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Cristancho J.A.R.,University Putra Malaysia | Hanafi M.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Omar S.R.S.,University Putra Malaysia | Rafii Y.M.,University Putra Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2011

Aluminum (Al) toxicity is an important factor in limiting crop production. The present study examined the Al alleviation effects on the growth of hybrid (breeding) and clonal (tissue culture) of D × P oil palm seedlings. The experiment was performed using calcium carbonate (CaCO3), and ground magnesium limestone (GML) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) as soil-amendments at different rates in Colombia and Malaysia, respectively. The effects of the treatments were evaluated monthly on vegetative variables and visual symptoms. Chlorophyll concentrations were recorded in Malaysia at the fifth month growing stage. The different amendments improved the soil fertility and it was reflected on better performance of shoot and root growth. The chlorophyll content in the frond number 3 for both materials enhanced significantly when Al saturation was low (0-30%). The results from the experiment revealed the importance of neutralization of Al in reducing its toxicity in oil palm. © Taylor & Francis Group. Source

Colombia is currently the world's fifth largest producer of palm oil and the largest producer in South and Central America. It has substantial areas of land that could be used for additional oil palm production and there is considerable scope for increasing yields of existing planted areas. Much of the vegetation on land suitable for conversion to oil palm has a low biomass, and so establishing oil palm plantations on such land should lead to an increase in carbon stock, thereby counteracting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions responsible for global warming. Te first part of this study examines changes in carbon stock in Colombia resulting from expansion of oil palm cultivation together with factors (offsets) that act to minimize carbon emissions. Te results are subsequently used to construct a net GHG balance. Source

In the preceding paper we examined carbon sequestration in oil palm plantations and in mill products and by-products as part of a study of the greenhouse gas balance of palm oil production in Colombia, showing how this has changed over time. Here, we look at the opposing processes of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and calculate the resulting net carbon budget for the industry. The main emission sources, in decreasing order of magnitude, assessed using 'default' or 'most probable' options, were found to be land use change (40.9% of total), mill methane production (21.4%), direct use of fossil fuel (18.5%), indirect use of fossil fuel (11.9%) and nitrous oxide production (7.3%). The total (gross) emissions, expressed in carbon equivalents (Ceq.), were less than the amount of sequestered carbon, resulting in a positive net Ceq. balance. All oil palm growing regions showed a net gain with the exception of the western zone, where emissions due to land-use change were judged to be substantial. Of the 11 alternative scenarios tested, only three resulted in Ceq. balances lower than the default and only two gave a negative balance. Source

Henson I.E.,7 Richmond Dale | Romero R.R.,Colombian Oil Palm Research Center | Romero H.M.,Colombian Oil Palm Research Center
Journal of Oil Palm Research | Year: 2011

Colombia is currently the world's fifth largest producer of palm oil and the largest producer in South and Central America. It has substantial areas of land that can be used for additional oil palm production, and there is considerable scope for increasing yields in existing planted areas. This article reviews the growth in oil palm area and production since the late 1960s in the country's four production zones, examines trends in product extraction rates, compares seasonal variations in yield, and compares various aspects of oil palm performance in Colombia with that in Southeast Asia. Source

Garcia-Nunez J.A.,Colombian Oil Palm Research Center | Garcia-Nunez J.A.,Washington State University | Ramirez-Contreras N.E.,Colombian Oil Palm Research Center | Rodriguez D.T.,Colombian Oil Palm Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2016

The palm oil agroindustry not only produces the most consumed vegetable oil in the world, but also a significant quantity of residual biomass. This waste represents real opportunity to create a variety of products. In the context of sustainable oil production, the use of biomass to generate value-added products can be addressed through the evolution of existing palm oil mills (POMs) into biorefineries. In this manuscript, the authors present a literature review of potential uses for biomass generated in palm plantations and at the POM, including the main properties, quantities, and current practices. After this, a review of novel, less traditional is made. Finally, strategies for the synthesis and analysis of POM biorefinery concepts are discussed. This review highlights the need for development of high-value products from POM waste and the urgency to incubate these emerging technologies for gradual transition into biorefineries. Based on short term economic performance, biomass pelletization and anaerobic digestion of POME are the most promising technologies. Furthermore, the production of biochar has great potential when the environmental performance is taken into account. More work is needed to evaluate the long term economic, social, and environmental impact of other new technologies both now and in the future. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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