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Kabera T.,College of Science and Technology, University of Rwanda
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2017

Due to the pressure on limited resources produced by a growing population and due to a decade of war, Rwanda is facing a major problem in environmental protection. Because of such problems, it seems only reasonable that environment-related courses should play an important role in the curricula of institutions of higher learning. The main aim of this research is to present a comprehensive picture of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) integration in graduate and undergraduate programs in Rwandese higher education institutions and to make recommendations for its improvement. During this study, two surveys were conducted: the first survey targeted Environmental Impact Assessment lecturers and the second survey was for Environmental Impact Assessment practitioners (including EIA certified experts and competent authorities). The study found that Environmental Impact Assessment is not well established in these institutions and it is not taught in some programs; civil engineering, for example, has no Environmental Impact Assessment courses. Recommendations to improve EIA education are proposed, such as requiring that a common core course in Environmental Impact Assessment be made available in Rwandese higher learning institutions. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Kurujyibwami C.,College of Science and Technology, University of Rwanda | Kurujyibwami C.,Linköping University
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2015

We describe admissible point transformations in the class of (1+2)-dimensional linear Schrödinger equations with complex potentials. We prove that any point transformation connecting two equations from this class is the composition of a linear superposition transformation of the corresponding initial equation and an equivalence transformation of the class. This shows that the class under study is semi-normalized. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Rurangwa J.,College of Science and Technology, University of Rwanda | Rujeni N.,College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2016

Pneumonia is a public health problem in the tropics, and the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugative vaccine (PCV-7) has been introduced in an effort to prevent the disease and therefore reduce childhood mortality. In Rwanda, PCV-7 was introduced in 2009, and we aimed to determine its impact on the rate of child hospitalization/mortality due to pneumonia. A retrospective survey was conducted on hospitalization rates and pediatric deaths between two periods, that is, before the introduction of PCV-7 (2007-2009) and after the introduction of PCV-7 (2010-2013) in Kabutare District Hospital. There was a 53% reduction in hospitalization, with a significant decline in in-hospital deaths between the two periods. There was also a significant correlation between vaccination coverage and decline in hospitalization rates between 2009 and 2013. We conclude that PCV-7 vaccine is associated with significant reduction in the rate of child hospitalization and mortality but more mechanistic studies are warranted to determine the immunological impact, especially in the context of coinfections and malnutrition. © Copyright 2016 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Asemota G.N.O.,College of Science and Technology, University of Rwanda
Proceedings - 2nd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Modelling, and Simulation, AIMS 2014 | Year: 2014

This paper, 'Communality performance assessment of electricity load management model for Namibia', presents a good analysis of the interval of communality. While there is only a minimum, which strengthens the author's claim of obtaining the optimal performance assessment criterion for the electricity load management model developed. Out of the 300 administered questionnaires, 127 were yielded for statistical analyses. The separate communalities obtained closely mirrored the predictors, whenever they were closer to unity. Using Borel's strong law of large numbers for analyses, it was shown that sample sizes larger than 127, produced errors, which exceeded 0.1 only once for every five runs of the process. Therefore, communality analyses provide elegant lower-bound solutions that belong to a class of nonsmooth optimisation algorithms useful for obtaining high quality exploratory and confirmatory decoupled multivariate analyses, as shown in this study. © 2014 IEEE.

Bizimana J.-P.,College of Science and Technology, University of Rwanda | Twarabamenye E.,College of Science and Technology, University of Rwanda | Kienberger S.,University of Salzburg
Malaria Journal | Year: 2015

Background: Since 2004, malaria interventions in Rwanda have resulted in substantial decline of malaria incidence. However, this achievement is fragile as potentials for local malaria transmissions remain. The risk of getting malaria infection is partially explained by social conditions of vulnerable populations. Since vulnerability to malaria is both influenced by social and environmental factors, its complexity cannot be measured by a single value. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to apply a composite indicator approach for assessing social vulnerability to malaria in Rwanda. This assessment informs the decision-makers in targeting malaria interventions and allocating limited resources to reduce malaria burden in Rwanda. Methods: A literature review was used to conceptualize the social vulnerability to malaria and to select the appropriate vulnerability indicators. Indicators used in the index creation were classified into susceptibility and lack of resilience vulnerability domains. The main steps followed include selection of indicators and datasets, imputation of missing values, descriptive statistics, normalization and weighting of indicators, local sensitivity analysis and indicators aggregation. Correlation analysis helped to empirically evidence the association between the indicators and malaria incidence. Results: The high values of social vulnerability to malaria are found in Gicumbi, Rusizi, Nyaruguru and Gisagara, and low values in Muhanga, Nyarugenge, Kicukiro and Nyanza. The most influential susceptibility indicators to increase malaria are population change (r = 0.729), average number of persons per bedroom (r = 0.531), number of households affected by droughts and famines (r = 0.591), and area used for irrigation (r = 0.611). The bed net ownership (r =-0.398) and poor housing wall materials (0.378) are the lack of resilience indicators that significantly correlate with malaria incidence. Conclusions: The developed composite index social vulnerability to malaria indicates which indicators need to be addressed and in which districts. The results from this study are salient for public health policy- and decision makers in malaria control in Rwanda and timely support the national integrated malaria initiative. Future research development should focus on spatial explicit vulnerability assessment by combining environmental and social drivers to achieve an integrated and complete assessment of vulnerability to malaria. © 2015 Bizimana et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

Seburanga J.L.,College of Science and Technology, University of Rwanda
Journal of Sustainable Forestry | Year: 2015

Invasive species pose a serious threat to the conservation of biodiversity. Forestry is the most important driver of the introduction and spread of invasive woody plant species after horticulture. Nearly 450 invasive tree species have been recorded worldwide, amounting to more than half the world’s total invasive woody flora. Australian-native Acacia mearnsii De Wild. is one of world’s top invasive alien tree species related to forestry. The negative impacts of alien species spilling over into conservation areas because of forestry are increasingly being recognized, and we examined the context and timing of this Australian species’ arrival in Rwanda. The role of A. mearnsii in Rwanda’s colonial and postcolonial forestry and the species’ threat to biodiversity conservation are also investigated. The results suggest that A. mearnsii (a) was introduced into Rwanda between 1903 and 1918, with the earliest formal record dating back to 1941; (b) was a major forestry tree species until the late 1960s when its use in forestry declined significantly; and (c) demonstrates a comparatively higher occurrence and potential of regeneration within the understory of Eucalyptus plantations within the Congo-Nile ridge buttress; Bufundu and Bushiru; and Budaha, Ndiza, and Buberuka agro-bioclimatic zones. More recently, A. mearnsii has invaded national parks and forest reserves above 1,600 m of altitude. The most significant case was recorded at Nyungwe National Park (NNP), East Africa’s largest montane rainforest. A study of biomass and spatial patterns of this species in specific ecosystems, such as NNP, is strongly recommended in order to uphold effective conservation practices. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Seburanga J.L.,College of Science and Technology, University of Rwanda
Small-scale Forestry | Year: 2016

Based on empirical evidence from a vegetation survey, this paper investigates the occurrence of self-established populations of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) in various environmental contexts and identifies areas where this species could be allowed to grow as a useful plant. The frequency of occurrence of self-established black wattle was found to be comparatively high above 1600 m of altitude. Three agro-ecological zones of Rwanda (Congo Nile Crest, Non-volcanic Highlands and Central Plateau) account for 70 % of the occurrence, most of which are inside tree plantations and woodlots and natural forests. In areas of most concern to black wattle invasion (especially in proximity of natural ecosystems), the following policy approach should be considered: eradication of current occurrences and a ban on the cultivation of this species. Elsewhere, control through utilization by local communities and adaptive management in areas least vulnerable to its invasion could suffice to keep this species under check. © 2015, Steve Harrison, John Herbohn.

Seburanga J.L.,College of Science and Technology, University of Rwanda
Journal of Plant Interactions | Year: 2014

Pre-dispersal predation of seeds of exotic Asteraceae by foraging birds is understudied. Using phenological records and photo-assisted analysis of damages made to seed heads, this paper provides evidence that the black-faced canary Serinus capistratus Finsch and Hartlaub feeds on immature achenes of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley) A. Gray and may control its propagule pressure up to 18% of the total number of achenes aged between 20-30 days counted from petal fall. © 2014 The Author(s).

Kumaran S.,College of Science and Technology, University of Rwanda
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2015

The increasingly widespread use of smartphones capable of delivering high bandwidth content is leading to an exponential growth in the volume of traffic carried by mobile networks. The solution to this can be found in a new distributed architecture called Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) which offers a new paradigm in base station architecture. It is less costly for mobile operators to deploy because it could run on smaller cell sites. In a C-RAN setup, the baseband processing elements of a traditional base station are centrally located and connected to smaller, distributed radios, often via fiber. The concept of C-RAN lowers cost and power dramatically and has recently generated significant interests among the research community. Though some mobile operators across the globe are evaluating, or even already migrating to, C-RAN architectures, this paper will explain the need for C-RAN architecture, the drivers behind it and about the recent advances in mobile fronthaul solutions. This paper also contains comprehensive details of the various C-RAN deployment methodologies based on the mobile traffic needs and describes about the perception of C-RAN technology by different mobile operators. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

Seburanga J.L.,College of Science and Technology, University of Rwanda
Journal of Botany | Year: 2015

The introduced shrub flora in Rwanda was analyzed and the risk of invasion was assessed based on the species' purposes of introduction. The results showed that more than half of invasive alien shrubs in Rwanda were introduced as ornamentals. They include Agave americana L., Bryophyllum proliferum Bowie ex Hook., Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston, Lantana camara L., and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley) A. Gray. However, these represented only 3.16% of the total number of introduced ornamental shrubs. At the time when the study was conducted, no introduced food crop had become invasive. Species introduced for purposes other than food or culinary use showed higher likelihood of becoming invasive. © 2015 Jean Leonard Seburanga.

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