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Huang Y.,College of Public Administration | Bor Y.J.,Chinese Culture University | Peng C.-Y.,Taoyuan District Court
Energy Policy

The long-term forecasting of energy supply and demand is an extremely important topic of fundamental research in Taiwan due to Taiwan's lack of natural resources, dependence on energy imports, and the nation's pursuit of sustainable development. In this article, we provide an overview of energy supply and demand in Taiwan, and a summary of the historical evolution and current status of its energy policies, as background to a description of the preparation and application of a Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model of Taiwan's energy sector. The Taiwan LEAP model is used to compare future energy demand and supply patterns, as well as greenhouse gas emissions, for several alternative scenarios of energy policy and energy sector evolution. Results of scenarios featuring "business-as-usual" policies, aggressive energy-efficiency improvement policies, and on-schedule retirement of Taiwan's three existing nuclear plants are provided and compared, along with sensitivity cases exploring the impacts of lower economic growth assumptions. A concluding section provides an interpretation of the implications of model results for future energy and climate policies in Taiwan. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Tan R.,College of Public Administration | Beckmann V.,Humboldt University of Berlin
Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy

Diverse quota systems are designed and implemented in different countries to preserve farmland. Choosing a quota system for farmland preservation is thus an important issue for policy makers and researchers. In order to explain this diversity and reveal shared principles for the choice of a quota system in practice, we compare typical quota arrangements in four countries through a model of transaction cost economics (TCE). We examine agricultural zoning in the Netherlands, the transferable development right in the US, command-and-control quotas and their supplemented trading mode in China, and the debated tradable planning permits for land-use control in Germany. Our comparison not only shows that extending TCE into tradable quota theory is feasible, but also compares experience with the tools of farmland preservation across the four countries. Furthermore, the shared principles we discover could also be reference points for the rest of the world. © 2010 Pion Ltd and its Licensors. Source

Faced with pressure from greenhouse gas reductions and energy price hikes, the Taiwan government is in the process of developing an energy tax regime to reflect environmental external costs and effectively curb energy consumption, as well as mitigate CO2 emissions through an adequate pricing system. This study utilizes a CGE model to simulate and analyze the economic impacts of the draft Energy Tax Bill and its complementary fiscal measures. Under the assumption of tax revenue neutrality, the use of energy tax revenue generated for the purpose of reducing income tax is the best choice with double dividend effects since it will effectively stimulate domestic consumption and investment, and, consequently, mitigate the negative impacts of the distortionary tax regime. The double dividend effect is less significant, however, when the supplementary measures being used are for government expenditure. Nevertheless, all supplementary measures have effectively reduced energy consumption, which means they have delivered at least the first dividend-in the sense of CO2 emissions control. It has been verified in this study that having adequate public-finance policy measures is the key to realizing the double dividend effect. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Low-carbon economy is an economic development model based on low energy consumption and low pollution and low emission, the development of low-carbon economy has caused extensive concern of the international community. Higher school undertakes the talent training, technology innovation and social service function of importance. Facing the requirement of the low carbon economic development, universities must strengthen technical innovation system and improve levels of innovation and service ability. This article put forward some suggestions on the better effect of university of science and technology innovation system. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Komarek A.M.,University of Western Sydney | Shi X.,College of Public Administration | Heerink N.,Wageningen University
Land Use Policy

This study examined how agricultural households involved in China's Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) could respond to expected changes in environmental and livestock policies and changing commodity prices. We calibrated a farm household model using 2009 survey data collected in northeast Gansu Province, China, and examined the responses of four different household groups. Household groups were distinguished based on the resources they possessed for either cropping, livestock husbandry or off-farm employment. We also calculated the opportunity cost of converting sloping land from grain crop production to perennial grass production and included the net value of the replacement crop in these calculations. Our model simulations indicated that subsistence-oriented households were most likely to participate in the SLCP, and that SLCP payment reductions could have large negative income effects for this group. Reductions in SLCP payments increased income inequality among households in the study area. Migration- and cropping-oriented households have fewer incentives to participate in the SLCP. With rising commodity prices, SLCP payments need to rise to avoid that subsistence-oriented households reconvert their land from perennial grasses to annual grain crops. Local government policies related to livestock production are being devised in Gansu as a method to lift incomes, and these policies could also have positive environmental benefits by increasing grass production on sloping land. The introduction of these livestock promotion policies had modest income effects but did not alter the area grown with grasses under the SLCP. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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