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Wooster, OH, United States

The College of Wooster is a private liberal arts college primarily known for its emphasis on mentored undergraduate research. It enrolls approximately 2,000 students, and is located in Wooster, Ohio, United States northeast of Columbus, the state capital). Founded in 1866 by the Presbyterian Church as the University of Wooster, it was from its creation a co-educational institution. The school is a member of The Five Colleges of Ohio and the Great Lakes Colleges Association. As of June 30, 2014, Wooster's endowment stood at approximately $271 million.Wooster is one of forty colleges named in Loren Pope's influential book Colleges That Change Lives, in which he called it his "...original best-kept secret in higher education." It is consistently ranked among the nation's top liberal arts colleges, according to U.S. News and World Report. In US News' "Best Colleges 2014", for the 12th year in a row, Wooster is recognized for its “outstanding” undergraduate research opportunities and its senior capstone program, known as I.S. Only two schools have been named to both lists in each of the past 12 years: Wooster and Princeton University. Wikipedia.

Pett V.B.,College of Wooster
Journal of Applied Crystallography | Year: 2010

Teaching goals, laboratory experiments and homework assignments are described for teaching crystallography as part of two undergraduate physical chemistry courses. A two-week teaching module is suggested for introductory physical chemistry, including six to eight classroom sessions, several laboratory experiences and a 3 h computer-based session, to acquaint undergraduate physical chemistry students with crystals, diffraction patterns, the mathematics of structure determination by X-ray diffraction, data collection, structure solution and the chemical insights available from crystal structure information. Student projects and laboratory work for three to four weeks of an advanced physical chemistry course are presented. Topics such as symmetry operators, space groups, systematic extinctions, methods of solving the phase problem, the Patterson map, anomalous scattering, synchrotron radiation, crystallographic refinement, hydrogen bonding and neutron diffraction all lead to the goal of understanding and evaluating a crystallographic journal article. Many of the ideas presented here could also be adapted for inorganic chemistry courses. © 2010 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore-all rights reserved.

Perry J.C.,University of Oxford | Sirot L.,College of Wooster | Wigby S.,University of Oxford
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Ejaculates are fundamental to fitness in sexually reproducing animals: males gain all their direct fitness via the ejaculate and females require ejaculates to reproduce. Both sperm and non-sperm components of the ejaculate (including parasperm, seminal proteins, water, and macromolecules) play vital roles in postcopulatory sexual selection and conflict, processes that can potentially drive rapid evolutionary change and reproductive isolation. Here, we assess the increasing evidence that considering ejaculate composition as a whole (and potential trade-offs among ejaculate components) has important consequences for predictions about male reproductive investment and female responses to ejaculates. We review current theory and empirical work, and detail how social and environmental effects on ejaculate composition have potentially far-reaching fitness consequences for both sexes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Lynn S.E.,College of Wooster
Hormones and Behavior | Year: 2016

This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Although paternal care is generally rare among vertebrates, care of eggs and young by male birds is extremely common and may take on a variety of forms across species. Thus, birds provide ample opportunities for investigating both the evolution of and the proximate mechanisms underpinning diverse aspects of fathering behavior. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the endocrine and neuroendocrine influences on paternal care in this vertebrate group. In this review, I focus on proximate mechanisms of paternal care in birds. I place an emphasis on specific hormones that vary predictably and/or unpredictably during the parental phase in both captive and wild birds: prolactin and progesterone are generally assumed to enhance paternal care, whereas testosterone and corticosterone are commonly-though not always correctly-assumed to inhibit paternal care. In addition, because endocrine secretions are not the sole mechanistic influence on paternal behavior, I also explore potential roles for certain neuropeptide systems (specifically the oxytocin-vasopressin nonapeptides and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone) and social and experiential factors in influencing paternal behavior in birds. Ultimately, mechanistic control of fathering behavior in birds is complex, and I suggest specific avenues for future research with the goal of narrowing gaps in our understanding of this complexity. Such avenues include (1) experimental studies that carefully consider not only endocrine and neuroendocrine mechanisms of paternal behavior, but also the ecology, phylogenetic history, and social context of focal species; (2) investigations that focus on individual variation in both hormonal and behavioral responses during the parental phase; (3) studies that investigate mechanisms of maternal and paternal care independently, rather than assuming that the mechanistic foundations of care are similar between the sexes; (4) expansion of work on interactions of the neuroendocrine system and fathering behavior to a wider array of paternal behaviors and taxa (e.g., currently, studies of the interactions of testosterone and paternal care largely focus on songbirds, whereas studies of the interactions of corticosterone, prolactin, and paternal care in times of stress focus primarily on seabirds); and (5) more deliberate study of exceptions to commonly held assumptions about hormone-paternal behavior interactions (such as the prevailing assumptions that elevations in androgens and glucocorticoids are universally disruptive to paternal care). Ultimately, investigations that take an intentionally integrative approach to understanding the social, evolutionary, and physiological influences on fathering behavior will make great strides toward refining our understanding of the complex nature by which paternal behavior in birds is regulated. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Schmitt T.M.,Simon Fraser University | Postmes T.,University of Groningen | Branscombe R.N.,University of Kansas | Garcia A.,College of Wooster
Psychological Bulletin | Year: 2014

In 2 meta-analyses, we examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being and tested a number of moderators of that relationship. In Meta-Analysis 1 (328 independent effect sizes, N = 144,246), we examined correlational data measuring both perceived discrimination and psychological well-being (e.g., self-esteem, depression, anxiety, psychological distress, life satisfaction). Using a random-effects model, the mean weighted effect size was significantly negative, indicating harm (r =-.23). Effect sizes were larger for disadvantaged groups (r = -.24) compared to advantaged groups (r =-.10), larger for children compared to adults, larger for perceptions of personal discrimination compared to group discrimination, and weaker for racism and sexism compared to other stigmas. The negative relationship was significant across different operationalizations of well-being but was somewhat weaker for positive outcomes (e.g., self-esteem, positive affect) than for negative outcomes (e.g., depression, anxiety, negative affect). Importantly, the effect size was significantly negative even in longitudinal studies that controlled for prior levels of well-being (r = -.15). In Meta-Analysis 2 (54 independent effect sizes, N = 2,640), we examined experimental data from studies manipulating perceptions of discrimination and measuring well-being. We found that the effect of discrimination on well-being was significantly negative for studies that manipulated general perceptions of discrimination (d =-.25), but effects did not differ from 0 when attributions to discrimination for a specific negative event were compared to personal attributions (d =.06). Overall, results support the idea that the pervasiveness of perceived discrimination is fundamental to its harmful effects on psychological well-being. © 2014 American Psychological Association.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: OFFICE OF SPECIAL PROGRAMS-DMR | Award Amount: 287.89K | Year: 2016

The purpose of the Wooster REU site is to enable undergraduates and faculty to work closely together on original, publishable research involving a broad range of materials science, physics, and chemistry projects. Wooster is a liberal arts college long recognized for its mentored undergraduate research. The faculty have designed on-going research programs that are both innovative and accessible to undergraduates. Dedicated and individualized mentoring in the tools, techniques, and process of research trains and inspires young students to persist in science while contributing to publishable research. The site specifically targets beginning students, often having completed just one year of college, and often from institutions where research opportunities are scarce; it encourages the full participation of women and underrepresented groups by providing a vibrant supportive environment, and it has partnered with nearby two-year colleges to recruit students who might otherwise not major in a science or even complete college. Each student takes ownership of an individual project, conducts original research, and becomes a practicing scientist through the research project, oral and poster presentations, and written reports.

The purpose of the Wooster REU site is to provide an environment for young students to learn the tools and techniques of scientific research while working closely with a faculty mentor on exciting and publishable research projects. The research spans a broad range of fields including condensed matter, granular materials, nanowires, spatiotemporal pattern formation, light-emitting polymers, quantum optics, nonlinear dynamics, and astrophysics. It uses experimental, computational, and theoretical techniques. Highlights include controlling spatio-temporal dynamics with noise and disorder, experimentally realizing arrays of one-way coupled oscillators, and understanding granular flows using bead piles. Research projects are intentionally designed so that even novice undergraduates can make significant scientific contributions. Past summer research has contributed to 32 scientific papers involving 54 undergraduate coauthors in journals such as Physical Review. Results have been featured twice on the cover of the American Journal of Physics and in news stories in Physical Review Focus and Nature News. Student researchers are trained in research skills including critical thinking, data analysis, and scientific writing.

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