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Sydney, Australia

Frankham R.,Macquarie University | Frankham R.,College Street
Biological Conservation | Year: 2010

I discuss future challenges and opportunities in genetic approaches to biodiversity conservation. Resolving taxonomy uncertainties and identifying diverged evolutionary units within species are both bedevilled by a plethora of definitions: the challenge for the conservation community is to come to an agreed definition of species and for a unit within species for conservation purposes. For genetic management in the wild, the main challenge is to apply well-established genetic principles to management, especially of fragmented populations. Fears about outbreeding depression are preventing rational use of gene flow for genetic rescue; predicting the risk of outbreeding depression is the most important unmet scientific challenge in the field. The major challenge in genetic management of captive populations of threatened animal species is to institute explicit management to minimize genetic adaptation to captivity, so that reintroduction success is maximized. The development of low cost genome sequencing offers many research opportunities and challenges. For example, there are opportunities to identify genes involved in speciation and a major challenge is to devise molecular tests to predict reproductive isolation between populations. Genomics offers opportunities to provide higher precision estimate for many parameters of importance to conservation. A major challenge is to devise means to assess, on a genome-wide basis, genetic diversity that is important to adaptive evolution. There is a challenge to develop simple inexpensive means to monitor genetic diversity of species on a global scale. Many of the most important practical challenges concern application of current genetic knowledge to the management of threatened species. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ashcroft M.B.,College Street
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2010

This article highlights how the loose definition of the term 'refugia' has led to discrepancies in methods used to assess the vulnerability of species to the current trend of rising global temperatures. The term 'refugia' is commonly used without distinguishing between macrorefugia and microrefugia, ex situ refugia and in situ refugia, glacial and interglacial refugia or refugia based on habitat stability and refugia based on climatic stability. It is not always clear which definition is being used, and this makes it difficult to assess the appropriateness of the methods employed. For example, it is crucial to develop accurate fine-scale climate grids when identifying microrefugia, but coarse-scale macroclimate might be adequate for determining macrorefugia. Similarly, identifying in situ refugia might be more appropriate for species with poor dispersal ability but this may overestimate the extinction risk for good dispersers. More care needs to be taken to properly define the context when referring to refugia from climate change so that the validity of methods and the conservation significance of refugia can be assessed. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Fourteen new species of Maeridae amphipods from tropical and temperate Australian waters, including the offshore territories of Norfolk Island, Tasman Sea; Cocos (Keeling) and Christmas Islands, Indian Ocean are described. Six new species of Hoho Lowry & Fenwick, 1983, seven new species of Mallacoota J.L. Barnard, 1972 and one new species of Parelasmopus Stebbing, 1888 are included: Hoho fenwicki sp. nov., H. kalbarri sp. nov., H. kangarooensis sp. nov., H. lowryi sp. nov., H. tricarinata sp. nov., H. wittecarra sp. nov., Mallacoota barnardi sp. nov., M. bulowara sp. nov., M. kunmunyah sp. nov., M. maridwinae sp. nov., M. penelope sp. nov., M. sirius sp. nov., M. worimi sp. nov. and Parelasmopus aumogo sp. nov., are described herein. New distributions records are provided for 14 known species including Parelasmopus dancaui Ortiz & Lalana, 1997 and Mallacoota insignis (Chevreux, 1901) which have not been recorded from Australia before. © 2011 Magnolia Press. Source

The Australian and East Timorese species belonging to the truncatelloid family Stenothyridae are revised using molecular data and morphological characters from the shell, operculum, radula and external and reproductive anatomy. The Australian species Stenothyra australis is redescribed and two previously recognised subspecies are shown to be synonyms. The New Guinean species Stenothyra paludicola van Benthem Jutting, 1963 is redescribed and recorded from the Torres Strait region of northern Australia, and two new subspecies of S. paludicola are described from the Northern Territory and East Timor; S. paludicola topendensis n. subsp. and S. paludicola timorensis n. subsp. respectively. Stenothyra gelasinosa n. sp. is described from Australia, comprising three allopatric subspecies; S. gelasinosa gelasinosa n. sp. and n. subsp. from the eastern seaboard, S. gelasinosa phrixa n. subsp. from northern Australia and S. gelasinosa apiosa n. subsp. from the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Stenothyra frustillum is considered a nomen dubium. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of these taxa and other Asian stenothyrids supports these systematic decisions and provides a preliminary interpretation of relationships within Stenothyridae. © 2014 © 2014 The Malacological Society of Australasia and the Society for the Study of Molluscan Diversity. Source

Lowry J.K.,College Street | Myers A.A.,University College Cork
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

The Amphipoda includes a large clade defined by the presence of a previously unrecognised synapomorphy, apical robust setae on the rami of uropods 1-2. We term this clade the Senticaudata subord. nov. (Latin: sentis = thorn). It includes almost all freshwater species as well as a number of marine benthic taxa, formerly part of the 'Gammaridea'. The phylogeny of the senticaudates was determined by cladistic analysis of morphological characters and character states. Within the suborder Senticaudata there are six infraorders: Carangoliopsida, Talitrida, Hadziida, Corophiida, Bogidiellida and Gammarida. A classification is provided and all the senticaudate families are diagnosed. We introduce for the first time in amphipod classification, the level parvorder between infraorder and superfamily. Four new families are described: Kairosidae; Eriopisidae; Nuuanuidae and Kergueleniolidae. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press. Source

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