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Newman J.G.,University of Pennsylvania | Kuppersmith R.B.,College Station | O'Malley B.W.,University of Pennsylvania
Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America | Year: 2011

This article reviews the use of robotic technology for otolaryngologic surgery. The authors discuss the development of the technology and its current uses in the operating room. They address procedures such as oropharyngeal transoral robotic surgery (TORS), laryngeal TORS, and thyroidectomy, and also note the role of robotics in teaching. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Popovic T.,College Station | Kezunovic M.,Texas A&M University | Krstajic B.,University of Montenegro
Information Systems Frontiers | Year: 2015

Information systems and intelligent smart grid data analytics will have a critical role in managing the massive amount of data becoming available in power system substations. Digital protective relays are multi-functional intelligent electronic devices based on microprocessors, which are being installed in substations throughout the power grid. New digital relays are replacing old-fashioned electro-mechanical or solid-state relays, and besides their protective function, they are coming equipped with monitoring capabilities. These monitoring capabilities are creating potential for better observability of power systems, redundancy in measurements, and improved decision-making process when operating the system. This article discusses the implementation requirements for a fully automated data analytics solution that provides data integration, fault analysis, and visualization based on the event data recorded by digital protective relays. © 2013, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Staudhammer C.,University of Florida | Escobedo F.,University of Florida | Lawrence A.,University of Florida | Duryea M.,University of Florida | And 2 more authors.
Arboriculture and Urban Forestry | Year: 2011

A subsample of 332. 0.06-hectare plots measured during 2001-2002 in Houston, TX, U.S., were relocated and measured in 2008 following Hurricane Ike. These 37 re-measured plots provide a unique opportunity to explore the effects of urbanization and hurricanes on the forest structure of coastal urban forests. Statistical analyses of growth, mortality, and in-growth were conducted using plot- and tree-level factors. In total, 305 trees were re-measured, of which 195 (63.9%) still remained on-site and 110 (36.1%) had been removed. Ninety-seven (3.1.8%) of these trees were determined to be removed due to urbanization and 13 trees (4.3%) were removed due to hurricane impacts. Results show an overall annual net loss in tree numbers and an increase in tree density during the analysis period. Average annual, mortality and in-growth rates were 3.9% and 5.3%, respectively. Growth rates were significantly influenced by land cover type, tree stem diameter, crown width, and percent dieback (P < 0.05). Overall, Hurricane Ike resulted in the removal of 4.3% of all trees measured, with removal occurring on six (16%) of the 37 re-measured plots. These initial findings could be used to understand changes in forest structure in coastal urban areas, improve estimates of carbon sequestration, and develop management goals. © 2011 International Society of Arboriculture.

Jia L.,Zhejiang University | Jia L.,University of Arkansas | Jia L.,Dale Bumpers National Rice Research Center | Yan W.,Dale Bumpers National Rice Research Center | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Sheath blight (ShB) caused by the soil-borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most devastating diseases in rice world-wide. Global attention has focused on examining individual mapping populations for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for ShB resistance, but to date no study has taken advantage of association mapping to examine hundreds of lines for potentially novel QTLs. Our objective was to identify ShB QTLs via association mapping in rice using 217 sub-core entries from the USDA rice core collection, which were phenotyped with a micro-chamber screening method and genotyped with 155 genome-wide markers. Structure analysis divided the mapping panel into five groups, and model comparison revealed that PCA5 with genomic control was the best model for association mapping of ShB. Ten marker loci on seven chromosomes were significantly associated with response to the ShB pathogen. Among multiple alleles in each identified loci, the allele contributing the greatest effect to ShB resistance was named the putative resistant allele. Among 217 entries, entry GSOR 310389 contained the most putative resistant alleles, eight out of ten. The number of putative resistant alleles presented in an entry was highly and significantly correlated with the decrease of ShB rating (r = -0.535) or the increase of ShB resistance. Majority of the resistant entries that contained a large number of the putative resistant alleles belonged to indica, which is consistent with a general observation that most ShB resistant accessions are of indica origin. These findings demonstrate the potential to improve breeding efficiency by using marker-assisted selection to pyramid putative resistant alleles from various loci in a cultivar for enhanced ShB resistance in rice.

PubMed | College Station, U.S. Department of Agriculture and Cobb Vantress Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Poultry science | Year: 2016

We developed a novel selection method based on an inherently high and low phenotype of pro-inflammatory mediators and produced high and low line chickens. We have shown high line birds are more resistant to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Eimeria tenella compared to the low line. Clostridium perfringens is the fourth leading cause of bacterial-induced foodborne illness, and is also an economically important poultry pathogen and known etiologic agent of necrotic enteritis (NE). The objective of this study was to determine if high line birds were also more resistant to NE than low line birds using an established model. Birds were reared in floor pens and challenges were conducted twice (high line = 25/trial, 50 birds total; low line = 26/trial, 52 birds total). Day-old chicks were provided a 55% wheat-corn-based un-medicated starter diet. A bursal disease vaccine was administered at 10 the recommended dose via the ocular route at 14-d-of-age. Birds were challenged daily for 3 d beginning at 16-d-of-age by oral gavage (3 mL) with 10(7) colony forming units (cfu) of C. perfringens/mL then necropsied at 21-d-of-age. All birds had sections of the intestine examined and scored for lesions while the first 10 necropsied also had gut content collected for C. perfringens enumeration. Chickens from the high line were more resistant to C. perfringens-induced NE pathology compared to the low line, as indicated by reduced lesion scores. Ninety percent of the high line birds had lesions of zero or one compared to 67% of the low line birds. Wilcoxon rank sum test showed significantly higher lesion scores in the low line birds compared to the high line (P < 0.0001). There were no differences in the C. perfringens recovered (P = 0.83). These data provide additional validation and support selection based on elevated levels of pro-inflammatory mediators produces chickens with increased resistance against foodborne and poultry pathogens.

Adams T.H.,Texas A&M University | Walzem R.L.,Texas A&M University | Smith D.R.,College Station | Tseng S.,Texas A&M University | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010

The consumption of high-fat hamburger enriched with SFA and trans-fatty acids may increase risk factors for coronary vascular disease, whereas hamburger enriched with MUFA may have the opposite effect. Ten mildly hypercholesterolaemic men consumed five, 114g hamburger patties per week for two consecutive phases. Participants consumed high-SFA hamburger (MUFA:SFA=095; produced from pasture-fed cattle) for 5 weeks, consumed their habitual diets for 3 weeks and then consumed high-MUFA hamburger (MUFA:SFA=131; produced from grain-fed cattle) for 5 weeks. These MUFA:SFA ratios were typical of ranges observed for retail ground beef. Relative to habitual levels and levels during the high-MUFA phase, the high-SFA hamburger: increased plasma palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid and TAG (P<001); decreased HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL particle diameter percentile distributions (P<005); and had no effect on LDL cholesterol or plasma glucose (P>010). Plasma palmitoleic acid was positively correlated with TAG (r 090), VLDL cholesterol (r 073) and the LDL:HDL ratio (r 045), and was negatively correlated with plasma HDL-C (r 058), whereas plasma palmitic, stearic and oleic acids were negatively correlated with LDL particle diameter (all P005). Because plasma palmitoleic acid was derived from 9 desaturation of palmitic acid in liver, we conclude that alterations in hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity may have been responsible the variation in HDL-C and TAG caused by the high-SFA and high-MUFA hamburgers. © 2009 The Authors.

KatilE S.O.,Texas A&M University | Perumal R.,Texas A&M University | Rooney W.L.,Texas A&M University | Prom L.K.,College Station | Magill C.W.,Texas A&M University
Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

Differences in grain mould disease levels among different sorghum varieties grown in the same environment imply that host genes play a role in controlling disease severity. The fungi most often recovered from naturally infected sorghum grain, Fusarium thapsinum and Curvularia lunata, were used to inoculate a set of resistant and susceptible cultivars at anthesis in both field and glasshouse trials. In the field, 12 cultivars were inoculated with a mixture of F. thapsinum and C. lunata and, in the glasshouse, individual panicles from four selected cultivars were inoculated with spore suspensions of C. lunata, F. thapsinum, a mixture of the two or water to serve as a control. Based on grain mould severity ratings and germination tests on the seed from the field trial, Tx2911, Sureno, SC719-11E and SC650-11E displayed a high level of resistance to grain mould. To determine whether resistant and susceptible lines differed in response to the pathogens, PR-10 mRNA levels were measured using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. PR-10 is a protein with antifungal properties that has been associated with defence responses in sorghum and other plant species. In field tests, most, but not all, cultivars showed significant induction of normalized relative quantities of PR-10 after dual inoculation with spores of both C. lunata and F. thapsinum. Under glasshouse-controlled conditions, glumes of inoculated plants showed the clear induction of PR-10 mRNA, and the response was greater in resistant (Tx2911 and Sureno) than in susceptible (RTx430 and SC170-6-17) cultivars. Inoculation with spores from a single mould-inducing pathogen generally induced greater responses than when spores were combined. For RTx430, SC170-6-17 and Sureno, the response to C. lunata was greater, whereas Tx2911 showed a stronger response to F. thapsinum. The results indicate that the induction of PR-10 in sorghum glumes may be a factor useful in breeding programmes designed to combine multiple factors for resistance. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Kuppersmith R.B.,College Station
International Forum of Allergy and Rhinology | Year: 2011

Background: During endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS), postoperative lateralization of the middle turbinate can lead to scarring and obstruction of key drainage pathways, including the osteomeatal complex. The technique of suturing the middle turbinate to the nasal septum to enhance exposure can be difficult and time consuming. This study presents the first clinical results using the Middle Turbinate Implant (MTI), a device composed of absorbable copolymer polylactide-co-glycolide and intended to medialize the middle turbinate during surgical procedures such as ESS. Methods: The trial included 22 implantations (21 successful implantations) on 14 subjects (6 unilateral and 8 bilateral implantations). The primary outcome measure was the position of the middle turbinate at 1, 2, and 4 weeks postoperatively. The extent of tissue reaction at the site of implantation was also evaluated. Results: At 1, 2, and 4 weeks postoperatively, 100% of the middle turbinates were held medially or in the neutral position with no significant synechiae present. At 1, 2, and 4 weeks postoperatively, there was either no (95%, 90%, and 95%) or mild (5%, 10%, and 5%) tissue reaction at the site of implantation. No complications were noted during implantation. Conclusion: The use of the bioresorbable MTI appears to be a safe and effective method of medializing the middle turbinate during ESS. © 2011 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

This catalog includes 1,487 names recent genera, subgenera, species, subspecies, varieties, and forms that have been referred to the families Epitoniidae and Nystiellidae as well as a bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature associated with these names. For the names covered herein, we make a determination of whether the name is an available name, as that term is defined in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature ("ICZN") and, based on a review of the literature listed in the bibliography, indicate whether the taxon is a potentially valid name or a probable synonym. This catalog includes not only includes a list of names, but also includes information on type material, type localities and species' geographic, bathymetric and size ranges. We also suggest generic assignments for many of the species level taxa listed in this work. We herein designate Scalaria acuta J. Sowerby, 1812, to be the type species of Clathrus Agassiz, 1837, designate Scalaria raricostata G.B. Sowerby II, 1844b, to be the type species of Variciscala de Boury, 1909a, designate Turbiniscala sexcosta Jousseaume, 1912, to be the type species of Turbiniscala de Boury, 1909a, and designate Scala dubia 'G. B. Sowerby II' de Boury, 1912b to be the type species of Foliaceiscala de Boury, 1912b. © 2015 Magnolia Press.

Elmore C.,College Station
American Laboratory | Year: 2014

Environmental labs performing purge and trap GC/MS analysis of VOCs in soil, drinking water, wastewater, groundwater and sediment samples require a versatile and reliable automation platform to transfer samples to purge and trap GC/MS systems without sacrificing sample integrity or data quality. One instrument that meets the pragmatic operational needs of environmental testing labs and also fulfills U.S. EPA hardware and quality control requirements is the 4100 Soil/Water Sample Processor from O.I. Analytical, a Xylem brand. The sample processor automates the handling and processing of up to 100 soil and/or water samples in 40mL volatile organic analysis (VOA) vials for purge and trap analysis of VOCs in accordance with U.S. EPA methods. The digitally controlled linear drive rails and pneumatically actuated VOA Constrictor™ vial gripper combine to lift and transport 40mL VOA vials to and from the sampling station with high reliability. The parameters used to judge the effectiveness are the response factor, the relative standard deviation (RSD) and the R2 value.

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