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College Park, MD, United States

Gaitan F.,College Park | Clark L.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

The graph-theoretic Ramsey numbers are notoriously difficult to calculate. In fact, for the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n) with m, n≥3, only nine are currently known. We present a quantum algorithm for the computation of the Ramsey numbers R(m,n). We show how the computation of R(m,n) can be mapped to a combinatorial optimization problem whose solution can be found using adiabatic quantum evolution. We numerically simulate this adiabatic quantum algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(2,s) for 5≤s≤7. We then discuss the algorithm's experimental implementation, and close by showing that Ramsey number computation belongs to the quantum complexity class quantum Merlin Arthur. © 2012 American Physical Society. Source

Lands B.,College Park
Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators | Year: 2011

If people stay healthy, less health care treatments need to be paid. Alternatively, health care treatments are uneconomical and unethical when they only remove signs and symptoms and leave the primary cause neglected and unchanged to cause future harm. Neglected preventable causes continue to cause massive health-related financial loss in the US. Monitoring imbalances of omega-3 and omega-6 hormone precursors in individuals can increase awareness and motivation for making efforts to prevent this pervasive diet-related cause of dysfunction, disease and financial loss. We now have low-cost tools for individuals to monitor their balance of omega-3 and omega-6 hormone precursors and to identify and choose foods that will maintain a desired balance and a desired quality of life. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Gaitan F.,College Park | Clark L.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

In the graph isomorphism (GI) problem two N-vertex graphs G and G′ are given and the task is to determine whether there exists a permutation of the vertices of G that preserves adjacency and transforms G→G′. If yes, then G and G′ are said to be isomorphic; otherwise they are nonisomorphic. The GI problem is an important problem in computer science and is thought to be of comparable difficulty to integer factorization. In this paper we present a quantum algorithm that solves arbitrary instances of GI and which also provides an approach to determining all automorphisms of a given graph. We show how the GI problem can be converted to a combinatorial optimization problem that can be solved using adiabatic quantum evolution. We numerically simulate the algorithm's quantum dynamics and show that it correctly (i) distinguishes nonisomorphic graphs; (ii) recognizes isomorphic graphs and determines the permutation(s) that connect them; and (iii) finds the automorphism group of a given graph G. We then discuss the GI quantum algorithm's experimental implementation, and close by showing how it can be leveraged to give a quantum algorithm that solves arbitrary instances of the NP-complete subgraph isomorphism problem. The computational complexity of an adiabatic quantum algorithm is largely determined by the minimum energy gap Δ(N) separating the ground and first-excited states in the limit of large problem size N1. Calculating Δ(N) in this limit is a fundamental open problem in adiabatic quantum computing, and so it is not possible to determine the computational complexity of adiabatic quantum algorithms in general, nor consequently, of the specific adiabatic quantum algorithms presented here. Adiabatic quantum computing has been shown to be equivalent to the circuit model of quantum computing, and so development of adiabatic quantum algorithms continues to be of great interest. © 2014 American Physical Society. Source

Lands B.,College Park
Progress in Lipid Research | Year: 2014

Current public advice from the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) about essential fatty acids (EFA) has limited quantitative details about three processes: (1) similar dynamics for n-3 linolenic and n-6 linoleic polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in maintaining 20- and 22-carbon n-3 and n-6 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in tissues; (2) different dynamics for tissue n-3 and n-6 HUFA during formation and action of hormone-like eicosanoids; (3) simultaneous formation of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) from very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) formed from excess food energy and secreted by the liver. This report reviews evidence that public health may benefit from advice to eat less n-6 nutrients, more n-3 nutrients and fewer calories per meal. Explicit data for linoleic acid fit an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) near 0.1 percent of daily food energy (en%) meeting needs of half the individuals in a group, a Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) near 0.5 en% meeting needs of 97-98 percent of individuals, and a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) near 2 en% having no likely risk of adverse health effects. Quantitative tools help design and monitor explicit interventions that could beneficially replace imprecise advice on "healthy foods" with explicit preventive nutrition. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Feng P.C.H.,College Park | Reddy S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2013

Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains were isolated from a variety of fresh produce, but mostly from spinach, with an estimated prevalence rate of 0.5%. A panel of 132 produce STEC strains were characterized for the presence of virulence and putative virulence factor genes and for Shiga toxin subtypes. About 9% of the isolates were found to have the eae gene, which encodes the intimin binding protein, and most of these belonged to known pathogenic STEC serotypes, such as O157:H7 and O26: H11, or to serotypes that reportedly have caused human illness. Among the eae-negative strains, there were three O113:H21 strains and one O91:H21 strain, which historically have been implicated in illness and therefore may be of concern as well. The ehxA gene, which encodes enterohemolysin, was found in ~60% of the isolates, and the saa and subAB genes, which encode STEC agglutinating adhesin and subtilase cytotoxin, respectively, were found in ~30% of the isolates. However, the precise roles of these three putative virulence factors in STEC pathogenesis have not yet been fully established. The stx1a and stx2a subtypes were present in 22% and 56%, respectively, of the strains overall and were the most common subtypes among produce STEC strains. The stx2d subtype was the second most common subtype (28% overall), followed by stx2c (7.5%), and only 2 to 3%of the produce STEC strains had the stx2e and stx2g subtypes. Almost half of the produce STEC strains had only partial serotypes or were untyped, and most of those that were identified belonged to unremarkable serotypes. Considering the uncertainties of some of these Stx subtypes and putative virulence factors in causing human illness, it is difficult to determine the health risk of many of these produce STEC strains. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. Source

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