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Chidambaram, India

Davidson A.T.,Australian Antarctic Division | Davidson A.T.,University of Tasmania | McKinlay J.,Australian Antarctic Division | Westwood K.,Australian Antarctic Division | And 8 more authors.
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2016

The impacts of anthropogenic enhancement of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) on marine organisms remain unclear, especially in Antarctic waters, which are predicted to be amongst the earliest and most severely affected by the consequent changes in ocean chemistry. Marine microbes are the base of the Antarctic food chain, and the nature of their response to elevated pCO2 is important as they are key determinants of the biogeochemical cycles that affect global climate. We studied the response of a natural community of Antarctic marine microbes from near-shore waters off Davis Station, Antarctica, to pCO2 ranging from the concentration in the water column at the time the experiment began (ambient, 84 μatm) to that predicted by the year 2300 (2423 μatm) using 6 gas-tight, environmentally controlled tanks (minicosms; 650 l) to which CO2-saturated seawater was added. The microbial community showed little difference between 84 and 643 μatm CO2 (0.2 to 1.7 times present), indicating that they can tolerate the large seasonal range in pCO2 in Antarctic coastal waters. Concentrations ≤1281 μatm reduced the accumulation rate of chlorophyll and particulate carbon, changed the microbial community, and enhanced the relative abundance of small phytoplankton. If our results are indicative of the future responses of Antarctic marine microbes, elevated CO2 could profoundly affect the structure and function of the Antarctic food web by reducing the availability of food for higher trophic levels and decreasing the efficiency of the biological pump. © 2016 Inter-Research.

Kelly P.,HSE North West | Perry I.J.,College Rd
Irish Medical Journal | Year: 2011

We have carried out an audit of outcomes from a pre-school stammering intervention offered to all 64 children, aged under 5 years referred from a defined catchment population to a single speech and language therapist over an 11 year period (1993 -2003 inclusive). Therapy was based on a client centred eclectic approach which combines elements of direct therapy focused on the child s speech and a number of indirect approaches to treatment which focus on changing the child s environment. Follow-up was conducted by means of a short questionnaire to the parents. Non responders were assessed informally by a school nurse with responsibility for the clinic catchment area. Questionnaires were returned for 46 of the 64 children in the audit, of whom 43 were reported as not stammering, 2 with persistent stammer and there was one child with missing data on fluency status. No stammering was detected by the school nurse in the 2 8 non-respondents. Thus 62 of the 63 children (97%; 95% C.I. 88.9% to 99.6%) with documented fluency status were reported as free of stammer at follow-up. These outcomes exceed natural recovery rates and highlight the importance of early referral of children with pre-school stammering to a specialist speech and language clinic.

Thong S.-Y.,College Rd | Wong T.G.-L.,College Rd
Anesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2012

The Bonfils Retromolar Intubation Fiberscope is a rigid, straight fiberoptic device with a 40-degree curved tip, which facilitates targeted intubation. Bonfils, using a retromolar approach to intubate tracheas of children with Pierre Robin syndrome, was first described in 1983. After an initial steep learning curve, the Bonfils becomes a useful device in the management of normal and difficult airways. The advantages lie in its performance as an optical intubating stylet, which allows visualization from the tip of the endotracheal tube during intubation. The slim profile makes it useful in patients with limited mouth opening and cervical spine movement. Unlike the flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope, its rigid structure improves maneuverability and allows insertion past soft tissue obstructions. Endoscopic orientation of the Bonfils is better than the flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope, and it is also portable, durable, and simple to set up. The main difficulty experienced by Bonfils users is common to all fiberoptic scopes, limited view due to blood, secretions, fogging, and tissue contact. Additionally, nasal intubation is not possible with the Bonfils, and direct trauma and barotrauma are possible. Although the intubation success rate is high, it is still very much operator dependent. Time to intubation is inferior to conventional laryngoscopy, and its expense may be an issue in some centers. In conclusion, the Bonfils is an effective tool for management of the difficult airway after initial training. Copyright © 2012 International Anesthesia Research Society.

Tanner R.,College Rd | Harney M.S.,College Rd
Irish Medical Journal | Year: 2015

Epistaxis affects up to 60% of people. The basic first aid management of epistaxis is clearly stated in the literature and guidelines. Anecdotal evidence would suggest that these principles are not understood by patients and are not being conveyed to patients by their doctors. The aim was to assess current knowledge of epistaxis first aid management and identify the principle source of education in epistaxis control. This was a single centre cross-sectional study. The study population included those presenting to otolaryngology outpatients with epistaxis. 20 patients participated in this study over a 7 month period. Five (25%) patients did not use compression during an episode of epistaxis. Nine (60%) patients that used the compression technique failed to compress the lower one-third of the nose. Only two (10%) of patients identified their GP as having taught them first aid for epistaxis. Knowledge of epistaxis management is poor. Education regarding the basic principles of first aid for epistaxis may reduce morbidity and unnecessary consultations from health professionals. © 2015, Irish Medical Association. All right reserved.

Tamilselvam K.,College Rd | Braidy N.,University of Sydney | Manivasagam T.,College Rd | Essa M.M.,Sultan Qaboos University | And 5 more authors.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity | Year: 2013

Rotenone a widely used pesticide that inhibits mitochondrial complex I has been used to investigate the pathobiology of PD both in vitro and in vivo. Studies have shown that the neurotoxicity of rotenone may be related to its ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to neuronal apoptosis. The current study was carried out to investigate the neuroprotective effects of hesperidin, a citrus fruit flavanol, against rotenone-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. We assessed cell death, mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS generation, ATP levels, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) using well established assays. Apoptosis was determined in normal, rotenone, and hesperidin treated cells, by measuring the protein expression of cytochrome c (cyt c), caspases 3 and 9, Bax, and Bcl-2 using the standard western blotting technique. The apoptosis in rotenone-induced SK-N-SH cells was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased ROS generation, the depletion of GSH, enhanced activities of enzymatic antioxidants, upregulation of Bax, cyt c, and caspases 3 and 9, and downregulation of Bcl-2, which were attenuated in the presence of hesperidin. Our data suggests that hesperidin exerts its neuroprotective effect against rotenone due to its antioxidant, maintenance of mitochondrial function, and antiapoptotic properties in a neuroblastoma cell line. © 2013 Kuppusamy Tamilselvam et al.

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