Colorado Cancer Research Program

Denver, CO, United States

Colorado Cancer Research Program

Denver, CO, United States

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Friday B.B.,Essentia Health Duluth Clinic Cancer Center | Anderson S.K.,Mayo Medical School | Buckner J.,Mayo Medical School | Giannini C.,Mayo Medical School | And 8 more authors.
Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2012

Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has shown evidence of single-agent activity in glioblastoma (GBM), and in preclinical studies, we have demonstrated significant synergistic cytotoxicity between HDAC inhibitors and proteasome inhibitors in GBM cell lines. We therefore conducted a phase II trial to evaluate the efficacy of vorinostat in combination with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in patients with recurrent GBM. Vorinostat was administered at a dose of 400 mg daily for 14 days of a 21-day cycle, and bortezomib was administered at a dose of 1.3 mg/m 2 intravenously on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of the cycle. A total of 37 patients were treated, and treatment was well tolerated: grade 3, 4 nonhematologic toxicity occurred in 30% of patients and consisted mainly of fatigue (14%) and neuropathy (5%); grade 3, 4 hematologic toxicity occurred in 37 of patients and consisted of thrombocytopenia (30%), lymphopenia (4%), and neutropenia (4%). The trial was closed at the predetermined interim analysis, with 0 of 34 patients being progression-free at 6 months. One patient achieved a partial response according to the Macdonald criteria. The median time to progression for all patients was 1.5 months (range, 0.5-5.6 months), and median overall survival (OS) was 3.2 months. Patients who had received prior bevacizumab therapy had a shorter time to progression and OS, compared with those who had not. On the basis of the results of this phase II study, further evaluation of the vorinostat-bortezomib combination in GBM patients in this dose and schedule is not recommended. © The 2011 Author(s).


Swain S.M.,The Surgical Center | Swain S.M.,Washington Hospital Center | Jeong J.-H.,University of Pittsburgh | Geyer Jr. C.E.,The Surgical Center | And 27 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy regimens that combine anthracyclines and taxanes result in improved disease-free and overall survival among women with operable lymph-node-positive breast cancer. The effectiveness of concurrent versus sequential regimens is not known. METHODS: We randomly assigned 5351 patients with operable, node-positive, early-stage breast cancer to receive four cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by four cycles of docetaxel (sequential ACT); four cycles of doxorubicin and docetaxel (doxorubicin- docetaxel); or four cycles of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and docetaxel (concurrent ACT). The primary aims were to examine whether concurrent ACT was more effective than sequential ACT and whether the doxorubicin-docetaxel regimen would be as effective as the concurrent-ACT regimen. The secondary aims were to assess toxic effects and to correlate amenorrhea with outcomes in premenopausal women. Results: At a median follow-up of 73 months, overall survival was improved in the sequential-ACT group (8-year overall survival, 83%) as compared with the doxorubicin-docetaxel group (overall survival, 79%; hazard ratio for death, 0.83; P = 0.03) and the concurrent-ACT group (overall survival, 79%; hazard ratio, 0.86; P = 0.09). Disease-free survival was improved in the sequential-ACT group (8-year disease-free survival, 74%) as compared with the doxorubicin-docetaxel group (disease-free survival, 69%; hazard ratio for recurrence, a second malignant condition, or death, 0.80; P = 0.001) and the concurrent-ACT group (disease-free survival, 69%; hazard ratio, 0.83; P = 0.01). The doxorubicin-docetaxel regimen showed noninferiority to the concurrent-ACT regimen for overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.14). Overall survival was improved in patients with amenorrhea for 6 months or more across all treatment groups, independently of estrogen-receptor status. CONCLUSIONS: Sequential ACT improved disease-free survival as compared with doxorubicin-docetaxel or concurrent ACT, and it improved overall survival as compared with doxorubicin-docetaxel. Amenorrhea was associated with improved survival regardless of the treatment and estrogen-receptor status. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00003782.). Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Park H.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Qin R.,Alliance Statistics and Data Center | Smith T.J.,Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions | Atherton P.J.,Alliance Statistics and Data Center | And 9 more authors.
Menopause | Year: 2015

Hot flashes are a common symptom in breast cancer survivors that can negatively impact quality of life. Preliminary data suggested that magnesium might be used as an effective low-cost treatment of hot flashes with minimal adverse effects. Methods A four-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted. Postmenopausal women with a history of breast cancer and bothersome hot flashes were randomized into treatment groups of magnesium oxide 800 or 1,200 mg daily or corresponding placebo groups at a 2:2:(1:1) ratio. Hot flash frequency and hot flash score (number × mean severity) were measured using a validated hot flash diary. A 1-week baseline period preceded initiation of study medication. The primary endpoint was intrapatient difference in mean hot flash score between baseline and treatment periods, comparing each magnesium group with the combined placebo groups using a gatekeeping procedure. Results were analyzed using repeated-measures and growth curve models on weekly hot flash scores based on a modified intent-to-treat principle. Results Two hundred eighty-nine women enrolled between December 2011 and March 2013. Study groups were well balanced for baseline characteristics. Mean hot flash scores, mean hot flash frequencies, and associated changes during the treatment period were similar for each group. An increased incidence of diarrhea and a corresponding lower incidence of constipation were reported in magnesium arms compared with placebo. No statistically significant difference in other toxicities or quality-of-life measures was observed. Conclusions The results of this trial do not support the use of magnesium oxide for hot flashes. © 2014 by The North American Menopause Society.


Bear H.D.,National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project NSABP | Bear H.D.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Tang G.,National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project NSABP | Tang G.,University of Pittsburgh | And 32 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Bevacizumab and the antimetabolites capecitabine and gemcitabine have been shown to improve outcomes when added to taxanes in patients with metastatic breast cancer. The primary aims of this trial were to determine whether the addition of capecitabine or gemcitabine to neoadjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel, followed by doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide, would increase the rates of pathological complete response in the breast in women with operable, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer and whether adding bevacizumab to these chemotherapy regimens would increase the rates of pathological complete response. METHODS: We randomly assigned 1206 patients to receive neoadjuvant therapy consisting of docetaxel (100 mg per square meter of body-surface area on day 1), docetaxel (75 mg per square meter on day 1) plus capecitabine (825 mg per square meter twice a day on days 1 to 14), or docetaxel (75 mg per square meter on day 1) plus gemcitabine (1000 mg per square meter on days 1 and 8) for four cycles, with all regimens followed by treatment with doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide for four cycles. Patients were also randomly assigned to receive or not to receive bevacizumab (15 mg per kilogram of body weight) for the first six cycles of chemotherapy. RESULTS: The addition of capecitabine or gemcitabine to docetaxel therapy, as compared with docetaxel therapy alone, did not significantly increase the rate of pathological complete response (29.7% and 31.8%, respectively, vs. 32.7%; P = 0.69). Both capecitabine and gemcitabine were associated with increased toxic effects - specifically, the hand-foot syndrome, mucositis, and neutropenia. The addition of bevacizumab significantly increased the rate of pathological complete response (28.2% without bevacizumab vs. 34.5% with bevacizumab, P = 0.02). The effect of bevacizumab on the rate of pathological complete response was not the same in the hormone-receptor-positive and hormone-receptor-negative subgroups. The addition of bevacizumab increased the rates of hypertension, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, the hand-foot syndrome, and mucositis. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of bevacizumab to neoadjuvant chemotherapy significantly increased the rate of pathological complete response, which was the primary end point of this study. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00408408.) Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Vogel V.G.,Four Allegheny Center | Vogel V.G.,University of Pittsburgh | Costantino J.P.,Biostatistical Center | Costantino J.P.,University of Pittsburgh | And 29 more authors.
Cancer Prevention Research | Year: 2010

The selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen became the first U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved agent for reducing breast cancer risk but did not gain wide acceptance for prevention, largely because it increased endometrial cancer and thromboembolic events. The FDA approved the SERM raloxifene for breast cancer risk reduction following its demonstrated effectiveness in preventing invasive breast cancer in the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR). Raloxifene caused less toxicity (versus tamoxifen), including reduced thromboembolic events and endometrial cancer. In this report, we present an updated analysis with an 81-month median follow-up. STAR women were randomly assigned to receive either tamoxifen (20 mg/d) or raloxifene (60 mg/d) for 5 years. The risk ratio (RR; raloxifene:tamoxifen) for invasive breast cancer was 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.47) and for noninvasive disease, 1.22 (95% CI, 0.95-1.59). Compared with initial results, the RRs widened for invasive and narrowed for noninvasive breast cancer. Toxicity RRs (raloxifene:tamoxifen) were 0.55 (95% CI, 0.36-0.83; P = 0.003) for endometrial cancer (this difference was not significant in the initial results), 0.19 (95% CI, 0.12-0.29) for uterine hyperplasia, and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.60-0.93) for thromboembolic events. There were no significant mortality differences. Long-term raloxifene retained 76% of the effectiveness of tamoxifen in preventing invasive disease and grew closer over time to tamoxifen in preventing noninvasive disease, with far less toxicity (e.g., highly significantly less endometrial cancer). These results have important public health implications and clarify that both raloxifene and tamoxifen are good preventive choices for postmenopausal women with elevated risk for breast cancer. ©2010 AACR.


PubMed | Virginia Commonwealth University, National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project NSABP NRG Oncology, Minority, University of California at Irvine and 8 more.
Type: Clinical Trial, Phase III | Journal: The Lancet. Oncology | Year: 2015

NSABP B-40 was a 3 2 factorial trial testing whether adding capecitabine or gemcitabine to docetaxel followed by doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide neoadjuvant chemotherapy would improve outcomes in women with operable, HER2-negative breast cancer and whether adding neoadjuvant plus adjuvant bevacizumab to neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens would also improve outcomes. As reported previously, addition of neoadjuvant bevacizumab increased the proportion of patients achieving a pathological complete response, which was the primary endpoint. We present secondary patient outcomes, including disease-free survival, a specified endpoint by protocol, and data for distant recurrence-free interval, and overall survival, which were not prespecified endpoints but were collected prospectively.In this randomised controlled trial (NSABP B-40), we enrolled women aged 18 years or older, with operable, HER2-non-amplified invasive adenocarcinoma of the breast, 2 cm or greater in diameter by palpation, clinical stage T1c-3, cN0, cN1, or cN2a, without metastatic disease and diagnosed by core needle biopsy. Patients received one of three docetaxel-based neoadjuvant regimens for four cycles: docetaxel alone (100 mg/m(2)) with addition of capecitabine (825 mg/m(2) oral twice daily days 1-14, 75 mg/m(2) docetaxel) or with addition of gemcitabine (1000 mg/m(2) days 1 and 8 intravenously, 75 mg/m(2) docetaxel), all followed by neoadjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (60 mg/m(2) and 600 mg/m(2) intravenously) every 3 weeks for four cycles. Those randomly assigned to bevacizumab groups were to receive bevacizumab (15 mg/kg, every 3 weeks for six cycles) with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and postoperatively for ten doses. Randomisation was done (1:1:1:1:1:1) via a biased-coin minimisation procedure to balance the characteristics with respect to clinical nodal status, clinical tumour size, hormone receptor status, and age. Intent-to-treat analyses were done for disease-free survival and overall survival. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00408408.Between Jan 5, 2007, and June 30, 2010, 1206 patients were enrolled in the study. Follow-up data were collected from Oct 31, 2007 to March 27, 2014, and were available for overall survival in 1186 patients, disease-free survival in 1184, and distant recurrence-free interval in 1181. Neither capecitabine nor gemcitabine increased disease-free survival or overall survival. Median follow-up was 47 years (IQR 40-52). The addition of bevacizumab significantly increased overall survival (hazard ratio 065 [95% CI 049-088]; p=0004) but did not significantly increase disease-free survival (080 [063-101]; p=006). Four deaths occurred on treatment due to vascular disorder (docetaxel plus capecitabine followed by doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide group), sudden death (docetaxel plus capecitabine followed by doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide group), infective endocarditis (docetaxel plus bevacizumab followed by doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide and bevacizumab group), and visceral arterial ischaemia (docetaxel followed by doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide group). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events in the bevacizumab group were neutropenia (grade 3, 99 [17%]; grade 4, 37 [6%]), hand-foot syndrome (grade 3, 63 [11%]), and hypertension (grade 3, 60 [10%]; grade 4, two [<1%]) and in the non-bevacizumab group were neutropenia (grade 3, 98 [16%]; grade 4, 36 [6%]), fatigue (grade 3, 53 [9%]), and hand-foot syndrome (grade 3, 43 [7%]).The addition of gemcitabine or capecitabine to neoadjuvant docetaxel plus doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide does not seem to provide any benefit to patients with operable breast cancer, and should not change clinical practice in the short term. The improved overall survival with bevacizumab contradicts the findings of other studies of bevacizumab in breast cancer and may indicate the need for additional investigation of this agent.National Institutes of Health, Genentech, Roche Laboratories, Lilly Research Laboratories, and Precision Therapeutics.


Goss P.E.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Goss P.E.,Harvard University | Ingle J.N.,Mayo Medical School | Pritchard K.I.,Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Center | And 18 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Treatment with an aromatase inhibitor for 5 years as up-front monotherapy or after tamoxifen therapy is the treatment of choice for hormone-receptor-positive early breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Extending treatment with an aromatase inhibitor to 10 years may further reduce the risk of breast-cancer recurrence. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the effect of the extended use of letrozole for an additional 5 years. Our primary end point was disease-free survival. RESULTS: We enrolled 1918 women. After a median follow-up of 6.3 years, there were 165 events involving disease recurrence or the occurrence of contralateral breast cancer (67 with letrozole and 98 with placebo) and 200 deaths (100 in each group). The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 95% (95% confidence interval [CI], 93 to 96) with letrozole and 91% (95% CI; 89 to 93) with placebo (hazard ratio for disease recurrence or the occurrence of contralateral breast cancer, 0.66; P = 0.01 by a two-sided log-rank test stratified according to nodal status, prior adjuvant chemotherapy, the interval from the last dose of aromatase-inhibitor therapy, and the duration of treatment with tamoxifen). The rate of 5-year overall survival was 93% (95% CI, 92 to 95) with letrozole and 94% (95% CI, 92 to 95) with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.97; P = 0.83). The annual incidence rate of contralateral breast cancer in the letrozole group was 0.21% (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.32), and the rate in the placebo group was 0.49% (95% CI, 0.32 to 0.67) (hazard ratio, 0.42; P = 0.007). Bone-related toxic effects occurred more frequently among patients receiving letrozole than among those receiving placebo, including a higher incidence of bone pain, bone fractures, and new-onset osteoporosis. No significant differences between letrozole and placebo were observed in scores on most subscales measuring quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: The extension of treatment with an adjuvant aromatase inhibitor to 10 years resulted in significantly higher rates of disease-free survival and a lower incidence of contralateral breast cancer than those with placebo, but the rate of overall survival was not higher with the aromatase inhibitor than with placebo. Copyright © 2016 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Jatoi A.,Mayo Medical School | Nieva J.J.,Montana Cancer Consortium | Qin R.,Mayo Medical School | Loprinzi C.L.,Mayo Medical School | And 7 more authors.
Oncology (Switzerland) | Year: 2012

Background: Effective, non-invasive, palliative strategies for symptomatic malignant ascites are unavailable. This trial explored whether octreotide, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor, a putative mediator of ascites, prolongs the interval to next paracentesis. Methods: After a baseline paracentesis and a test of short-acting agent, patients with symptomatic ascites were randomly assigned to long-acting octreotide (Sandostatin LAR®) depot 30 mg intramuscularly every month versus 0.9% sodium chloride administered similarly. Patients were then monitored for recurrent, symptomatic ascites. Results: Thirty-three patients were enrolled: 16 assigned to the octreotide and 17 to the control arm. The median time to next paracentesis was 28 and 14 days in the octreotide and placebo arm, respectively (p = 0.17). After adjustment for extracted ascites volume and abdominal girth change, no statistically significant difference between the groups was observed (hazard ratio = 0.52, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.21-1.28; p = 0.15, per Cox model). Octreotide-treated patients described less of abdominal bloating (p = 0.01), abdominal discomfort (p = 0.02), and shortness of breath (p = 0.007) at one month, although other quality of life symptoms were comparable between the arms. Long-acting octreotide was reasonably well tolerated. Conclusion: As prescribed in this trial, octreotide did not seem effective in prolonging the time to next paracentesis, although improvements in symptoms suggest that vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition merits further investigation. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.


PubMed | University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and 8 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer | Year: 2016

Preclinical targeting of the hedgehog pathway by vismodegib and of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor by cixutumumab enhances the efficacy of chemotherapy and also demonstrates activity against the tumor cell fraction responsible for disease recurrence in small cell lung cancer.Patients with newly diagnosed extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC-ED) were randomized to receive four 21-day cycles of cisplatin and etoposide alone (cisplatin at 75 mg/m(2) on day 1 and etoposide at 100 mg/m(2) on days 1-3; arm A) or in combination with either vismodegib (150 mg/d by mouth; arm B) or cixutumumab (6 mg/kg/wk intravenously on day 1; arm C). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were isolated/enumerated with the Veridex CellSearch platform at the baseline.One hundred fifty-two eligible patients were treated. Patient demographics and disease characteristics were well balanced between the 3 arms except for the higher rate with a performance status of 0 in arm B (P = .03). The median PFS times in arms A, B, and C were 4.4, 4.4, and 4.6 months, respectively; the median overall survival (OS) times were 8.8, 9.8, and 10.1 months, respectively; and the response rates were 48%, 56%, and 50%, respectively. None of the comparisons of these outcomes were statistically significant. The median OS was 10.5 months for those with low CTC counts (100/7.5 mL) at baseline and 7.2 months for those with high CTC counts (hazard ratio, 1.74; P = .006).There was no significant improvement in PFS or OS with the addition of either vismodegib or cixutumumab to chemotherapy in patients with SCLC-ED. A low baseline CTC count was associated with a favorable prognosis. Cancer 2016;122:2371-2378. 2016 American Cancer Society.

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