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Miller P.D.,Colorado Center for Bone Research
Journal of Clinical Densitometry | Year: 2016

Vertebral compression fractures (VCF's) are the most common form of osteoporotic fractures. Whether symptomatic or asymptomatic, they both represent a high risk for not only vertebral but also nonvertebral fractures in untreated populations. This high risk of future fracture after a VCF is independent of the T-score because bone strength is a combination of bone mineral density and bone quality. VCFs are the single greatest risk for future fractures at all other skeletal sites in untreated populations, including hip fractures. They are often unrecognized despite their exceptionally high prevalence in all genders and most ethnic groups as age increases. This article highlights some of the key messages about VCF's, and how assessment for their presence and then management will reduce the risk of all osteoporotic fractures. © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry.

Lewiecki E.M.,New Mexico Clinical Research and Osteoporosis Center | Miller P.D.,Colorado Center for Bone Research
Journal of Clinical Densitometry | Year: 2013

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is associated with anabolic and catabolic skeletal effects that vary according to the kinetics of serum levels and the type of bone. The anabolic effects are manifested in patients with a periodic rapid transient rise in serum PTH, as seen with daily subcutaneous injection of PTH(1-34) and PTH(1-84) in the treatment of osteoporosis. These patients have an increase in bone mineral density (BMD), particularly at skeletal sites with a high trabecular component, such as the lumbar spine, and a reduction in fracture risk. The catabolic effects are typified in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) who have chronic persistently elevated PTH levels. Patients with long-standing PHPT have a reduction in BMD, particularly at predominately cortical skeletal sites, such as the one-third radius, with relative preservation of BMD at the lumbar spine. Some but not all studies have reported an increase in fracture risk with PHPT. Because many patients with PHPT are postmenopausal women at risk for osteoporosis owing to estrogen deficiency, BMD and fracture risk may be a result of multiple factors with variable effects on bone remodeling. The skeletal effects of normocalcemic PHPT have not yet been fully characterized, but may not be the same as hypercalcemic PHPT. © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry.

Miller P.D.,Colorado Center for Bone Research
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2016

Context: An expert opinion perspective on why osteoporosis is underdiagnosed and undertreated. Objective: To highlight the potential reasons for why osteoporosis is undertreated. Design: Literature review from PubMed, Plos One, and Science Direct search engines from 1900-2015 under terms: sub-trochanteric and atypical femur fractures, bisphosphonate clinical trial and bisphosphonate review articles, and treatment/under treatment of osteoporosis, as well as personal experience. Setting: Careful and objective review. Patients: Derived from reviews. Interventions: Bisphosphonates. Outcomes: Atypical sub-trochanteric femur fractures. Results: Atypical sub-trochanteric femur fractures occur in both bisphosphonate and non-bisphosphonate users; and, bisphosphonate utilization has declined in temporal relationship with the reporting of these fractures associated with bisphosphonate use. There is no causality in this association and the benefit/risk ratio of bisphosphonates reducing all fracture risk vs the potential for the development of an atypical sub-trochanteric femur fracture is exceedingly in favor of bisphosphonate use in higher risk populations. Conclusions: Treatments for osteoporosis should not be stopped (e.g. The "drug-holidays") in higher risk patients since the basic pathophysiology of osteoporosis continues; and, the evidence linking bisphosphonate use to causing atypical sub-trochanteric femur fractures is non-existent. © 2016 by the Endocrine Society.

Krege J.H.,Lilly United States | Lane N.E.,University of California at Davis | Harris J.M.,Eli Lilly and Company | Miller P.D.,University of Colorado at Denver | Miller P.D.,Colorado Center for Bone Research
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2014

Postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis may require treatment with the bone anabolic drug teriparatide. While changes in bone mineral density (BMD) are one measure of response, BMD changes often require a minimum of one year to observe measureable changes. Biochemical markers of bone turnover change within 1 to 3 months of initiating osteoporosis therapy. Monitoring with a marker such as procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP), an osteoblast-derived protein, during teriparatide treatment may provide clinically useful information for managing patients with osteoporosis. Clinical trials have shown consistent increases in PINP within 3 months of initiating teriparatide, increases that are significantly greater than placebo and significantly different from baseline. Increases in PINP concentrations during teriparatide treatment correlate well with increases in skeletal activity assessed by radioisotope bone scans and quantitative bone histomorphometry parameters. Individuals treated with teriparatide in clinical trials usually experienced an increase in PINP > 10 mcg/L from baseline, while those given placebo usually did not. In the clinical setting, patients experiencing a significant increase in PINP > 10 mcg/L after initiating teriparatide therapy may receive an earlier confirmation of anabolic effect, while those who do not may be assessed for adherence, proper injection technique, or undetected secondary conditions that might mitigate an anabolic response. PINP monitoring may provide information supplemental to BMD monitoring and be a useful aid in managing patients receiving anabolic osteoporosis treatment in the same way that biochemical markers of bone resorption are useful in monitoring antiresorptive therapy. This review examines PINP as a biological response marker during teriparatide treatment for osteoporosis. © 2014 The Author(s).

Miller P.D.,Colorado Center for Bone Research
Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America | Year: 2012

There are a substantial number of secondary causes of osteoporosis that can be identified through appropriate evaluation. Unrecognized celiac disease, Monoclonal gamopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), impaired renal function, diabetes mellitus, and renal tubular acidosis are just a few of the more common secondary causes of osteoporosis. Through targeted laboratory tests, many secondary causes of osteoporosis can be identified. © 2012.

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