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Drum S.N.,Northern Michigan University | Swisher A.M.,East Tennessee State University | Buchanan C.A.,Western State Colorado University | Donath L.,Northern Michigan University | Donath L.,University of Basel
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2016

Drum, SN, Swisher, AM, Buchanan, CA, and Donath, L. Effects of a custom bite-aligning mouthguard on performance in college football players. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1409-1415, 2016 - Besides injury prevention, mouthguards can also be employed to improve physical performance. The effects of personalization of mouthguards have rarely been investigated. This 3-armed, randomized, controlled crossover trial investigated the difference of wearing (a) personalized or custom-made (CM, e.g., bite-aligned), (b) standard (BB, boil and bite), and (c) no (CON) mouthguards on general fitness parameters in experienced collegiate football players. A group of 10 upperclassmen (age, 19-22 years; mean ± SD: age 20.7 ± 0.8 years; body mass 83 ± 7.4 kg; height 179.1 ± 5.2 cm; body mass index 25.9 ± 2.2 kg·cm -2), National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II football players with at least 2 years of playing experience, were randomly assigned to the 3 mouthguard conditions: a randomized, within-subjects repeated-measures design was applied. All participants were randomly tested on strength and endurance performance Vo 2 max testing, with Bruce treadmill protocol including (a) time to fatigue, (b) blood lactate concentration in millimoles per liter at stage 2 and (c) at peak fatigue, (d) flexibility, (e) reaction time, (f) squat vertical jump, (g) countermovement vertical jump, and (h) 1 repetition maximum bench press. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed no significant differences between the 3 conditions for each outcome variable (0.23 < p < 0.94; 0.007 < < 0.15). These data indicate that CM mouthguards did not superiorly affect general fitness parameters compared with BB and CON. In turn, protective BB or CM mouthpieces did not appear to impair general fitness performance vs. CON. The recommendation of a custom bite-aligning mouthguards for performance enhancement in young Division II football players is questioned. Further studies with larger sample sizes, gender comparison, and (sport) discipline-specific performance testing are needed. © 2015 National Strength and Conditioning Association.


Juday G.P.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Alix C.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Grant T.A.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Grant T.A.,Western State Colorado University
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2015

Since the mid 1970s, Interior Alaska white spruce trees experienced markedly lower growth than during the 19th and early 20th centuries. This observation raises the question of forest persistence on certain sites of lowland central and eastern Alaska. We analyzed white spruce growth across a 36-site network (540 trees) on three major river floodplains in boreal Alaska along a longitudinal gradient from eastern Interior to the southwest tree limit to test for the presence of tree growth patterns and climate sensitivities. Chronologies are compared for temperature sensitivity at both stand and individual tree levels, using data from Bethel, McGrath, and Fairbanks NWS stations during the common period of 1952-2001. Cross-dated stand-level ring width chronologies indicate three regions of common signal in tree growth across the gradient. Temperature sensitivity of stand- and individual-tree chronologies is spatially coherent. Most downriver chronologies correlate positively with spring mean monthly temperatures (MMT) at Bethel, mid- and upriver chronologies correlate negatively with MMT of May and previous year July at either McGrath or Fairbanks, and an area in between is a mixed population of positive and negative responders. In downriver positive responders, recent increases from suboptimal cool temperatures accelerated tree growth, while in mid- and upriver negative responders, recent increases from optimal or above-optimal temperatures decreased growth. Fairbanks negative responders are also negatively correlated with a 200-yr index of recorded and reconstructed Fairbanks summer temperatures, and recent sustained record high summer temperatures are associated with the lowest relative growth. Until the 1940s, absolute growth rate of negative responders was greater than positive responders, but from the 1970s the positive responders grew more. These results explain why northern ring width samples can display opposite temperature sensitivity and contribute to understanding recent "divergence" or loss of temperature sensitivity in a changing climate. We find that July MMT and annual precipitation at Fairbanks are now outside the limits that previously characterized the North American distribution of white spruce, and are near the reported physiological limits of the species. Our results of the spatial and temporal change of white spruce temperature sensitivity provide strong empirical evidence of previously proposed early stage biome shift in boreal Alaska due to clear climatic causes. Already, western Alaska, previously extending to tree limit, has become the optimum climate region for the species. With modest additional warming widespread tree death will be unavoidable on warmer lowland interior sites, where persistence of white spruce is unlikely. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


McAuliffe J.R.,Desert Botanical Garden | McFadden L.D.,University of New Mexico | Roberts L.M.,University of New Mexico | Wawrzyniec T.F.,Western State Colorado University | And 4 more authors.
Global and Planetary Change | Year: 2014

Pinyon-juniper woodlands of the western United States frequently exist within topographically complex landscapes where varied slope aspect yields substantial, local microclimate variation. Vegetation composition and cover typically change markedly along the gradient of relatively mesic northern aspects to more xeric southern aspects. Ecohydrological processes including precipitation runoff, soil moisture storage, and erosion are strongly influenced by vegetation. In certain cases, reduction of plant cover may set self-enhancing feedbacks in motion that lead to further declines of both vegetation and soils, and in some cases, replacement of woodlands with more xerophytic vegetation. The first place such change is likely to occur is in the ecotone between the drier southern aspects and moister north aspects. We studied vegetation, soils, and soil erosion in two small (1-2. ha) drainage basins in northeastern Arizona where pinyon-juniper woodlands occupy northern aspects, grading to shrub-dominated vegetation on more xeric southern aspects. Mapping of soil thickness, use of tree-root exposure to measure long-term soil erosion rates, and data on tree mortality and establishment indicate that the ecotone between woodland and more xerophytic vegetation has apparently been shifting for centuries, with a reduction in woodland vegetation. Erosion rates on xeric aspects ranged from 14 to 23. cm per century in one basin and as much as 60. cm per century in the other basin. In contrast, mesic aspects showed either no net soil losses over the last several centuries or rates significantly less than on the xeric aspects. Exposure of small roots (<. 5. mm diameter) of cliff rose (Purshia stansburiana) directly overlying bare bedrock surfaces indicates that the process of denudation is ongoing and probably expanding in ecotonal areas. Mesic and xeric aspects exemplify "conserving" vs. "non-conserving" ecohydrologic systems in terms of their capacities to retain water and soils. The contrasting sets of self-enhancing feedback dynamics on xeric vs. mesic aspects not only produce different states in vegetation and soils, they also set in motion the production of pronounced geomorphic contrasts that probably require centuries to millennia to develop. The ongoing ecohydrological transitions in the more xeric aspects are in the process of transforming those hillslopes from smooth, curvilinear, soil-mantled, sediment transport-limited slopes to detachment-limited slopes characterized by an expanding area of bare bedrock steps and cliffs, and this transition is probably irreversible. Predicted temperature increases over the next century for the region are comparable to the present-day soil temperature differential on xeric vs. mesic aspects at the site. Soil temperature is the principal driver of soil water evapotranspirative losses, and because of the interdependent linkages between soil temperature, soil moisture, weathering, production and retention of soil, vegetation, and hydrological response, relatively small temperature increases will likely accelerate the ongoing environmental changes in this and similar areas. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Klocko A.D.,University of Oregon | Rountree M.R.,University of Oregon | Rountree M.R.,Nzumbe Inc. | Grisafi P.L.,University of Oregon | And 5 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2015

Heterochromatin and associated gene silencing processes play roles in development, genome defense, and chromosome function. In many species, constitutive heterochromatin is decorated with histone H3 tri-methylated at lysine 9 (H3K9me3) and cytosine methylation. In Neurospora crassa, a five-protein complex, DCDC, catalyzes H3K9 methylation, which then directs DNA methylation. Here, we identify and characterize a gene important for DCDC function, dim-3 (defective in methylation-3), which encodes the nuclear import chaperone NUP-6 (Importin α). The critical mutation in dim-3 results in a substitution in an ARM repeat of NUP-6 and causes a substantial loss of H3K9me3 and DNA methylation. Surprisingly, nuclear transport of all known proteins involved in histone and DNA methylation, as well as a canonical transport substrate, appear normal in dim-3 strains. Interactions between DCDC members also appear normal, but the nup-6dim-3 allele causes the DCDC members DIM-5 and DIM-7 to mislocalize from heterochromatin and NUP-6dim-3 itself is mislocalized from the nuclear envelope, at least in conidia. GCN-5, a member of the SAGA histone acetyltransferase complex, also shows altered localization in dim-3, raising the possibility that NUP-6 is necessary to localize multiple chromatin complexes following nucleocytoplasmic transport. © 2015 Klocko et al.


Ramos J.S.,University of Queensland | Dalleck L.C.,Western State Colorado University | Tjonna A.E.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Beetham K.S.,University of Queensland | Coombes J.S.,University of Queensland
Sports Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Vascular dysfunction is a precursor to the atherosclerotic cascade, significantly increasing susceptibility to cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Previous studies have revealed a strong relationship between vascular function and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Thus, since high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a potent method of improving CRF, several small randomized trials have investigated the impact on vascular function of HIIT relative to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). Objective: The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence and quantify the impact on vascular function of HIIT compared with MICT. Methods: Three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and MEDLINE) were searched (until May 2014) for randomized trials comparing the effect of at least 2 weeks of HIIT and MICT on vascular function. HIIT protocols involved predominantly aerobic exercise at a high intensity, interspersed with active or passive recovery periods. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the mean difference in the change in vascular function assessed via brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) from baseline to post-intervention between HIIT and MICT. The impact of HIIT versus MICT on CRF, traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and biomarkers associated with vascular function (oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance) was also reviewed across included studies. Results: Seven randomized trials, including 182 patients, met the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. A commonly used HIIT prescription was four intervals of 4 min (4 × 4 HIIT) at 85–95 % of maximum or peak heart rate (HRmax/peak), interspersed with 3 min of active recovery at 60–70 % HRmax/peak, three times per week for 12–16 weeks. Brachial artery FMD improved by 4.31 and 2.15 % following HIIT and MICT, respectively. This resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) mean difference of 2.26 %. HIIT also had a greater tendency than MICT to induce positive effects on secondary outcome measures, including CRF, traditional CVD risk factors, oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin sensitivity. Conclusion: HIIT is more effective at improving brachial artery vascular function than MICT, perhaps due to its tendency to positively influence CRF, traditional CVD risk factors, oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin sensitivity. However, the variability in the secondary outcome measures, coupled with the small sample sizes in these studies, limits this finding. Nonetheless, this review suggests that 4 × 4 HIIT, three times per week for at least 12 weeks, is a powerful form of exercise to enhance vascular function. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Chapin F.S.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Knapp C.N.,Western State Colorado University | Brinkman T.J.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Bronen R.,Alaska Institute for Justice | Cochran P.,Alaska Native Science Commission
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2016

This paper describes the integration of social-ecological science with traditional knowledge to address global-change challenges faced by indigenous communities in rural Alaska. The Community Partnership for Self-Reliance is a novel boundary organization that uses community visions for self-reliance, based on local and traditional knowledge, to link bottom-up with top-down adaptation planning. We suggest that similar boundary strategies can improve the communication of adaptation needs and opportunities across scales, empowering local communities to select adaptation choices that fit their own goals. This would facilitate regional experimentation and diffusion of innovative solutions to address rapid and heterogeneous environmental and socioeconomic change. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Perkins D.W.,Western State Colorado University | Scott M.L.,Utah State University
River Research and Applications | Year: 2015

River regulation is associated with vegetation encroachment and invasions of some non-native species in the semi-arid west. Shifts in the abundance of native and non-native woody riparian species are an interplay of regulation, life history traits and an array of flow and physical environmental variables. We sought to compare plant densities and per cent cover of several invasive species over two time periods in a paired river study, contrasting three different degrees of regulation along reaches of the Green and Yampa rivers in Colorado and Utah, USA. We censused patches of non-native plants and recorded per cent cover in quadrats along 171river km. The upper Green (10.1patchesha-1) had the highest invasive plant patch density followed by the lower Green (4.4 per ha) and the Yampa (3.3 per ha). Invasive species were present in 23%, 19% and 4% of sample quadrats, and an average of 0.28, 0.22 and 0.04 invasive species detected per square metre was recorded along the upper Green, lower Green and Yampa Rivers, respectively. Most species had significantly (p≤0.02) higher percent cover on the upper Green than either or both the lower Green and the Yampa River. Whereas the less regulated river reaches maintain lower densities of invasive species than the most regulated reach, long-term persistence of this pattern is still in question as some species patches showed notable increases on the Yampa and lower Green Rivers from 2002-2005 to 2010-2011. Although invasion is enhanced by flow regulation, life history traits of some species suggest invasion is likely, regardless of flow regulation. Published 2015.


Ramos J.S.,University of Queensland | Dalleck L.C.,Western State Colorado University | Borrani F.,University of Lausanne | Fassett R.G.,University of Queensland | Coombes J.S.,University of Queensland
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport | Year: 2016

Objectives: The vulnerability of individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) to cardiovascular events (CVEs) is attenuated by increased cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), despite the presence of obesity as a usual component of MetS. To better understand the importance of CRF and body fat in treating this condition, we investigated the relationship between fitness and fatness with pancreatic beta cell function (BCF) indices that are known independent predictors of CVEs. Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: This study included 84 individuals with MetS. BCF indices were derived from a fasted steady state (basal disposition index [DI], proinsulin, proinsulin:insulin, and proinsulin:C-peptide) and dynamic conditions via an oral glucose tolerance test (1st and 2nd phase DI). CRF and body fat percentage (BF%) were assessed via indirect calorimetry (during a maximal exercise test) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. Results: CRF was positively associated with basal DI (r = 0.40, p <. 0.001), 1st phase DI (r = 0.49, p <. 0.005), and 2nd phase DI (r = 0.38, p = 0.02). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed CRF was associated with basal DI (β = 0.18, p = 0.04), 1st phase DI (β = 0.36, p = 0.04), and 2nd phase DI (β = 0.33, p = 0.03), independent of BF% and other confounding factors including age, sex, diabetic status, anthropometric measures, lipid profile, and insulin sensitivity. No significant associations were found between CRF and proinsulin measures. BF% was not significantly correlated with BCF indices. Conclusions: Increased CRF was independently associated with enhanced BCF. This study provides evidence that equal, if not more attention should be dedicated to CRF improvement relative to fat-loss for favorable pancreatic BCF and thus possible reduction in CV risk in individuals with MetS. © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia.


Juday G.P.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Alix C.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Grant T.A.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Grant T.A.,Western State Colorado University
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2015

Since the mid 1970s, Interior Alaska white spruce trees experienced markedly lower growth than during the 19th and early 20th centuries. This observation raises the question of forest persistence on certain sites of lowland central and eastern Alaska. We analyzed white spruce growth across a 36-site network (540 trees) on three major river floodplains in boreal Alaska along a longitudinal gradient from eastern Interior to the southwest tree limit to test for the presence of tree growth patterns and climate sensitivities. Chronologies are compared for temperature sensitivity at both stand and individual tree levels, using data from Bethel, McGrath, and Fairbanks NWS stations during the common period of 1952-2001. Cross-dated stand-level ring width chronologies indicate three regions of common signal in tree growth across the gradient. Temperature sensitivity of stand- and individual-tree chronologies is spatially coherent. Most downriver chronologies correlate positively with spring mean monthly temperatures (MMT) at Bethel, mid- and upriver chronologies correlate negatively with MMT of May and previous year July at either McGrath or Fairbanks, and an area in between is a mixed population of positive and negative responders. In downriver positive responders, recent increases from suboptimal cool temperatures accelerated tree growth, while in mid- and upriver negative responders, recent increases from optimal or above-optimal temperatures decreased growth. Fairbanks negative responders are also negatively correlated with a 200-yr index of recorded and reconstructed Fairbanks summer temperatures, and recent sustained record high summer temperatures are associated with the lowest relative growth. Until the 1940s, absolute growth rate of negative responders was greater than positive responders, but from the 1970s the positive responders grew more. These results explain why northern ring width samples can display opposite temperature sensitivity and contribute to understanding recent "divergence" or loss of temperature sensitivity in a changing climate. We find that July MMT and annual precipitation at Fairbanks are now outside the limits that previously characterized the North American distribution of white spruce, and are near the reported physiological limits of the species. Our results of the spatial and temporal change of white spruce temperature sensitivity provide strong empirical evidence of previously proposed early stage biome shift in boreal Alaska due to clear climatic causes. Already, western Alaska, previously extending to tree limit, has become the optimum climate region for the species. With modest additional warming widespread tree death will be unavoidable on warmer lowland interior sites, where persistence of white spruce is unlikely. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Wolaver B.D.,University of Texas at Austin | Coogan J.C.,Western State Colorado University | Horton B.K.,University of Texas at Austin | Bermudez L.S.,University of Texas at Austin | And 6 more authors.
AAPG Bulletin | Year: 2015

This multidisciplinary study evaluates the structural and hydrogeologic evolution of Cretaceous-age reservoirs in the Putumayo basin, Colombia. We focused on the Eastern Cordillera fold-thrust belt along the southern Garzón Massif. Many important hydrocarbon accumulations occurred regionally along the proximal foreland basin and frontal fold-thrust belt defining the eastern margin of the northern Andes. To understand why recent Putumayo basin and adjacent thrust belt exploration has resulted in a wide range of oil quality and limited economic discoveries, we reconstructed the structural evolution, timing of oil migration, and timing of groundwater infiltration by (1) assessing regional trends in formation water, oil, and reservoir properties; (2) quantifying the timing of hydrocarbon generation and migration relative to trap formation using (a) two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional seismic data to define and constrain a restorable balanced cross section from the Upper Magdalena Valley to the Putumayo foreland and (b) coupled one-dimensional thermal basin modeling; (3) evaluating the potential roles of Mesozoic extensional faulting and Paleogene shortening in the generation and preservation of structural traps; and (4) assessing groundwater influx from the modern foothills into the reservoir using a 2-D numerical groundwater flow model. We suggest that four-way closure is limited in the study area, where most foreland-verging structures create three-way fault closures that do not effectively trap light hydrocarbons. In addition, east-dipping structures and a relatively large reservoir outcrop area provide water infiltration pathways. Groundwater modeling suggests reservoirs were water washed by 2-200 million pore volumes since Andean uplift. Finally, average reservoir temperatures are <80°C (<176°F), which further facilitated biodegradation. © 2015. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.


Fast L.C.,Western State Colorado University | Harman J.J.,Colorado State University | Maertens J.A.,Colorado State University | Burnette J.L.,University of Richmond | Dreith F.,Colorado State University
Eating Behaviors | Year: 2015

Objective: Over the last few decades, food portion sizes have steadily increased by as much as 700% (Young & Nestle, 2002). Food portions are often much larger than dietary guidelines recommend, leaving individuals to manage their food consumption on their own and making it necessary to understand individual factors impacting food consumption. In the current paper, we focus on self-efficacy for portion control. Method: Specifically, across three studies, we developed and validated a new measure of portion control self-efficacy (PCSE). Result: The PCSE measure yielded good fit statistics and had acceptable test-retest reliability using two cross-sectional surveys (Studies 1(a) and 1(b)). Results from Study 2 demonstrated construct and predictive validity of the PCSE using the Food Amount Rating Scale (FARS; Dohm, & Striegel-Moore, 2002). Study 3 offered additional support for reliability and validity with a sample of overweight and obese adults currently trying to lose weight. Conclusions: Overall, findings indicate that the new PCSE measure is reliable and valid. Individuals often make inaccurate food portion estimates (Slawson & Eck, 1997; Yuhas, Bolland, & Bolland, 1989) which can lead to overeating and weight-gain. Thus, the discussion centers on the need to incorporate PCSE in future research and intervention work targeting weight loss, health, and food consumption. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Knapp C.N.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Knapp C.N.,Western State Colorado University | Trainor S.F.,University of Alaska Fairbanks
Polar Geography | Year: 2015

Alaska residents are already feeling the tangible impacts of climate change and are concerned about future impacts. In response, they have generated a large quantity of documents that describe their climate change-related research needs. This paper reviews and codes 63 stakeholder-generated documents that address climate change research needs in Alaska in order to synthesize common research needs and assess gaps in needs assessment. We find that research needs related to infrastructure, economics, hazards and safety, and terrestrial ecosystem impacts are most frequently mentioned. The review identifies a current focus on broadscale expert assessments, and a gap in local-scale and participatory approaches. The majority of identified information needs cross traditional disciplines and require interdisciplinary approaches. Finally, this research suggests that scientists, stakeholders, and information translators in Alaska engage in iterative dialog in order to better link scientific inquiry to practice. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Petrie E.S.,Western State Colorado University | Evans J.P.,Utah State University | Bauer S.J.,Sandia National Laboratories
AAPG Bulletin | Year: 2014

The sedimentologic and tectonic histories of clastic cap rocks and their inherent mechanical properties control the nature of permeable fractures within them. The migration of fluid through mm- to cm-scale fracture networks can result in focused fluid flow allowing hydrocarbon production from unconventional reservoirs or compromising the seal integrity of fluid traps. To understand the nature and distribution of subsurface fluid-flow pathways through fracture networks in cap-rock seals we examine four exhumed Paleozoic and Mesozoic seal analogs in Utah. We combine these outcrop analyses with subsidence analysis, paleoloading histories, and rock-strength testing data in modified Mohr-Coulomb-Griffith analyses to evaluate the effects of differential stress and rock type on fracture mode. Relative to the underlying sandstone reservoirs, all four seal types are low-permeability, heterolithic sequences that show mineralized hydraulic-extension fractures, extensional-shear fractures, and shear fractures. Burial-history models suggest that the cap-rock seal analogs reached a maximum burial depth >4 km (2.5 mi) and experienced a lithostatic load of up to 110 MPa (15,954 psi). Median tensile strength from indirect mechanical tests ranges from 2.3 MPa (334 psi) in siltstone to 11.5 MPa (1668 psi) in calcareous shale. Analysis of the pore-fluid factor (λv = Pf/σv) through time shows changes in the expected failure mode (extensional shear or hydraulic extension), and that failure mode depends on a combination of mechanical rock properties and differential stress. As expected with increasing lithostatic load, the amount of overpressure that is required to induce failure increases but is also lithology dependent. Copyright © 2014. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.


Taylor M.S.,Western State Colorado University | McGraw J.T.,University of New Mexico | Zimmer P.C.,University of New Mexico | Pier J.R.,National Science Foundation
Astronomical Journal | Year: 2013

More than a century ago, astronomers using transit telescopes to determine precise stellar positions were hampered by an unexplained periodic shifting of the stars they were observing. With the advent of CCD transit telescopes in the past three decades, this unexplained motion, termed "anomalous refraction" by these early astronomers, is again being observed. Anomalous refraction is described as a low-frequency, large angular scale (∼2°) motion of the entire image plane with respect to the celestial coordinate system as observed and defined by astrometric catalogs. These motions, of typically several tenths of an arcsecond amplitude with timescales on the order of 10 minutes, are ubiquitous to ground-based drift-scan astrometric measurements regardless of location or telescopes used and have been attributed to the effect of tilting of equal-density layers of the atmosphere. The cause of this tilting has often been attributed to atmospheric gravity waves, but this cause has never been confirmed. Although theoretical models of atmospheric refraction show that atmospheric gravity waves are a plausible cause of anomalous refraction, an observational campaign specifically directed at defining this relationship provides clear evidence that anomalous refraction is not consistent with the passage of atmospheric gravity waves. The source of anomalous refraction is found to be meter-scale, slowly evolving quasi-coherent dynamical structures in the boundary layer below 60 m above ground level. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Chapin F.S.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Knapp C.N.,Western State Colorado University
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2015

This article identifies opportunities and challenges to using sense of place as motivation for long-term stewardship at multiple spatial scales in a rapidly changing world. Sense of place reflects processes by which individuals or groups identify, attach to, depend on, and modify places, as well as the meanings, values, and feelings that individuals or groups associate with a place. These associations with place are fluid through time as they are felt, imagined, interpreted, and understood. Sense of place appears to most strongly motivate stewardship actions at local scales under circumstances where people value a place for the same reasons, and the conditions of the place are deteriorating. We suggest that well-recognized actions that build place attachment could create a reservoir of potential stewardship, if locally valued places were to deteriorate, as, for example, in response to climate change. Sense of place does not always promote stewardship, however, because attitudes may not lead to actions, some actions do not promote sustainability, and different place identities in the same place may lead to different stewardship goals (e.g., conservation vs. development). In situations where sense of place is deeply contested, we suggest that stewardship is best fostered by transparent and respectful dialogue to identify shared values and concerns and negotiate areas of disagreement. As a result of increased human mobility and globalization, individuals interact with many places to satisfy their desires and needs. We suggest that this opens new opportunities to motivate stewardship of types of places at regional, national, and global scales. Approaches such as discourse analysis, boundary concepts, incompletely theorized agreement, and common property theory that explicitly address contested concepts might contribute significantly to fostering sustainability in a rapidly changing and deeply divided world. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Chansavang Y.,University of Auckland | Elley C.R.,University of Auckland | McCaffrey B.,University of Auckland | Davidson C.,University of Auckland | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Primary Health Care | Year: 2015

INTRODUCTION: Obesity and low levels of physical activity are increasing among Pacific and Māori adolescents in New Zealand. AIM: To assess the feasibility of an after-school exercise and lifestyle programme to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, health and usual activity in less-active Pacific and Māori adolescents over six weeks. METHODS: Eighteen less-active secondary school students participated. The six-week programme included 3 x 1.5 hour exercise and healthy lifestyle sessions per week. Outcomes included estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), insulin resistance (Homeostasis Model Assessment), physical activity, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, waist circumference and fasting lipids, measured at baseline and six weeks. Programme attendance and qualitative comments were also recorded. Student’s t-tests were used. RESULTS: Of the 18 students enrolled, 16 (89%) completed six-week follow-up, 14 (78%) were female, 13 (72%) were Pacific ethnicity and 5 (28%) were Māori . At baseline, mean age was 16.3 (standard deviation [SD] 1.0) years, body mass index (BMI) 35.2 (SD 6.7) kg/m2, VO2max 31.5 (SD 4.3) mL/kg/min, systolic blood pressure 125.0 (SD 12.9) mm Hg, HbA1c 39.9 (SD 3.8) mmol/mol, fasting serum insulin 28.3 (SD 27.8) μU/mL. At follow-up, improvements had occurred in VO2max (3.2 mL/kg/min; p=0.02), systolic blood pressure (-10.6 mm Hg; p=0.003), HbA1c (-1.1 mmol/mol; p=0.03) and weekly vigorous (4 hours, p=0.002) and moderate (2 hours, p=0.006) physical activity, although waist circumference increased (p=0.005). Programme attendance was over 50%. Comments were mostly positive. DISCUSSION: The after-school exercise and lifestyle programme and study methods were feasible. Such programmes have the potential to improve health outcomes for Pacific and Māori adolescents. © 2015, Royal New Zealand College of General Practitioners. All rights reserved.


Vella C.A.,University of Idaho | Van Guilder G.P.,South Dakota State University | Dalleck L.C.,Western State Colorado University
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders | Year: 2016

Background: Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and its decline over time are predictors of the development of diabetes in black and Caucasian women, independent of obesity. It is unclear, however, if the adverse effect of low CRF on the risk of diabetes in Hispanic women is mediated by obesity. Our purpose was to determine the associations of CRF with markers of insulin resistance in 68 normal weight Hispanic women. Methods: Obesity indicators included body mass index (BMI), body composition by DXA, and waist circumference. CRF was measured by indirect calorimetry. A glucose tolerance test was used to measure markers of insulin resistance: homeostasis model assessment, fasting insulin, 2-hr insulin, area under the curve insulin, qualitative insulin sensitivity check, and insulin sensitivity index. Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to identify associations between CRF and markers of insulin resistance. Multivariate ANOVA was used to compare markers of insulin resistance over quartiles of CRF. Results: Low CRF was significantly associated with all markers of insulin resistance (P < 0.01). These associations were independent of age, BMI, waist circumference, family history of T2DM, and triglycerides (CRF standardized beta range:-0.27 to-0.46, P < 0.05). However, these associations were attenuated when body composition, specifically fat-free mass, was entered into the model (CRF standardized beta range:-0.03 to 0.21, P > 0.05). All markers of insulin resistance improved linearly across CRF quartiles (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that low CRF may be an important predictor of diabetes risk in Hispanic women and that fat-free mass rather than overall body adiposity mediates these relationships. © 2016, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Whitman E.,Simon Fraser University | Whitman E.,Natural Resources Canada | Batllori E.,Policy and Management | Batllori E.,InForest Joint Research Unit | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2015

Aim: Studies of fire activity along environmental gradients have been undertaken, but the results of such studies have yet to be integrated with fire-regime analysis. We characterize fire-regime components along climate gradients and a gradient of human influence. Location: We focus on a climatically diverse region of north-western North America extending from northern British Columbia, Canada, to northern Utah and Colorado, USA. Methods: We used a multivariate framework to collapse 12 climatic variables into two major climate gradients and binned them into 73 discrete climate domains. We examined variation in fire-regime components (frequency, size, severity, seasonality and cause) across climate domains. Fire-regime attributes were compiled from existing databases and Landsat imagery for 1897 large fires. Relationships among the fire-regime components, climate gradients and human influence were examined through bivariate regressions. The unique contribution of human influence was also assessed. Results: A primary climate gradient of temperature and summer precipitation and a secondary gradient of continentality and winter precipitation in the study area were identified. Fire occupied a distinct central region of such climate space, within which fire-regime components varied considerably. We identified significant interrelations between fire-regime components of fire size, frequency, burn severity and cause. The influence of humans was apparent in patterns of burn severity and ignition cause. Main conclusions: Wildfire activity is highest where thermal and moisture gradients converge to promote fuel production, flammability and ignitions. Having linked fire-regime components to large-scale climate gradients, we show that fire regimes - like the climate that controls them - are a part of a continuum, expanding on models of varying constraints on fire activity. The observed relationships between fire-regime components, together with the distinct role of climatic and human influences, generate variation in biotic communities. Thus, future changes to climate may lead to ecological changes through altered fire regimes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Janot J.M.,University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire | Beltz N.M.,University of New Mexico | Dalleck L.D.,Western State Colorado University
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine | Year: 2015

The purpose of this study was to determine if off-ice perfor-mance variables could predict on-ice skating performance in Division III collegiate hockey players. Both men (n = 15) and women (n = 11) hockey players (age = 20.5 ± 1.4 years) partici-pated in the study. The skating tests were agility cornering S-turn, 6.10 m acceleration, 44.80 m speed, modified repeat skate, and 15.20 m full speed. Off-ice variables assessed were years of playing experience, height, weight and percent body fat and off-ice performance variables included vertical jump (VJ), 40-yd dash (36.58m), 1-RM squat, pro-agility, Wingate peak power and peak power percentage drop (% drop), and 1.5 mile (2.4km) run. Results indicated that 40-yd dash (36.58m), VJ, 1.5 mile (2.4km) run, and % drop were significant predictors of skating performance for repeat skate (slowest, fastest, and average time) and 44.80 m speed time, respectively. Four predictive equations were derived from multiple regression analyses: 1) slowest repeat skate time = 2.362 + (1.68 x 40-yd dash time) + (0.005 x 1.5 mile run), 2) fastest repeat skate time = 9.762 - (0.089 x VJ) - (0.998 x 40-yd dash time), 3) average repeat skate time = 7.770 + (1.041 x 40-yd dash time) - (0.63 x VJ) + (0.003 x 1.5 mile time), and 4) 47.85 m speed test = 7.707 - (0.050 x VJ) - (0.01 x % drop). It was concluded that selected off-ice tests could be used to predict on-ice performance regarding speed and recov-ery ability in Division III male and female hockey players. © Journal of Sports Science and Medicine.


Zizzi S.,West Virginia University | Kadushin P.,Western State Colorado University | Michel J.,U.S. Army | Abildso C.,West Virginia University
Health Promotion Practice | Year: 2016

Compared with randomized trials, community-based interventions are delivered by a wider variety of professionals with varied training backgrounds. When evidence-based programs are scaled into larger formats and disseminated to a wider audience, little is understood about how clients experience these interventions. To understand the experience of clients after meetings with nutrition, exercise, and health behavior professionals, researchers surveyed participants after 6 months in a weight management program. A total of 958 participants were recruited in monthly cohorts beginning September 2011 to complete a program evaluation survey. Qualitative inductive analysis was completed on several open-text items querying respondents as to what they found helpful from meetings with a registered dietitian, personal trainer, and health behavior counselor. Results indicate participants benefitted from gaining knowledge, learning new behavioral skills, or from interpersonal interactions. Findings suggest that the various professional services are valued by clients and that professionals appear to stay within their scope of practice. Implications for those working in weight management are discussed. © 2015, 2015 Society for Public Health Education.


Turner B.L.,Arizona State University | Esler K.J.,Private Bag X | Bridgewater P.,Australian National University | Tewksbury J.,University of Colorado at Boulder | And 18 more authors.
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2016

The call for integrated social-environmental science, complete with outreach to applications and solutions, is escalating worldwide. Drawing on several decades of experience, researchers engaged in such science, completed an assessment of the design and management attributes and impact pathways that lead to successful projects and programs and to understand key impediments to success. These characteristics are delineated and discussed using examples from individual projects and programs. From this, three principal lessons leading to successful efforts emerge that address co-design, adaptive or flexible management, and diversity of knowledge. In addition, five challenges for this science are identified: accounting for change, addressing sponsorship and timelines, appreciating different knowledge systems, adaptively communicating, and improving linkages to policy. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Nolan P.B.,University of Auckland | Beaven M.L.,University of Auckland | Dalleck L.,Western State Colorado University
International Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

We sought to determine the incidence of 'true' VO2max confirmation with the verification procedure across different protocols. 12 active participants (men n=6, women n=6) performed in random order 4 different maximal graded exercises tests (GXT) and verification bout protocols on 4 separate days. Conditions for the rest period and verification bout intensity were: A - 105% intensity, 20 min rest; B - 105% intensity, 60 min rest; C - 115% intensity, 20 min rest; D - 115% intensity, 60 min rest. VO2max confirmation (difference between peak VO2 GXT and verification trial<±3%) using the verification trial was 12/12 (100%), 12/12 (100%), 8/12 (66.70%), and 7/12 (58.33%) for protocols A, B, C, and D. There was a significant (p<0.05) effect of verification intensity on VO2max confirmation across all exercise test conditions (intensity effect within recovery 20 min (χ2 (1)=4.800, p<0.05), intensity effect within recovery 60 min (χ2 (1)=6.316, p<0.05)). No significant effect was found for incidence of VO2max confirmation with different rest periods. We recommend the use of 105% of the maximal GXT workload and 20 min rest periods when using verification trials to confirm VO2max in normally active populations.


Marchetti D.W.,Western State Colorado University | Hynek S.A.,University of Utah | Cerling T.E.,University of Utah
Quaternary Geochronology | Year: 2014

The Payún Matru volcanic field encompasses more than 12,000km2 in the west-central Argentine province of Mendoza. The northwestern part of the field, called Los Volcanes, includes multiple basaltic lava flows and numerous cinder cones and scoria fields. We sampled primary lava flow features (tumuli, pahoehoe and aa flow surfaces) from two different basaltic lava flows and one fluvial strath for cosmogenic 3He exposure age dating in the Los Volcanes area. Olivines from the sampled basalts have low concentrations of U and Th and a minimal radiogenic 4He correction. We used the recently established R correction factor to correct our measured 3He concentrations for magmatic 3He and 4He and radiogenic 4He. Exposure ages for primary lava flow features covering a large area just east of where Route 40 crosses the Río Grande range from 41 to 43ka with external uncertainties on the order of 7%. A recently published K→Ar age of 26±5ka was sampled within a few hundred meters of three of our cosmogenic exposure age samples and appears to be from the same basalt flow. Given the large uncertainties associated with dating young lava flows, the K→Ar age and our cosmogenic ages are in reasonable agreement; however, they do not overlap within uncertainties and suggest possible systematic discrepancies between the two methods of up to 20% in this instance. A sample from a bedrock strath carved by the Río Grande into basalt yielded a surface exposure age of 17±1ka. The toe of a much younger-looking aa flow about 5km west of the Rt. 40Río Grande bridge yielded two ages of 0 and 2ka, and is presumed to be historical. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Worrall J.J.,Health-U | Keck A.G.,Western State Colorado University | Marchetti S.B.,Health-U
Canadian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2015

Reports of forest damage have increased with the frequency of climatic extremes, but longer term impacts of such events on population dynamics of forest trees are generally unknown. Incited by the turn-of-the-century drought, sudden aspen decline (SAD) damaged 535 000 ha of Populus tremuloides Michx. in the Southern Rockies ecoregion of western North America. Although spread of the disease stopped in about 2009, most of the affected stands continued to deteriorate. Remeasurement of plots in southwestern Colorado showed that, since the peak of the epidemic, live basal area in sick plots decreased by an additional 28% to only 38% of that in healthy plots. Sick plots had much more recent damage than healthy plots, with almost three times as much recently dead basal area, over twice the density of recently dead trees, and almost four times as much recent crown loss. The important contributing agents in SAD were still active in sick stands in 2013. Density of small regeneration showed opposite trends, increasing in healthy plots and decreasing in sick plots. Timely regeneration treatments may be needed in some such stands to facilitate recovery. In addition to acute damage from climatic extremes, long-term decline diseases like SAD will likely be a common signature of forest damage from climate change. © 2015, National Research Council of Canada, All rights reserved.


Knapp C.N.,Western State Colorado University | Stuart Chapin F.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Kofinas G.P.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Fresco N.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | And 2 more authors.
Ecology and Society | Year: 2014

Climate change challenges the traditional goals and conservation strategies of protected areas, necessitating adaptation to changing conditions. Denali National Park and Preserve (Denali) in south central Alaska, USA, is a vast landscape that is responding to climate change in ways that will impact both ecological resources and local communities. Local observations help to inform understanding of climate change and adaptation planning, but whose knowledge is most important to consider? For this project we interviewed long-term Denali staff, scientists, subsistence community members, bus drivers, and business owners to assess what types of observations each can contribute, how climate change is impacting each, and what they think the National Park Service should do to adapt. The project shows that each type of long-term observer has different types of observations, but that those who depend more directly on natural resources for their livelihoods have more and different observations than those who do not. These findings suggest that engaging multiple groups of stakeholders who interact with the park in distinct ways adds substantially to the information provided by Denali staff and scientists and offers a broader foundation for adaptation planning. It also suggests that traditional protected area paradigms that fail to learn from and foster appropriate engagement of people may be maladaptive in the context of climate change. © 2014 by the author(s).


Braun C.E.,Grouse Inc. | Oyler-Mccance S.J.,U.S. Geological Survey | Nehring J.A.,Wetland Dynamics LLC. | Young J.R.,Western State Colorado University | Potter K.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Wilson Journal of Ornithology | Year: 2014

The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) in Colorado is described based on published literature, observations, museum specimens, and the known distribution of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.). Historically, Gunnison Sage-Grouse were widely but patchily distributed in up to 22 counties in south-central and southwestern Colorado. The historical distribution of this species was south of the Colorado-Eagle river drainages primarily west of the Continental Divide. Potential contact areas with Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus) were along the Colorado-Eagle river system in Mesa, Garfield, and Eagle counties, west of the Continental Divide. Gunnison Sage-Grouse historically occupied habitats that were naturally highly fragmented by forested mountains and plateaus/mesas, intermountain basins without robust species of sagebrush, and river systems. This species adapted to use areas with more deciduous shrubs (i.e., Quercus spp., Amelanchier spp., Prunus spp.) in conjunction with sagebrush. Most areas historically occupied were small, linear, and patchily distributed within the overall landscape matrix. The exception was the large intermountain basin in Gunnison, Hinsdale, and Saguache counties. The documented distribution east of the Continental Divide within the large expanse of the San Luis Valley (Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande counties) was minimal and mostly on the eastern, northern, and southern fringes. Many formerly occupied habitat patches were vacant by the mid 1940s with extirpations continuing to the late 1990s. Counties from which populations were recently extirpated include Archuleta and Pitkin (1960s), and Eagle, Garfield, Montezuma, and Ouray (1990s). © 2014 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.


Bigham A.W.,University of Michigan | Julian C.G.,University of Colorado at Denver | Wilson M.J.,University of Colorado at Denver | Wilson M.J.,Western State Colorado University | And 4 more authors.
Physiological Genomics | Year: 2014

Low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increase the risk of mortality and morbidity during the perinatal period as well as in adulthood. Environmental and genetic factors contribute to IUGR, but the influence of maternal genetic variation on birth weight is largely unknown. We implemented a gene-by-environment study wherein we utilized the growth restrictive effects of high altitude. Multigenerational high altitude residents (Andeans) are protected from altitude-associated IUGR compared with recent migrants (Europeans). Using a combined cohort of low- and high-altitude European and Andean women, we tested 63 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 16 natural selection-nominated candidate gene regions for associations with infant birth weight. We identified significant SNP associations with birth weight near coding regions for two genes involved in oxygen sensing and vascular control, PRKAA1 and EDNRA, respectively. Next, we identified a significant association for the PRKAA1 SNP with an intermediate phenotype, uterine artery diameter, which has been shown to be related to Andean protection from altitude-associated reductions in fetal growth. To explore potential functional relationships for the effect of maternal SNP genotype on birth weight, we evaluated the relationship between maternal PRKAA1 SNP genotype and gene expression patterns in general and, in particular, of key pathways involved in metabolic homeostasis that have been proposed to play a role in the pathophysiology of IUGR. Our observations suggest that maternal genetic variation within genes that regulate oxygen sensing, metabolic homeostasis, and vascular control influence fetal growth and birth weight outcomes and hence Andean adaptation to high altitude. © 2014 the American Physiological Society.


Monroe E.M.,University of South Dakota | Monroe E.M.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Alexander K.D.,Western State Colorado University | Britten H.B.,University of South Dakota
Journal of Insect Conservation | Year: 2016

The US federally endangered Uncompahgre fritillary butterfly (Boloria acrocnema) lives in isolated alpine habitats of the San Juan Mountains of Colorado, USA. Its apparent extirpation from the type locality and its low genetic diversity raised concern in the late 1980s, thus monitoring for this species has continued and genetic samples were collected in 2008 and 2009 from all but one known site, each on a separate peak. Data for five new microsatellite markers were collected from 316 total specimens, including 26 from wings preserved from 1987 and 1988 seasons. Only three main colonies had high enough sample sizes for adequate analyses. We estimated levels of genetic variability and structure, and effective population size. Despite low demographic numbers at these sites, the species has maintained relatively high heterozygosity ranging from 0.41 to 0.46 at three sites. Allelic richness corrected by sample size ranged from 5.3 to 5.9. Genetic structure assessed with non-spatially explicit methods indicated that despite separation on high mountain peaks, colonies were fairly well mixed, which is surprising for these weak fliers with very short growing and adult flight seasons. Estimates of effective population sizes were low, reflecting the life history and limited habitat range for the species. Comparisons at the site with historic and modern specimens revealed a consistent pattern in genetic indices. Our data suggest that the three focal butterfly colonies exist as a metapopulation that persists due to low-level migration between sites and “temporal leakage” via flexibility in development time in this biennial species. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland


Knapp C.N.,Western State Colorado University | Trainor S.F.,University of Alaska Fairbanks
Polar Geography | Year: 2015

Alaska residents are already feeling the tangible impacts of climate change and are concerned about future impacts. In response, they have generated a large quantity of documents that describe their climate change-related research needs. This paper reviews and codes 63 stakeholder-generated documents that address climate change research needs in Alaska in order to synthesize common research needs and assess gaps in needs assessment. We find that research needs related to infrastructure, economics, hazards and safety, and terrestrial ecosystem impacts are most frequently mentioned. The review identifies a current focus on broad-scale expert assessments, and a gap in local-scale and participatory approaches. The majority of identified information needs cross traditional disciplines and require interdisciplinary approaches. Finally, this research suggests that scientists, stakeholders, and information translators in Alaska engage in iterative dialog in order to better link scientific inquiry to practice. © 2015 Taylor & Francis


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: SEDIMENTARY GEO & PALEOBIOLOGY | Award Amount: 106.29K | Year: 2013

This study will examine isotopic and geochemical records preserved in the laminae of pedogenic carbonate coatings in soils in the Capitol Reef--Boulder Mountain region of the Colorado Plateau. First, the team will check for preservation of stratigraphic order in the laminae of coatings by microscopy, high-resolution X-ray mapping, and Th/U age dating. Coatings that preserve an intact stratigraphy will be micro-sampled for detailed Th/U age transects, stable isotope analysis, and trace element analysis. The team will compare well-dated profiles of stable isotope shifts from coatings collected at various depths below the soil-air interface to reconstruct the timing and magnitude of ecological and climatological changes that occurred over the measured time interval. This study will evaluate the problem of discontinuities in the pendant record which could be related to climate change on orbital time scales. Timing and mechanisms of carbonate formation will be evaluated with in situ soil moisture, respiration, and temperature measurements.

Stable isotope analysis of modern and fossil pedogenic carbonate has advanced the understanding of continental paleoclimatology, as well as documenting worldwide ecological shifts. Most stable isotope studies of pedogenic carbonate have sampled soil carbonate at a fairly coarse resolution; only a few have studied the stable isotope record of soil carbonate coatings of the large clasts within a soil horizon. This work will test thick, well-laminated, pedogenic carbonate coatings for records of a meaningful paleoclimate signal in terms of their stable isotope record (13C/12C and 18O/16O) when coatings preserve an intact stratigraphy. If true, and there is some preliminary Th/U and stable isotope data that supports this, then the worlds deserts may contain a vast and untapped quantitative archive of past continental climactic and ecological variability.

This project is a collaborative effort between the University of Utah and Western State Colorado University. It will enhance education opportunities for both a research institution and an undergraduate institution, and its results will be incorporated into an international course, taught each year at the University of Utah, using stable isotopes as tracers in anthropology, ecology, forensics, geology, hydrology, oceanography, and zoology.


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Westerns welcoming environment and close-knit community make transferring simple. If you have taken college courses after high school and have a cumulative grade point average of at least a 2 ...


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History at Western is not simply about dates or memorizing names and events.All around us the past is evident and we interact and struggle with it constantly through memory and stories, commemorations, traditions, restorations and relics ...


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To find your role in the continually evolving and diversifying disciplines of biology, you'll need a strong foundation in fundamental, scientific concepts. At Western, we provide a learning environment that helps you master even the most difficult scientific concepts ...


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Western offers small classes, great professors, and a spectacular mountain setting in the Gunnison Valley. With classes that average just 17 students, you can tailor your education to your career goals ...


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"I'm a Spanish and Business double-major, traveling the world for Western as a competitive skier on the Mountain Sports Team."


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Western State Colorado University | Date: 2012-10-10

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Western State Colorado University | Date: 2013-07-11

Clothing, namely, caps, hats, visors, jerseys, shirts, sweatshirts, sweatpants, pants, shorts, sweaters, jackets, socks, scarves, gloves and infant wear. Educational services in a variety of fields in the university context, namely, providing classes and courses at the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education levels; Entertainment services, namely, arranging, conducting and participating in collegiate athletic and collegiate sports events and competitions as well as live performances by a collegiate marching band; sport camps; summer camps; and providing a website featuring information about education at the university, university athletic programs, ticket information for collegiate athletic events, booster clubs, and camps; all of the foregoing in a university context.


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Western State Colorado University | Date: 2012-10-10

Clothing, namely, caps, hats, visors, jerseys, shirts, sweatshirts, sweatpants, pants, shorts, sweaters, jackets, socks, scarves, gloves and infant wear. Educational services in a variety of fields in the university context, namely, providing classes and courses at the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education levels; Entertainment services, namely, arranging, conducting and participating in collegiate athletic and collegiate sports events and competitions as well as live performances by a collegiate marching band; sport camps; summer camps; and providing a website featuring information about education at the university, university athletic programs, ticket information for collegiate athletic events, booster clubs, and camps; all of the foregoing in a university context.


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Western State Colorado University | Date: 2012-09-14

Clothing, namely, caps, hats, visors, jerseys, shirts, sweatshirts, sweatpants, pants, shorts, sweaters, jackets, socks, scarves, gloves and infant wear. Educational services in a variety of fields in the university context, namely, providing classes and courses at the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education levels; Entertainment services, namely, arranging, conducting and participating in collegiate athletic and collegiate sports events and competitions as well as live performances by a collegiate marching band; sport camps; summer camps; and providing a website featuring information about education at the university, university athletic programs, ticket information for collegiate athletic events, booster clubs, and camps; all of the foregoing in a university context.


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What is a Sociology Major? While all social sciences are interested in understanding human behavior, sociology is distinguished by its focus on understanding patterns of human behavior and emphasizing the social forces that shape and influence these patterns. Often, this perspective is surprising and can challengeassumptions of how the world works ...


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Location:West Tomichi Riverway Park


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What Will You Learn? What Skills Will You Acquire?You will learn how to reason your way through unfamiliar territory, find familiar structures, make predictions and answerimportant questions. Mathematics is central to science, engineering, finance, insurance and computing for precisely these reasons ...


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Actuarial ScienceThe department of Mathematics and Computer Science is thrilled to introduce a mathematics major with an emphasis in actuarial science. According to the Society of Actuaries, an actuary is a business professional who analyzes the financial consequences of risk ...


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Where is Western?Western State Colorado University is right on U.S ...


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Meet Robert Wright,Entrepreneur,Western Business Graduate


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The Moncrief Petroleum Geology program is for geoscientists planning careers in the oil and gas industry, as well as careers in resource assessment and energy policy.The Petroleum Geology programlaunched in 2002, thanks to a $1 million endowment from Western alumnusPaul Rady, CEO of Antero Resources ...


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Clothing, namely, caps, hats, visors, jerseys, shirts, sweatshirts, sweatpants, pants, shorts, sweaters, jackets, socks, scarves, gloves and infant wear. Educational services in a variety of fields in the university context, namely, providing classes and courses at the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education levels; Entertainment services, namely, arranging, conducting and participating in collegiate athletic and collegiate sports events and competitions as well as live performances by a collegiate marching band; sport camps; summer camps; and providing a website featuring information about education at the university, university athletic programs, ticket information for collegiate athletic events, booster clubs, and camps; all of the foregoing in a university context.


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At Western State Colorado University, you will have the unique opportunity to extend your academic experience beyond the classroom. Our environment in the Colorado Rocky Mountains is beautiful, inspiring and motivating ...


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Roll the credits. In Western's film studies program, you are part of the production ...


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If you are interested in receiving information about Western State Colorado University but do not wish to apply at this time, please fill out our Request Information Form .If you wish to apply for admission, create an account by clicking on 'First time user account creation', or enter your existing login information below ...


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WesternState Colorado UniversityPhilosophy minor provides students with an understanding of the history of philosophy, an exploration of diverse worldviews, and the tools to examine the complex, unexamined assumptions underlying contemporary society. The Philosophy minor emphasizes development of logical and analytical skills, affording students the intellectual ability to theorize, articulate, and support sophisticated philosophical perspectives ...


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Hunter is from Angola, Ind., majoring in Anthropology, with a minor in Geography and a minor in Latin American studies


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Biochemistry is the study of structure, function and chemical reactions that take place in living systems.Its a very broad field, with jobs and career opportunities ranging from medicine and dentistry to food science and agriculture ...


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A high-quality, highly-engaging education doesn't have to come with a high price tag. Western State Colorado University ranks as Colorado's best educational value, and our low tuition and fees make us one of the most affordable colleges in the nation ...


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Center stage!Youll get right to work in all aspects of Theatre and Performance Studies as an actor, designer, stage manager, part of an improvisational troupe or an assistant in the costume and scene shops. You might land a work-study position learning valuable skills that make theater happen ...


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[Anchor] The following scholarships are available to students in the Business, Accounting and Economics (BAE) department.Billmeyer, Matthew Memorial ScholarshipBinford, Harold E ...


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Western State Colorado Universityfulfills its statutory mission by promoting intellectual maturity and personal growth in its students, and graduates citizens prepared to assume constructive roles in local, national and global communities.Western helps its students develop the skills and commitments needed to continue learning throughout their lives and strives to elucidate the connections unifying academic domains, which have traditionally existed separately: the sciences, liberal arts and professional programs ...


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Champion Leadership & Responsibility Scholarship is available to:Intercollegiate Athletes that are a junior or senior in Intercollegiate Athletics eligibility standing in their respective sport program(s). Be at least 21 years of age by the first day of classes in the academic year in which they receive the scholarship ...


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Admissions to enroll in Summer 2016 are now open.Western State Colorado University's Graduate Program in Creative Writing offers an MFA, an MA and a Certificate in Publishing ...


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Chavez, who this past summer joined the Master in Environmental Management faculty after a stint atGermany'sPotsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, explained how he has profiled a set of U.S ...


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Western's Education Department serves up cutting-edge ideas in teaching, offering a dynamic curriculum, innovative instructional strategies and a dedicated faculty team that is focused on student needs.You'll learn firsthand about teaching by working in schools with children, teachers, administrators and parents, while taking coursework online ...


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When you select the Wildlife Biology emphasis at Western, youll study in the great classroom of the Gunnison Basin and beyond. Youll have the opportunity to explore numerous public and private lands from the sagebrush and lush riparian lowlands to the deep forests and rocky alpine crags ...


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"My interests at the time were not academic, but skiing and paddling. (Coach MacLennan) showed me hard work, discipline and structure ...


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The Biology program provides a comprehensive educational experience consistent with Westerns liberal arts philosophy. The Pre-Nursing emphasis is for students seeking careers in nursing and other healthcare-related areas ...


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Western State Colorado University | Date: 2012-09-14

Clothing, namely, caps, hats, visors, jerseys, shirts, sweatshirts, sweatpants, pants, shorts, sweaters, jackets, socks, scarves, gloves and infant wear. Educational services in a variety of fields in the university context, namely, providing classes and courses at the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education levels; Entertainment services, namely, arranging, conducting and participating in collegiate athletic and collegiate sports events and competitions as well as live performances by a collegiate marching band; sport camps; summer camps; and providing a website featuring information about education at the university, university athletic programs, ticket information for collegiate athletic events, booster clubs, and camps; all of the foregoing in a university context.


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Western State Colorado University | Date: 2012-09-14

Clothing, namely, caps, hats, visors, jerseys, shirts, sweatshirts, sweatpants, pants, shorts, sweaters, jackets, socks, scarves, gloves and infant wear. Educational services in a variety of fields in the university context, namely, providing classes and courses at the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education levels; Entertainment services, namely, arranging, conducting and participating in collegiate athletic and collegiate sports events and competitions as well as live performances by a collegiate marching band; sport camps; summer camps; and providing a website featuring information about education at the university, university athletic programs, ticket information for collegiate athletic events, booster clubs, and camps; all of the foregoing in a university context.


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Western State Colorado University | Date: 2013-07-11

Clothing, namely, caps, hats, visors, jerseys, shirts, sweatshirts, sweatpants, pants, shorts, sweaters, jackets, socks, scarves, gloves and infant wear. Educational services in a variety of fields in the university context, namely, providing classes and courses at the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education levels; Entertainment services, namely, arranging, conducting and participating in collegiate athletic and collegiate sports events and competitions as well as live performances by a collegiate marching band; sport camps; summer camps; and providing a website featuring information about education at the university, university athletic programs, ticket information for collegiate athletic events, booster clubs, and camps; all of the foregoing in a university context.


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Assistant Professor & Public Lands Coordinator Phone: Office Location: Kelley Hall 109 Assistant Professor of Environment & Sustainability, and Sustainable & Resilient Communities MEM Coordinator BS, University of Colorado Denver, MBA, University of Houston, PhD, University of Colorado Denver Phone: Office Location: Kelley Hall 104 Lecturer in Environment & Sustainability B.A ...


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Western State Colorado Universitys Resort Management program goal offers unique educational opportunities creating a brand and style of hospitality and tourism services known as "Western Hospitality."Throughout the program, students gain hospitality and tourism management education, innovation, and applied research and practical industry experiences ...


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Western State Colorado University is pleased to provide this net price calculator as a guide for early financial planning for college. This calculator will provide a preliminary estimate of federal and institutional aid eligibility ...


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Education is the kindling of a flame, not the filling of a vessel. SocratesI like to take things apart ...


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The Innovation, Creativity & Entrepreneurship (ICE) Emphasis at Western is designed to prepare students to finance, plan for, start and manage their own profitable venture.Westerns Innovation, Creativity & Entrepreneurship program is all about fresh thinking, positive impact and rising to challenges ...


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Anthropology is the study of human behavior. The discipline is holistic, cross-cultural and explores what it means to be human ...


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Like many college students, Marcus Hinricher wrestled with the choices he faced.He came from high school in Denver to Western in 2008 as a Business Administration major, but I switched fast to Biology, he recalls ...


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Dr. Maria Struble describes herself as more conscientious student than oracle of political science dogma ...


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The Masterin Gallery Management and Exhibits Specialization (MGES) is a fully-accredited, professional terminal degree specifically focused on the content understanding, methods, and skills necessary for professions in arts management; art gallery, art museum, and art collections management, directorship, and sales; and exhibits specialization (design, proprietorship, installation, curatorship). Western's MGES program emphasizes the development of practical, managerial, and entrepreneurial approaches to increasingly complex demands in the professional sector of exhibiting, collecting, and selling art objects ...


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"I strongly believe that the year long internship program offered by [Western]is a big reason why I was offered the job at Lewis-Arriola Elementary and I think it is a huge benefit for the Western program


Western State Colorado University | Entity website


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

Through her successful summer internship and experiences at Western, Allie learned"your future is determined by how much effort you put in."


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

The Graphic design emphasis provides students with a thorough intellectual and hands-on understanding of visual communication, and the training to prepare for professional practice.At Western, the graphic design studentacquires a visual language and the means to communicate with it effectively -integrating typography, image development, and the use of design software and photography ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

Meet Joshua Bruning, a 2009 Western graduate who is using hisExercise and Sport Sciencedegree as a Operations Assistant with the Denver Broncos.I graduated from Westernin May 2009 ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

Dr. Kevin Alexander, while a specialist in aquatic invertebrates,has taught a wide range of Biology courses and been involved in almost equally eclectic research ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

Chemistry is a branch of the physical sciences that studies matter and the principles that govern matter. It connects physics with biology and geology ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

Many have come to Western State Colorado University and found success, often in surprising ways. For Dave Wiens, a Hall-of-Fame mountain biker and director of Westerns vaunted Mountain Sports program, world acclaim came from a direction he could never have expected ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

Madison MurphyExecutive AssistantOffice of the PresidentWestern State Colorado University600 N. Adams St ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

The Environmental Science Minorat Western teaches fundamentals of life sciences in a living laboratory of the Rockies. It gives students the opportunity to add a stronger science emphasis to their degree or to add diversity to their existing degree plan ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

Dr. Sean Markey - Outstanding AlumnusSean Markeyis a 1993 graduate of Western ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

"There's something about the smallness (of Western), something about risk-taking, something about the isolation, something about the adventurous spiritthere that allows Western grads to not just excel, but excel in these really unique and fun ways."


Western State Colorado University | Entity website


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

Westerns ESS program will prepare you for careers focused on promoting healthy lifestyles and enhancing performance in exercise, sport, and physical activity settings. To help reach your professional goals, the ESS program at Western provides you with a unique educational experience, including:Caring,student-centered faculty, who are accessible, approachable, and possess a wide range of expertise and professional experienceSmall classes that ensure individual attention, including personalized one-on-one advisingAn engaging learning environment, including multiple opportunities for "hands-on," applied learning and undergraduate researchOpportunities for professional networking, including conference attendance, and internshipsThe High Altitude Performance Lab, with state-of-the-art, exercise-testing equipmentAdvising for graduate school and entry-level careers in ESSPreparation for industry certificationsASESS student majors clubWhat Will You Learn? What Skills Will You Acquire?The ESS program helps you develop knowledge and skills requiredto complete nationally accredited certifications with the American College of Sports Medicine, National Strength and Conditioning Association, American Council on Exercise, National Association of Sports Medicine and/or USA Weightlifting ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

Creative Writing majors capture the imagination. They build the skills needed to write original poetry, prose, scripts and stories ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website


Western State Colorado University | Entity website


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

Western State Colorado University senior ChristianSchwiegerath, who was crowned Miss Colorado United States in April of 2013, says shes laser-focused on her studies in Business and Professional Land & Resource Management. Its a tremendous honor to have been selected Miss Colorado United States and these days Im frequently on the road at charity events,Schwiegerathsays, it always feels great to come back home to Gunnison and focus on my studies here at Western ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

The institution that is now Western State Colorado University was established in 1901. It was the first college on Colorado's Western Slope and is the fourth oldest public college in the state ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

Nancy E. ChisholmTyco Retail SolutionsLakewood, ColoradoNancy Chisholm is the Vice President and General Manager of Tyco Retail Solutions, a $1Bvertical business unit of Tyco, headquartered inNeuhausen, Switzerland ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

Biology major with Pre-med/Cell Biology emphasis, minor in Chemistry, Thornton Undergraduate Research Committee grant recipient, Pre-Health Science Club president, supplemental instructor for BIOL 150, Chemistry Club Secretary, and much more!


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

Chance Chase didnt end up in Gunnison the way most Mountaineers do.It was 2008 ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

Some of the most exciting and challenging fields in today's global, interactive world involve communication. Employers consistently cite communication skills as the major requirement for success in professional careers ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

We would love to meet you on one of our Preview Days!Please choose your preferred Preview Day date to begin the registration process.Preview Days give you the chance to tour the campus, hear some of our current students stories, meet with professors in your area of interest, eat lunch in our dining hall, and chat with the admissions and financial aid staff ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

The world knows Elva Dryer as a great American distance runner, a two-time Olympian, 13-time All-American and 16-time Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference champion, who went on to make her mark on the Elite road-running circuit.She's been inducted into the Western State Colorado University Mountaineers Sports Hall of Fame, the RMAC Hall of Fame, the Colorado Running Hall of Fame, Colorado Sportsman Hall of Fame, the National Cross Country Hall of Fame and the NCAA Division II Track and Field Hall of Fame ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

To stay up-to-date on current events,"like" our department on Facebook!Watch our promotional video, to get a better look at Recreation Department Students:WhyRecreation & Outdoor Education?In Colorado alone, outdoor recreation contributes nearly $35 billion annually in economic activity, and creates over 310,000 jobs. Colorado's 2014 Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan (SCORP) identifies five priority areas to focus on for the next fiveyears, and Outdoor Education is at the top of the list ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

With Western's access to music festivals, art centers, ski resorts and film commissions, there may not be a better place to begin your studies in Strategic Communication.Whether you seek a career in public relations, advertising, publicity, organizational development, events management or media production/relations, you'll gain hands-on experience as you work side-by-side with faculty and professionals dedicated to the art of sharing information ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

Pre-Trip Meeting (Mandatory): Monday, July 18, 7:00pm, Taylor 101Hike: Wednesday, July 20, 5:00am7:00pmMeeting Location: University Center Parking LotRegistration Deadline: Friday, July 15. Cost: $55Join a full day hike to attempt the summit of Stewart Peak, which just misses being classified as a 14er, with summit elevation of 13,983 ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

Refining Skills . Inspiring Performances ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

Repeats every 4 weeks 3 times . 5:00pm to 8:00pm


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

Westerns Criminal Justice studies are an emphasis within our Sociology program. When you study Sociology at Western, you are choosing a major that challenges your critical thinking skills ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

For the sixth and final Communication Arts convocation of the school year, Western welcomed Sandra Snell-Dolbert to speak to students about the use of communications in the National Parks Service.Snell-Dolbert has been with the National Parks Service for 30 years and currently serves as the Chief of Interpretation, Education, and Technology and Public Information Officer for the Curecanti National Recreation Area and Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website

[Anchor] The following scholarships are available to students in the Business, Accounting and Economics (BAE) department.Billmeyer, Matthew Memorial ScholarshipBinford, Harold E ...


Western State Colorado University | Entity website


Western State Colorado University | Entity website


Knapp C.N.,Western State Colorado University | Stuart Chapin F.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Cochran J.O.,Western State Colorado University
Rangeland Ecology and Management | Year: 2015

The Gunnison sage-grouse (GUSG) is an iconic species recently proposed for protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). In Colorado's Upper Gunnison River Basin, ranchers own the majority of water rights and productive river bottoms as well as approximately 30% of the most important GUSG habitat. This project used mixed-methods interviews with 41 ranch owners to document how ranchers perceive the proposed ESA listing and how they plan to respond to a listing decision. Results show that ranchers support on-the-ground GUSG conservation but are concerned about listing implications. Ranchers are most concerned about their ability to manage public and private lands productively and continue permitted grazing on public lands. If the species is listed, landowners plan to decrease participation in conservation strategies, including plans to adopt conservation easements, participation in conservation programs, and willingness to allow access to private lands for GUSG monitoring. Land-owners also express plans for increased sales of land and water, which could have negative consequences for GUSG habitat. This research suggests that changes in the application of the ESA could lead to beneficial conservation outcomes. These changes include increased transparency, ability to exclude stable populations from listing under the ESA, and commitment to work with local bodies if the species is listed. This project demonstrates the importance of qualitative research for understanding the indirect and unintended effects of species protections in an increasingly interconnected world. © 2015 Society for Range Management. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Dalleck L.C.,Western State Colorado University | Dalleck L.C.,University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire | Van Guilder G.P.,South Dakota State University | Van Guilder G.P.,University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire | And 3 more authors.
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy | Year: 2014

Background: Lower habitual physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness are common features of the metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) phenotype that contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk. The aims of the present study were to determine 1) whether community-based exercise training transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy, and 2) whether the odds of transition to metabolically healthy were larger for obese individuals who performed higher volumes of exercise and/or experienced greater increases in fitness. Methods and results: Metabolic syndrome components were measured in 332 adults (190 women, 142 men) before and after a supervised 14-week community-based exercise program designed to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors. Obese (body mass index ≥30 kg · m2) adults with two to four metabolic syndrome components were classified as MAO, whereas those with no or one component were classified as metabolically healthy but obese (MHO). After community exercise, 27/68 (40%) MAO individuals (P<0.05) transitioned to metabolically healthy, increasing the total number of MHO persons by 73% (from 37 to 64). Compared with the lowest quartiles of relative energy expenditure and change in fitness, participants in the highest quartiles were 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 2.1-65.4; P<0.05) and 7.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.5-37.5; P<0.05) times more likely to transition from MAO to MHO, respectively. Conclusion: Community-based exercise transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy. MAO adults who engaged in higher volumes of exercise and experienced the greatest increase in fitness were significantly more likely to become metabolically healthy. Community exercise may be an effective model for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. © 2014 Dalleck et al.


Dalleck L.C.,Western State Colorado University | Van Guilder G.P.,South Dakota State University | Richardson T.B.,Western State Colorado University | Vella C.A.,University of Idaho
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy | Year: 2015

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of individuals who experienced exercise-induced adverse cardiometabolic response (ACR), following an evidence-based, individualized, community exercise program. Methods: Prevalence of ACR was retrospectively analyzed in 332 adults (190 women, 142 men) before and after a 14-week supervised community exercise program. ACR included an exercise training-induced increase in systolic blood pressure of $10 mmHg, increase in plasma triglycer-ides (TG) of.37.0 mg/dL ($0.42 mmol/L), or decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) of.4.0 mg/dL (0.12 mmol/L). A second category of ACR was also defned – this was ACR that resulted in a metabolic syndrome component (ACR-risk) as a consequence of the adverse response. Results: According to the above criteria, prevalence of ACR between baseline and post-program was systolic blood pressure (6.0%), TG (3.6%), and HDL-C (5.1%). The prevalence of ACR-risk was elevated TG (3.2%), impaired fasting blood glucose (2.7%), low HDL-C (2.2%), elevated waist circumference (1.3%), and elevated blood pressure (0.6%). Conclusion: Evidence-based practice exercise programming may attenuate the prevalence of exercise training-induced ACR. Our fndings provide important preliminary evidence needed for the vision of exercise prescription as a personalized form of preventative medicine to become a reality. © 2015 Dalleck et al.


Cleary A.,Montana State University | Vandenbergh L.,Western State Colorado University | Peterson J.,Western State Colorado University
SIGCSE 2015 - Proceedings of the 46th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education | Year: 2015

In this paper we present our experiences using a novel programming style, reactive programming, to deliver a summer camp for students in grades 8 through 12. This software uses a declarative programming approach to allow students with-out a background in computing to explore a wide variety of subject material within a 3D virtual environment, including computer science, mathematics, physics, and art. This work is based on PyFRP, a reactive programming library written in Python. We describe our camp experience and provide examples of how this style of programming supports a wide variety of educational activities. Copyright © 2015 ACM.

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