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Avinc O.,Pamukkale University | Wilding M.,University of Manchester | Phillips D.,Colour Synthesis Solutions Ltd.
AATCC Review | Year: 2010

Softeners are usually applied to fabrics, including those made from polylactic acid, to improve hand and to reduce friction between fiber/fiber and fiber/metal during production. Commercially available softeners of different hydrophilicity, ionicity, and chemical type were applied to poly(lactic acid) fabric that was dyed to a heavy depth of shade with C.I. Disperse Blue 284 to evaluate the effect on wetfastness and lightfastness. Finishing with all softeners reduced wetfastness but not lightfastness properties; little correlation was found with softener chemistry. In general, wetfastness and lightfastness of softened poly(lactic acid) fabrics were lower than that of softened poly(ethylene terephthalate) fabrics. The reduction in wetfastness, and particularly crockfastness, of poly(lactic acid) fabric was less marked if the softener was applied by an exhaustion process rather than by a padding process. Source

Avinc O.,Pamukkale University | Wilding M.,University of Manchester | Phillips D.,Colour Synthesis Solutions Ltd. | Farrington D.,The Common
Polymer Degradation and Stability | Year: 2010

We have studied the potential degradation of poly(lactic acid)-based fabrics treated with commercial softeners and stored under two sets of conditions for one year. Initial wet-processing caused a fall in molecular weight of about 28%, irrespective of after-treatment. Storage at 40 °C and 80% RH produced further degradation which, with few exceptions, was aggravated by the presence of softeners. Ultimately, all samples degraded beyond the point of commercial usefulness. No clear distinction could be made between the effects of softeners having differing compositions. In contrast, fabrics stored under milder conditions of 23 °C and 50% RH showed no significant time-dependent polymer degradation, irrespective of the treatment applied. There were slight changes in tensile properties and some evidence of physical structural effects having occurred, which we attribute to physical aging. However, we do not believe these to be so serious as to call into question the long-term viability of PLA-based textile products. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Soleimani-Gorgani A.,Institute for Colour Science and Technology | Taylor J.A.,Colour Synthesis Solutions Ltd.
Coloration Technology | Year: 2011

A novel blue cationic reactive dye (dye1) based on an azo benzothiazole derivative and possessing an acrylamido reactive group, was synthesised and evaluated on dyeing Coloursafe modified nylon6.6 at optimum pH. Benzothiazole quaternary dye was chosen as a target as this is known to be very strong chromophically. Evaluation of the technical properties of dye1 showed that it fixed efficiently to nylon under acidic dyeing conditions. As it was necessary to prove that fixation occurs via a covalent bond, the dyeing properties of a non-reactive cationic dye, (CI Basic Blue41), on dyeing nylon6.6 at optimum pH were evaluated. CI Basic Blue41 was similar in structure to dye1 and would be capable of forming an ion-ion bond with the fibre. Evaluation of the technical properties of dye1 proved that, in all cases, its fixation efficiency and build-up properties were far better than that of CI Basic Blue41. © 2011 The Authors. Coloration Technology © 2011 Society of Dyers and Colourists. Source

Avinc O.,Pamukkale University | Wilding M.,University of Manchester | Bone J.,Strawberry Hill | Phillips D.,Colour Synthesis Solutions Ltd. | Farrington D.,The Common
Coloration Technology | Year: 2010

This paper addresses the relative effects of softeners having different properties and their method of application (exhaust vs pad) on the colour fastness of poly(lactic acid) fabrics dyed with a range of disperse dyes with different levels of hydrophobicity. A comparison was made with a correspondingly finished polyethylene terephthalate fabric. Possible relationships between the levels of hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of the dye, and softener, and the colour fastness were explored. Finally, the amount of dye thermally migrated into the finish on the softened poly(lactic acid) and polyethylene terephthalate fabrics was examined in comparison with their colour fastness. Softened poly(lactic acid) fabrics dyed with CI Disperse Red 167.1 exhibited more thermal migration, and hence lower colour fastness, than the corresponding polyethylene terephthalate fabrics. Conversely, softened poly(lactic acid) fabrics dyed with Dianix Deep Red SF exhibited less thermal migration, and hence better colour fastness, than the corresponding polyethylene terephthalate fabrics. Overall, no clear relationship was found between the hydrophobic nature of the disperse dye and the hydrophobic character of the softener on the colour fastness. © 2010 The Authors. Coloration Technology © 2010 Society of Dyers and Colourists. Source

Avinc O.,The Common | Owens H.,Pamukkale University | Bone J.,University of Manchester | Wilding M.,Pamukkale University | And 2 more authors.
Fibers and Polymers | Year: 2011

Water droplets falling onto finished fabrics can create spots which can spoil the appearance of the fabric. This study compares the propensity of softened filament polylactic acid and polyester fabrics to exhibit the adverse affects of 'water-spotting', and to identify suitable softeners and methods for their application to minimise and eliminate the problem. The degree of water spotting was greater on softened polylactic acid fabrics than on softened polyester fabrics. Polylactic acid and polyester fabrics with hydrophobic properties did not exhibit any water spotting. Softeners applied by an exhaustion process resulted in a finished fabric which exhibited no water spotting for either dyed polylactic acid or dyed polyester fabrics. The softening active agent was not responsible for the water spotting. The other components in the softener formulation (such as emulsifier, wetting agent), which carries the unfixed dyes with water, were found to be responsible. The water spot halo disappeared after a single machine laundering process. © 2011 The Korean Fiber Society and Springer Netherlands. Source

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