Piedecuesta, Colombia
Piedecuesta, Colombia

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Jaramillo C.A.,Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute | Rueda M.,Paleoflora Ltd. | Torres V.,Colombian Petroleum Institute
Palynology | Year: 2011

Hydrocarbon exploration in the Llanos Foothills of Colombia has intensified during the past several decades. Exploration in this region is problematic owing to structural complexities, rapid lateral facies changes, and the difficulties of acquiring good seismic imaging. These elements increase the uncertainties about the prognosis and subsequent drilling of exploratory wells. Under these conditions, biostratigraphy can play a significant role in the exploratory process. In the Llanos Foothills, palynology is the most useful biostratigraphic tool because pollen is the most abundant fossil group. In this study we analyze pollen information from 70 sections (624,744 palynomorph grains from 6707 samples) to construct a biostratigraphic zonation for the Llanos Foothills and Llanos basins. Using both graphic correlation and constrained optimization in our analysis, we propose 18 palynological zones for the Cenozoic of the Llanos and Llanos Foothills. These zones are tied to the geological timescale using 18 calibration points that include carbon isotopes, foraminifera, and magnetostratigraphy. © 2011 AASP - The Palynological Society.

Plata V.,Industrial University of Santander | Gauthier-Maradei P.,Industrial University of Santander | Romero-Bohorquez A.R.,Industrial University of Santander | Kafarov V.,Industrial University of Santander | Castillo E.,Colombian Petroleum Institute
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2015

Palm oil biodiesel (POB) is characterized by a very high precipitate content. Precipitate has caused potential customers to view POB unfavorably, thereby putting the suitability of this biofuel at risk. Therefore, precipitates isolated from POB were characterized in this study. The precipitates were fractionated by column chromatography, and then characterized using thin layer chromatography, FTIR, GC-FID, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. Characterization revealed the preponderant presence of monopalmitin and free steryl glucosides (FSG) in the precipitates. FTIR suggested the presence of acylated steryl glucosides and fatty acid soaps, and thermal analysis revealed the presence of trace contaminants that may have coeluted with the monopalmitin and FSG during fractionation. All these findings should result in the development of techniques to prevent precipitate formation not only focused on the removal of FSG from POB. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Eslinger E.,The College of Saint Rose | Pachon Z.,Colombian Petroleum Institute | Teresa Cantisano M.,Ecopetrol SA | Marfisi N.,Ecopetrol SA | Slatt R.,University of Oklahoma
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE/AAPG/SEG Unconventional Resources Technology Conference | Year: 2016

This study integrates interpreted high resolution facies from whole core CT (X-ray computed tomography) scans, standard well logs, and standard whole core plug analyses. The analyses were made (mostly) on strata penetrated by the La Luna-1 well in the Cretaceous, calcareous-siliceous mudstones of the Salada Member of the La Luna Formation, Middle Magdalena Basin, Colombia. The focus of this report is how high-frequency CT data, after classification into four facies using a simple two-parameter grid of bulk density versus average atomic number, can be used to assign initial facies probabilities to each (digitized) sample used in a probabilistic clustering procedure (PCP) that uses standard well logs as clustering variables. This procedure permits the high-definition CT facies to be directly related to the well log data, and the results of the PCP provide a mathematical model (generated within the clustering software) that permits the prediction of (upscaled) CT facies in non-cored wells. This procedure works because the CT facies provide relative rock type data (silica rich vs calcareous rich) and relative reservoir quality data (organic rich and/or high porosity vs organic poor and/or low porosity), so that when these interpreted properties are associated with the samples used in the PCP, the results provide a depth profile that depicts the probability that a given sample belongs to each of the CT high-definition facies. Because the resulting probabilistic facies profile is inherently upscaled due to use of low-resolution well logs as the clustering variables, the results can also be compared with the results of standard core plug analyses (e.g., porosity, total organic carbon, XRD mineralogy, etc.). Thus, this study is an example of how data at three different scales can be integrated - in this case: CT data, core plug data, and well log data. The most noticeable sedimentology-stratigraphy pattern revealed by this study is a cyclic pattern of two end-member rock types: calcite-rich, low-porosity, low TOC mudstones, and calcite-poor (silica- and clay-rich), high-porosity, high TOC mudstones. The frequency of the cycles averages about two meters. Preliminary indications are that individual beds associated with these cycles are laterally continuous and might be correlated over distances of ten kilometers or more. Copyright 2014, Unconventional Resources Technology Conference (URTeC).

In the oil companies, the operation of drilling wellbore could be more expensive if the composition of the rocks is clay, the cost could increase between 10 and 15% from the starting budget. In order to decrease this problem, the oil industry has spent too much money for developing mechanisms that can provide better control and stability in clay formations during the drilling. The Society Petroleum Engineers (SPE) in some researches have published that the main chemical effects that are involved in the interaction of perforation fluids and the clay formation are: 1) chemical osmosis; and 2) hydration stresses, although, there are others like: Capillary effects, dehydration, differences in pressure and cationic exchange. These factors are not present generally in independent form. At "Piedemonte Llanero" the problem of the wellbore stability represents a high spending of money for oil companies, caused in this region by chemical factors between fluid/rock and mechanical factors as resulted of the stresses in the area. Metil Blue Testing (MBT) and X-ray Difraction (DR-X) were made in samples of clay; these were taken from cuts extracted of boreholes drilled in some places of the Colombian Llanos. It was found that these samples had a moderate content of reactive and low content of swell minerals. The samples main component was kaolinite, this mineral does not let the rock get swell, but it produces caving in the hole. However, it is necessary to do other tests to quantify the damages and evaluate the influence of the regime of the stress during the perforation of wellbore.

Ordoez Sr. I.,Colombian Petroleum Institute | Uribe A.,Colombian Petroleum Institute | Calderon A.J.,Colombian Petroleum Institute
11AIChE - 2011 AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2011

Conventional planning strategies are complicated to develop because the future events are uncertain. For a supply chain of oil & gas industry is difficult to planning new production and transport networks because oil & gas reserves, energy generation technologies and availability of electric public net is very uncertain at long term. This work shows then behavior future of decision process in investments of new supplier energy systems when three elements act: 1) expansion in oil crude and gas production 2) dynamic of growing in electric public network 3) imperative use of clean technologies to generation of energy. In this work the topological connectivity among generation and consume point is a manipulated variable and this effect is evaluated on taking decisions process. For this propose a representative chain supply of oil & gas industry composed by around 300 oil fields and 33 transport terminals is represented by a MILP model in GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System). This model is used to an optimization of several future scenarios. The analysis of results shows that decisions in new investments of clean technologies are too sensible with dynamics of expansion in oil crude and gas production and growing in electric public network. Several solutions can obtain according to supply chain connectivity where clean technologies to energy generation is economically viable if the supply chain will have generation and consumes points poorly connected.

Diaz Rincon M.,University of La Sabana | Diaz Rincon M.,Ecopetrol SA | Jimenez-Junca C.,University of La Sabana | Roa Duarte C.,Colombian Petroleum Institute
Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering | Year: 2016

Heavy hydrocarbon removal is one of the processes found in natural gas processing plants for reducing heating value and hydrocarbon dew point to sales gas quality. Conventional technologies include Joule-Thomson expansion, turboexpansion, mechanical refrigeration, membrane separation and supersonic centrifugal separation. In this paper, a novel absorption process system is presented for dew point control of natural gas streams associated to crude oil production. The system is based on simultaneous absorption of heavy hydrocarbons and water from natural gas using a mixture of TEG and lean oil. This alternative technology has an equipment count, investment and operating cost, and energy consumption lower than commercial technologies available nowadays. Natural gas processes are modelled and simulated within Aspen Plus® simulator with a common set of operating criteria and adjusted thermodynamic interaction parameters for the absorption process, based on experimental data. An energy balance and economic assessment for each process option are developed considering investment and operating cost and profitability analysis. Results indicate an increase in hydrocarbon absorption efficiency with increase in lean oil concentration; 46% of pentane plus components can be removed with a 20% of lean oil. Energy consumption is up to 52% lower than other process schemes, while capital cost and operating cost are also 40% and 25% lower. Process description, operating conditions, equipment requirements, recovery efficiency and limitations for the new absorption process are presented. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Plata V.,Santander University | Castillo E.,Colombian Petroleum Institute | Kafarov V.,Santander University
CHISA 2012 - 20th International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering and PRES 2012 - 15th Conference PRES | Year: 2012

The main aspects of several techniques performed to influence the fatty acid profile of the biodiesel, e.g., winterization of oil feedstocks, chemical modification of the biodiesel, and transesterification of oil mixtures, are examined. The use of additives to enhance low-cold properties is summarized. Attempts to identify the nature of the sediments formed in the biodiesel and quantify the minor constituents linked with this phenomenon are then reviewed. Efforts to examine the influence of feedstock, storage time and temperature, biodiesel blend level, and concentration of free steryl glucosides, monoglycerides and other minor components, e.g., soaps, water, and glycerol on precipitate formation and filterability of biodiesel are also put forward. Moreover, perspectives of improving low-temperature properties and filterability of palm oil biodiesel in Colombia are elucidated. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the CHISA 2012 - 20th International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering and PRES 2012 - 15th Conference PRES (Prague, Czech Republic 8/25-29/2012).

Plata V.,Industrial University of Santander | Kafarov V.,Industrial University of Santander | Castillo E.,Colombian Petroleum Institute
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2012

In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as a promising alternative to the traditional petrodiesel. Two features have been limited its more widespread use: its relative poor low-temperature properties (LTP) and recently the excessive sedimentation above its cloud point (CP). In the first part of this work, factors affecting LTP along with the main aspects of the most commonly techniques performed to influence the fatty acid composition of the biodiesel are reviewed, as well as their consequences on the fuel properties. The use of additives to enhance LTP is also summarized. Attempts to identify the nature of the sediments formed in the biodiesel are reviewed in the second part of this work. Efforts to examine the influence of feedstock, temperature, biodiesel blend level and concentration of minor components on precipitate formation and filterability of biodiesel are also summarized, along with some techniques to improve filterability and perspectives about their feasible implementation. Copyright © 2012, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.

Plata V.,Industrial University of Santander | Kafarov V.,Industrial University of Santander | Moreno N.,Colombian Petroleum Institute
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2010

Competing between foods and biofuels production, the world food crisis and high oil prices have ignite attention in algaculture for making biofuels. Among algae biodiesel positive characteristics are: it can be produced using sea water and wastewater without affecting fresh water resources, is biodegradable and relatively harmless to the environment if spilled. This work represents the first attempt of optimizing third-generation biodiesel production by homogeneous transesterification. It was used a synthetic algae oil based on Chorella vulgaris fatty acid composition. The first step of this research was the experimentation based on a central composite design and second was the optimization of process conditions by using response surface methodology. Three process variables were evaluated at two levels: methanol/oil molar ratio, reaction temperature and amount of catalyst. A second-order model was obtained to predict yield of fatty acid methyl esters as a function of the three evaluated variables with high statistical significance (p-value=0.0146). The best combination of process variables are 14:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, 0.42 wt% of NaOH and 43 °C. Copyright © 2010, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.

Guerra O.J.,University of Sao Paulo | Guerra O.J.,Colombian Petroleum Institute | Le Roux G.A.C.,University of Sao Paulo
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2011

Optimization of the production planning is crucial for the economic success of a petroleum refinery. Nevertheless, it is a difficult task, because of the large scale of the system and the complexity of the processes involved. Part 1 of this series of two papers addresses the formulation of process models for petroleum refinery planning. First, a generic formulation of nonlinear refinery planning model is adopted from the literature. Subsequently, the formulation of nonlinear empirical models for crude distillation units (CDUs) and a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit is addressed. These empirical models were successfully validated using rigorous process simulators. Finally, the results from model validation showed that the accuracy of model predictions is as good as the current empirical process models reported in the literature, while the empirical process models proposed in this work overcome the limitations of both linear and nonlinear empirical models for CDUs and FCC units previously developed by other authors. Part 2 [Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.2011, DOI: 10.1021/ie200304v] involves the implementation of nonlinear empirical process models in the petroleum refinery planning. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

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