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Piedecuesta, Colombia

In the oil companies, the operation of drilling wellbore could be more expensive if the composition of the rocks is clay, the cost could increase between 10 and 15% from the starting budget. In order to decrease this problem, the oil industry has spent too much money for developing mechanisms that can provide better control and stability in clay formations during the drilling. The Society Petroleum Engineers (SPE) in some researches have published that the main chemical effects that are involved in the interaction of perforation fluids and the clay formation are: 1) chemical osmosis; and 2) hydration stresses, although, there are others like: Capillary effects, dehydration, differences in pressure and cationic exchange. These factors are not present generally in independent form. At "Piedemonte Llanero" the problem of the wellbore stability represents a high spending of money for oil companies, caused in this region by chemical factors between fluid/rock and mechanical factors as resulted of the stresses in the area. Metil Blue Testing (MBT) and X-ray Difraction (DR-X) were made in samples of clay; these were taken from cuts extracted of boreholes drilled in some places of the Colombian Llanos. It was found that these samples had a moderate content of reactive and low content of swell minerals. The samples main component was kaolinite, this mineral does not let the rock get swell, but it produces caving in the hole. However, it is necessary to do other tests to quantify the damages and evaluate the influence of the regime of the stress during the perforation of wellbore.

Diaz Rincon M.,University of La Sabana | Diaz Rincon M.,Ecopetrol SA | Jimenez-Junca C.,University of La Sabana | Roa Duarte C.,Colombian Petroleum Institute
Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering | Year: 2016

Heavy hydrocarbon removal is one of the processes found in natural gas processing plants for reducing heating value and hydrocarbon dew point to sales gas quality. Conventional technologies include Joule-Thomson expansion, turboexpansion, mechanical refrigeration, membrane separation and supersonic centrifugal separation. In this paper, a novel absorption process system is presented for dew point control of natural gas streams associated to crude oil production. The system is based on simultaneous absorption of heavy hydrocarbons and water from natural gas using a mixture of TEG and lean oil. This alternative technology has an equipment count, investment and operating cost, and energy consumption lower than commercial technologies available nowadays. Natural gas processes are modelled and simulated within Aspen Plus® simulator with a common set of operating criteria and adjusted thermodynamic interaction parameters for the absorption process, based on experimental data. An energy balance and economic assessment for each process option are developed considering investment and operating cost and profitability analysis. Results indicate an increase in hydrocarbon absorption efficiency with increase in lean oil concentration; 46% of pentane plus components can be removed with a 20% of lean oil. Energy consumption is up to 52% lower than other process schemes, while capital cost and operating cost are also 40% and 25% lower. Process description, operating conditions, equipment requirements, recovery efficiency and limitations for the new absorption process are presented. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Plata V.,Industrial University of Santander | Gauthier-Maradei P.,Industrial University of Santander | Romero-Bohorquez A.R.,Industrial University of Santander | Kafarov V.,Industrial University of Santander | Castillo E.,Colombian Petroleum Institute
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2015

Palm oil biodiesel (POB) is characterized by a very high precipitate content. Precipitate has caused potential customers to view POB unfavorably, thereby putting the suitability of this biofuel at risk. Therefore, precipitates isolated from POB were characterized in this study. The precipitates were fractionated by column chromatography, and then characterized using thin layer chromatography, FTIR, GC-FID, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. Characterization revealed the preponderant presence of monopalmitin and free steryl glucosides (FSG) in the precipitates. FTIR suggested the presence of acylated steryl glucosides and fatty acid soaps, and thermal analysis revealed the presence of trace contaminants that may have coeluted with the monopalmitin and FSG during fractionation. All these findings should result in the development of techniques to prevent precipitate formation not only focused on the removal of FSG from POB. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Jaramillo C.A.,Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute | Rueda M.,Paleoflora Ltd. | Torres V.,Colombian Petroleum Institute
Palynology | Year: 2011

Hydrocarbon exploration in the Llanos Foothills of Colombia has intensified during the past several decades. Exploration in this region is problematic owing to structural complexities, rapid lateral facies changes, and the difficulties of acquiring good seismic imaging. These elements increase the uncertainties about the prognosis and subsequent drilling of exploratory wells. Under these conditions, biostratigraphy can play a significant role in the exploratory process. In the Llanos Foothills, palynology is the most useful biostratigraphic tool because pollen is the most abundant fossil group. In this study we analyze pollen information from 70 sections (624,744 palynomorph grains from 6707 samples) to construct a biostratigraphic zonation for the Llanos Foothills and Llanos basins. Using both graphic correlation and constrained optimization in our analysis, we propose 18 palynological zones for the Cenozoic of the Llanos and Llanos Foothills. These zones are tied to the geological timescale using 18 calibration points that include carbon isotopes, foraminifera, and magnetostratigraphy. © 2011 AASP - The Palynological Society.

Plata V.,Industrial University of Santander | Kafarov V.,Industrial University of Santander | Castillo E.,Colombian Petroleum Institute
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2012

In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as a promising alternative to the traditional petrodiesel. Two features have been limited its more widespread use: its relative poor low-temperature properties (LTP) and recently the excessive sedimentation above its cloud point (CP). In the first part of this work, factors affecting LTP along with the main aspects of the most commonly techniques performed to influence the fatty acid composition of the biodiesel are reviewed, as well as their consequences on the fuel properties. The use of additives to enhance LTP is also summarized. Attempts to identify the nature of the sediments formed in the biodiesel are reviewed in the second part of this work. Efforts to examine the influence of feedstock, temperature, biodiesel blend level and concentration of minor components on precipitate formation and filterability of biodiesel are also summarized, along with some techniques to improve filterability and perspectives about their feasible implementation. Copyright © 2012, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.

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