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Maier U.,College of Education, Schwabisch Gmund | Randler C.,University of Education, Heidelberg | Wolf N.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg
Zeitschrift fur Padagogik | Year: 2016

In research on teaching and learning, formative assessments are considered to be an effective method of improving student performance. However, the effects vary strongly depending on learning content, diagnostic procedures, and the form of feedback. In a randomized experimental study conducted in biology classes, it was thus examined whether in the case of a computer-based, formative achievement test detailed indepth feedback (treatment 1) would lead to better learning results than simple feedback (treatment 2). In a control group, students read the identical texts. 10 forms with a total of 261 students attending classes on the lower secondary level participated in the study. Results show that students receiving simple feedback achieve better results in both the posttest and the test of knowledge retained than students receiving treatment 1 or students of the control group. However, when looking more closely at the use made of the feedback, positive achievement effects can be shown for students getting in-depth feedback, too, compared to the control group.

Fleitmann S.,Independent Consultant Tobacco Control | Dohnke B.,College of Education, Schwabisch Gmund | Balke K.,ProjektBuroKoln | Rustler C.,Deutsches Netz Rauchfreier Krankenhauser | Sonntag U.,Landesvereinigung fur Gesundheit und Akademie fur Sozialmedizin Niedersachsen e.V.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz | Year: 2010

In Germany, smoking rates among women have been slightly declining since 2003. However, smoking rates among young women and girls are high and are reaching the smoking rates of their male counterparts. Only about half of pregnant smokers below the age of 25 stop smoking. Women and girls with low education and low level jobs, those who are unemployed, as well as single parents have the highest smoking rates. The tobacco industry promotes smoking behavior of women and girls through marketing campaigns, thus, systematically counteracting smoking prevention activities. Within the framework of the annual conference 2008 of the Federal Drug Commissioner on the theme of "Women and Smoking", recommendations for a gender-specific tobacco control policy in Germany were developed. The main demands relate to the necessity of a targeted policy approach which takes into account the needs and life circumstances of women and girls, the development of integrated prevention programs for pregnant women, improved medical and preventive care, the involvement of women from the media and culture, from health professions and politics to promote a smoke-free culture, gender-specific research, and the improvement of tobacco control legislation. FACT (Frauen aktiv contra Tabak e.V.) actively supports the implementation of these policy recommendations. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

This article reviews research on similarities and differences in coping during childhood and adolescence as a function of stressful situation, age, and gender. The focus is on coping with daily stressors in nonclinical populations of children and adolescents. The results of 28 studies are presented. Based on the review, recommendations for future research on child and adolescent coping are discussed. The potential impact of situational factors and individual differences that influence coping with health factors is outlined. © Hogrefe Verlag Gottingen 2010.

Carlsohn A.,College of Education, Schwabisch Gmund
Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Sportmedizin | Year: 2016

›For elite athletes, recovery from exhausting exercise is important during training and competitions. The effects of protein supplements on exercise-induced muscle damage, muscle soreness and restoration of muscle function or performance during recovery from strenuous exercises are not well established. ›Recently, some weak evidence has been found that post-exercise ingestion of protein, amino acids or milk may reduce muscle damage, muscle soreness and promote restoration of performance in or endurance sports (cycling, running). ›Following eccentric endurance exercises, protein supplementation has no effect on the above mentioned parameters. In trained athletes, muscle damage and soreness are not influenced by protein supplementation following resistance type exercise. However, there is some evidence that restoration of performance may be hastened by protein ingestion. © 2016, WWF Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. All Rights Reserved.

Heim-Dreger U.,College of Education, Schwabisch Gmund | Kohlmann C.-W.,College of Education, Schwabisch Gmund
Zeitschrift fur Gesundheitspsychologie | Year: 2013

The aim of the study was to examine whether explicit taste preferences for healthy and unhealthy foods, as well as implicit attitudes towards foods, are associated with body mass index (BMI-SDS) among elementary school children. Participants were 148 third grade children (age: 7 to10 years). Taste preferences were assessed by self-reports using rating scales; implicit attitudes were assessed using an idiographic Implicit Association Test (IAT). In the IAT, all stimuli (i. e., I versus others, healthy foods versus unhealthy foods) were presented as pictures. The IAT significantly predicted children's BMI-SDS. Children with an implicit attitude towards unhealthy foods showed a higher BMI. In contrast, explicit measures could not predict children's BMI-SDS. Results are discussed within the context of the still inconsistent state of research. © Hogrefe Verlag, Göttingen 2013.

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