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Bydgoszcz, Poland

Glaza I.,Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz
Postepy higieny i medycyny doświadczalnej (Online) | Year: 2011

The subject of the study compare the influences of YC-1 guanylyl cyclase activator with ODQ guanylyl cyclase inhibitor on the tracheal smooth muscle contraction induced by carbachol. The study specified the influence of increasing concentrations of soluble guanylyl cyclase activators YC-1 and 8Br cGMP on the reaction of tracheal smooth muscle contraction released by carbachol. The author also examined the effect of increasing concentrations of soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ on the concentration-effect curves for carbachol. Testing was conducted on an isolated trachea of both sexes of Wistar rats with weight ranging between 350 g and 450 g. Tracheas were prepared in accordance with the Akcasu (1959) method in Szadujkis-Szadurski (1996) modification. Concentration-effect curves were determined with the use of cumulated concentration method, in accordance with the van Rossum method (1963) in Kenakin (2006) modification. According to conducted testing, activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase with the use of YC-1 and 8Br cGMP caused reduced reaction of the tracheal smooth muscle with carbachol on average to 80%. Comparing concentration-effect curves for carbachol before and after the use of 8Br cGMP, similar results were obtained for those released by YC-1. On the other hand, increasing concentrations of guanylyl cyclase inhibitor - ODQ cause shift of curves to the left, decrease of EC(50) value and an increase of maximum reaction to carbachol. Carbachol, depending on concentration, causes tracheal smooth muscle contraction. According to testing, we can confirm that activation of guanylyl cyclase leads to reduction of the reaction of tracheal smooth muscle to carbachol on average up to 80% Source


witalska J.,University of Lodz | Borkowska A.,Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz
Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy | Year: 2014

Aim of the study. Study aims were to compare neuropsychological functioning of depressed bipolar patients and healthy controls and to estimate relationship between severity of depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning. Method. Cognitive functions were examined in 30 depressed bipolar patients aged 18-68 (M=45,6, SD= 12,6; 18 women and 12 men) who fulfilled ICD-10 criteria for depressive episode (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score >11). The comparison group consisted of 30 healthy subjects aged 23-71 (M=46, 20 women and 10 men) matched in age, years of education and gender to bipolar group. A neuropsychological battery assessed executive functions and working memory. Results. The bipolar patients in depression revealed neuropsychological deficits in working memory and some aspects of executive functions in comparison to healthy group. Only in WCST test both groups received similar results. Neuropsychological functioning seems to be independent of the severity of depressive symptoms. Discussion. Different aspects of working memory and executive functions are impaired in depression period of bipolar disorder and they seem independent of the severity of depressive symptoms. These results are consistent with previous reports. Conclusions. In patients with bipolar depression cognitive assessment should be taken into account in the diagnosis and the disturbances in executive functions and working memory should be treated with neuropsychological rehabilitation and I or pharmacotherapy. Source


Glaza I.,Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz
Postepy higieny i medycyny doświadczalnej (Online) | Year: 2011

The subject of the study was determination of the effect of drugs on ileal smooth muscle contraction induced by activation of M(1) type muscarinic receptors. Drugs that have an effect on muscarinic receptors are divided to agonists, with close ties to the receptor and high internal activity and antagonists, with no internal activity. Conducted experiments tested interactions between a broad-spectrum agonist of muscarinic receptors, carbachol and a selective muscarinic receptor antagonist of M(1) type, pirenzepine. Testing was conducted on tissues isolated from rat's intestine. Male Wistar rats with weight between 220 g and 360 g were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of urethane (120 mg/kg). Concentration-effect curves were determined with the use of cumulated concentration method, in accordance with the van Rossum method (1963) in Kenakin modification (2006). The purpose of the study was determination of concentration-effect curves for carbachol. This curve was compared with the curve of receptor occupation depending on concentration of this drug. Based on concentration-effect curves, the average value of EC(50) was calculated for carbachol, amounting to 2.44×10(-6) [M/l]. The results confirmed that atropine is effective in stopping contractions caused by carbachol, meeting the conditions of competitive antagonists. Atropine caused the shift of curves for carbachol to the right. Pirenzepine, selectively blocking muscarinic receptors of M(1) type gave similar results. It was proved that in the preparation of gastric fundus smooth muscle, M(1) type receptors occur not only presynaptically, but also postsynaptically. Source


Gajdus M.,Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz
Postepy higieny i medycyny doświadczalnej (Online) | Year: 2011

The subject of this study is determination of the influence of calmodulin and calcium on gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction. During experiments, the author tested the influence of a serotonin receptor agonist, serotonin (5-HT), causing smooth muscle contraction. Testing was conducted on tissues isolated from rat's stomach. Male Wistar rats with weight between 220 g and 360 g were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of urethane (120 mg/kg). The stomach was dissected, and later the gastric fundus was isolated. Tissue was placed in a dish for insulated organs with 20 ml in capacity, filled with Krebs fluid. Results contained in the study are average values ± SE. In order to determine statistical significance, the principles of receptor theory were used (Kenakin modification). According to conducted tests, we can deduce that 8 Br cGMP stops the reaction of gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction induced by serotonin. The use of 8Br-cGMP in the range of concentrations between 10 and 300 μM leads to reduction of maximum effect from 100% to 46%. Similar changes were obtained after the use of guanylate cyclase activator (CG) - YC-1. Curves for the contractile activity of serotonin along with an increase of concentration YC-1 are shifted to the right, and the maximum effect of reaction decreases. Increasing concentrations of flunarizine, a calmodulin antagonist, in a concentration-dependent way blocks binding between calcium and calmodulin, and at the same time leads to the shift of concentration-effect curves for serotonin to the right and a decrease of maximum reaction. Increasing concentrations of ODQ, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor lead to statistically significant shift of the curves to the left, decrease of EC(50) value and simultaneous increase of maximum reaction to serotonin. According to conducted testing, serotonin causes gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction dependent on concentration. Reaction of contraction induced by serotonin is stopped by a calmodulin antagonist, flunarizine. In addition, experiments confirmed participation of cyclical nucleotides in blocking reaction of gastric fundus contraction. Source


Gajdus M.,Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz
Postepy higieny i medycyny doświadczalnej (Online) | Year: 2011

The subject of this study is determination of the influence of drugs on gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction induced by activation of muscarinic receptors M1. Experiments tested interactions between a receptor agonist, carbachol and muscarinic receptor antagonists, atropine and pirenzepine. Testing was conducted on tissues isolated from rat's stomach. Male Wistar rats with weight between 220 g and 360 g were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of urethane (120 mg/kg). The stomach was dissected, and later the gastric fundus was isolated. Tissue was placed in a dish for insulated organs with 20 ml in capacity, filled with Krebs fluid. Results contained in the study are average values ± SE. In order to determine statistical significance, the principles of receptor theory were used (Kenakin modification). According to tests, carbachol, in concentrations ranging between 10(-8) M to 10(-4) M, in a dosage-dependent way induces gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction. Presented results indicate that carbachol meets the conditions posed to full agonists. On the other hand, atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, causes a concentration-dependent shift of concentration-effect curve (for carbachol) to the right, maintaining maximum reaction. According to analysis of the curve determined, we can deduce that atropine meets the conditions posed to competitive antagonists. The use of pirenzepine, a competitive receptor agonist M1, causes shift of concentration-effect curve (for carbachol) to the right, maintaining maximum reaction. From the testing conducted on the preparation of the gastric fundus we can deduce that atropine causes shift of concentration-effect curves for carbachol to the right. A similar effect is released by pirenzepine, selectively blocking muscarinic receptors of M1 type. The results indicate that in the preparation of the gastric fundus smooth muscle, M1 type receptors occur also postsynaptically. Source

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