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The symbiosis between oil palm roots and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM)-forming fungi is an important aspect of the biology of the crop. Here, we describe the mycorrhization process and the effect of an inoculation with Glomus intraradices on plant growth during the pre-nursery stage of plants of E. guineensis and the interspecific hybrid E. oleifera x E. guineensis, under the agro-ecological conditions of the Colombian Eastern Plains. The total percentage of mycorrhization over time and the accumulated dry biomass were measured at the end of the pre-nursery stage. The progress of the colonization process of seedlings inoculated with Glomus intraradices was compared with the progress of non-inoculated seedlings, in both autoclaved and non-autoclaved soil. Measurements of colonization were performed on semi-permanent micro-preparations of cleared and stained rootlets. Quantifications were done using the intercept field method, which differentiates arbuscules, hyphae, vesicles and spores. Root colonization started 1 month after sowing (mas). At the end of the pre-nursery stage (3 mas), arbuscule and hyphal networks were established, especially in E. guineensis seedlings. An increase in dry weight of seedlings of this species was found in response to inoculation with a commercial source of AM. The results suggest that inoculation with AM at early stages of oil palm may potentially increase the vigor of seedlings transplanted to the main nursery. Source

Moreno L.P.,Colombian Oil Palm Research Center Cenipalma | Romero H.M.,National University of Colombia
Agronomia Colombiana

The phenological stages of oil palm can be coded using the BBCH scale, which has three digits due to the inclusion of intermediate stages between the principal and secondary stages in order to provide greater detail on each developmental stage. For the phenological description of the reproductive development of Elaeis oleifera, the principal stages used were emergence of inflorescence, flowering, fruit growth and development, and fruit ripening. The observations were made in Colombia over a 12 month-period on E. oleifera palms planted in 1991; the observations were made on the daily course or depending on the development stage. The duration of each phenological stage was measured in days. Thus, the appearance of new leaves took 20.1±2.8 days, reaching preanthesis I (601) took 145.09±19.61 days, from this stage to preanthesis II (602) took 7.50±1.50 days, then to preanthesis III (603) took 7.39±1.56 days and finally to anthesis (607) took 5.74±1.32 days. At the population level, it was found that the phenology cycle of inflorescence is annual and that the production of flowers and the opening of inflorescences with pistils is asynchronous. © 2015, Universidad Nacional de Colombia1. All Rights Reserved. Source

Reyes P.A.,Colombian Oil Palm Research Center Cenipalma | Ochoa J.C.,Colombian Oil Palm Research Center Cenipalma | Montoya C.,Colombian Oil Palm Research Center Cenipalma | Daza E.,Colombian Oil Palm Research Center Cenipalma | And 3 more authors.
Agronomia Colombiana

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fruits are classified by shell thickness into three types: dura, pisifera, and tenera, the last one being the product of a dura × pisifera cross. The palm oil industry relies on the use of high-yield tenera plant material for production; however, it is usually generated with female infertile pisifera, so early identification of this trait is very important to oil production and breeding programs. Recently, the mapping and sequencing of the SHELL gene, which is responsible for endocarp formation in oil palms, made it possible to identify two mutations (type SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism) that affect its function and that are useful to developing molecular markers for predicting shell thickness. The aim of this study was to standardize PCR-based methodologies in order to detect the SNP observed in codon 30 and validate it under our E. guineensis biological collections. We achieved the differentiation of SHELL alleles with both allele specific PCR and CAPS with the restriction enzyme HindIII in homozygous and heterozygous plants that contained the described mutation, and the prediction was correlated with the phenotype observed in oil palm fruits. These methodologies facilitated the discrimination of plants by fruit type in nursery and pre-nursery stages 24 months before production started, thereby reducing the time and area used in oil palm breeding programs. © 2015, Universidad Nacional de Colombia1. All Rights Reserved. Source

Jazayeri S.M.,National University of Colombia | Jazayeri S.M.,Colombian Oil Palm Research Center Cenipalma | Rivera Y.D.,Colombian Oil Palm Research Center Cenipalma | Camperos-Reyes J.E.,Colombian Oil Palm Research Center Cenipalma | And 2 more authors.
Agronomia Colombiana

Water supply is the main limiting factor that affects oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) yield. This study aimed to evaluate the gas exchange and photosynthetic capacity, determine the physiological effects and assess the tolerance potential of oil palm genotypes under water-deficit conditions. The two oil palm commercial genotypes IRHO1001 and IRHO7010 were exposed to soil water potentials of -0.042 MPa (field capacity or well-watered) or -1.5 MPa (drought-stressed). The leaf water potential and gas exchange parameters, including photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency (WUE), as well as the photosynthesis reduction rate were monitored at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment. The IRHO7010 genotype showed fewer photosynthesis changes and a smaller photosynthetic reduction under the prolonged water deficit conditions of 23% at 4 weeks after the treatment as compared to 53% at 8 weeks after treatment, but the IRHO1001 genotype showed 46% and 74% reduction at the two sampling times. ‘IRHO7010’ had a higher stomatal conductance and transpiration potential than ‘IRHO1001’ during the water shortage. The WUE and leaf water potential were not different between the genotypes during dehydration. The data suggested that ‘IRHO7010’ had a higher photosynthetic capacity during the drought stress and was more drought-tolerant than ‘IRHO1001’. © 2015, Universidad Nacional de Colombia 1. All rights reserved. Source

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