelines contain updated recommendations for dual antiplatelet therapy, including use of the P2Y12 inhibitor ticagrelor, which was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Nurses caring for patients with acute coronary syndrome must have a good understanding of the current treatment guidelines for such patients, to help ensure delivery of evidence-based care. This review article uses a case study-based approach to describe how the new guidelines affect clinical decision making when choosing appropriate antiplatelet therapy for patients with NSTE-ACS or STEMI, depending on the patient's clinical history and presenting characteristics. © 2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

Identification of serious adverse drug reactions (sADRS) associated with commonly used drugs can elude detection for years. Reye's syndrome (RS), nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients were recognized in 1951, 2000, and 1998, respectively. Reports associating these syndromes with aspirin, gadodiamide, and epoetin, were published 29, 6, and 4 years later, respectively. We obtained primary information from clinicians who identified causes of these sADRs and reviewed factors contributing to delayed identification of these toxicities. Overall, 3,500 aspirin-associated RS cases in the United States, 1,605 gadolinium-associated NSF cases, and 181 epoetin-associated PRCA cases were reported. Delays in FDA regulation of over-the- counter medications and administration of aspirin to children contributed to development of RS. For NSF, in 1996, the Danish Medicine Agency approved high-dose gadodiamide administration to chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients undergoing MR scans. Overall, 88 % of Danish NSF cases were from two hospitals and 97 % of United States' NSF cases were from 60 hospitals. These hospitals frequently administered high-doses of gadodiamide to CKD patients. Another factor was the decision to administer linear chelated contrast agents versus lower risk macrocyclic chelated agents. For PRCA, increased use of subcutaneous epoetin formulations to CKD patients, in part due to convenience and cost-savings considerations, and a European regulatory requirement requiring removal of albumin as a stabilizer, led to toxicity. Overall, 81, 13, and 17 years elapsed between drug introduction into practice and identification of a causal relationship for aspirin, erythropoietin, and gadodiamide, respectively. A substantial decline in new cases of these sADRs occurred within two years of identification of the offending drug. Clinicians should be vigilant for sADRs, even for frequently-prescribed pharmaceuticals, particularly in settings where formulation or regulatory changes have occurred, or when over-the-counter, off-label, or pediatric use is common.

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