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Iqbal U.,College of Economy and Administration | Bajwa I.S.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur
2016 6th International Conference on Innovative Computing Technology, INTECH 2016 | Year: 2016

UML is actually a standard that is used in the production of software models. Its function is to facilitate the working of visuals of software artifacts. In order to produce a UML diagram, manufacturer has to gather all the software requirements in a natural like English r semi formal like SBVR language. After that he analyzes and produces the activity diagram manually in an available case tool. One of the main advantages of converting SBVR software requirements automatically into UML is that it minimizes the burden of a system analyst which in turn increases the quality and robustness of a software modeling phase. The paper presents the challenging aspect of transformation from SBVR into UML activity diagram. This method takes the system input requirements specifically in SBVR syntax then parses the whole input specification. It then chooses the UML ingredients like Fact type, Noun, Verb etc and at last generates the visual presentation of selected information. The whole process is fully automated. It is explained through an example. © 2016 IEEE.


Iqbal M.K.,CEPS a.s. | Shafiq T.,CEPS a.s. | Ahmed K.,College of Economy and Administration
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

Objective was to enquire the attributes of regionally obtainable BA (bagass, paper, peanut shell, sawdust) to inscribe the efficacy of BA at (10-40%) for moisture reduction. Sawdust was prominent in moisture reduction capability in 5-7 days. The prime physical changes in BA under various compression forces were as; by increasing compression force, BD rise and FAS decline, whereas PD had not exhibit any discrepancy. Proficient compost production entails meticulous understanding the process dynamics in terms of correlation between moisture reduction; FAS, BD and PD. FAS and moisture were negatively where as BD and moisture positively correlated. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


Aslam M.,Forman Christian College | Khan N.,College of Economy and Administration | Azam M.,Forman Christian College | Jun C.-H.,Pohang University of Science and Technology
Information Sciences | Year: 2014

In this article, we propose a new t-chart for monitoring a process under the assumption that the time between events follows the exponential distribution. The proposed t-chart has double control limits that use repetitive sampling and determine its control constants. The in-control and the out-of-control average run lengths are derived and tabulated according to various process shifts. The proposed control chart indicates the out-of-control process more quickly than the existing control chart for small shifts. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Shahbaz M.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Shahbaz M.,College of Economy and Administration | Sbia R.,Free University of Brussels | Hamdi H.,Financial Stability | Ozturk I.,Cag University
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2014

The present study explores the relationship between economic growth, electricity consumption, urbanization and environmental degradation in case of United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study covers the quarter frequency data over the period of 1975-2011. We have applied the ARDL bounds testing approach to examine the long run relationship between the variables in the presence of structural breaks. The VECM Granger causality is applied to investigate the direction of causal relationship between the variables. Our empirical exercise reported the existence of cointegration among the series. Further, we found an inverted U-shaped relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions i.e. economic growth raises energy emissions initially and declines it after a threshold point of income per capita (EKC exists). Electricity consumption declines CO2 emissions. The relationship between urbanization and CO2 emissions is positive. Exports seem to improve the environmental quality by lowering CO2 emissions. The causality analysis validates the feedback effect between CO2 emissions and electricity consumption. Economic growth and urbanization Granger cause CO 2 emissions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Su D.,University of Texas–Pan American | Li L.,College of Economy and Administration
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved | Year: 2011

In this study we seek to assess recent trends in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use based on a comparative analysis of data from the 2002 and 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The findings suggest that CAM use, in particular the use of provider-based CAM therapies such as chiropractic care, massage, and acupuncture, have grown significantly in the U.S. This growth was more pronounced among non-Hispanic Whites than among racial and ethnic minorities, increasing an already existing White-minority gap in CAM use. Findings from this study also reveal that CAM use becomes more likely when access to conventional care has been restricted. In both 2002 and 2007, having unmet needs in medical care or having delayed care due to cost were associated with a higher chance of CAM use. Copyright © 2011 Meharry Medical College.


Bokhari S.A.H.,The University of Faisalabad | Khan A.A.,Sheikh Zayed Federal Postgraduate Medical Institute and Hospital | Butt A.K.,Sheikh Zayed Federal Postgraduate Medical Institute and Hospital | Hanif M.,College of Economy and Administration | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Periodontology | Year: 2014

Aim: Few studies have examined the relationship of individual periodontal parameters with individual systemic biomarkers. This study assessed the possible association between specific clinical parameters of periodontitis and systemic biomarkers of coronary heart disease risk in coronary heart disease patients with periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Angiographically proven coronary heart disease patients with periodontitis (n = 317), aged >30 years and without other systemic illness were examined. Periodontal clinical parameters of bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) and systemic levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen (FIB) and white blood cells (WBC) were noted and analyzed to identify associations through linear and stepwise multiple regression analyses. Results: Unadjusted linear regression showed significant associations between periodontal and systemic parameters; the strongest association (r = 0.629; p < 0.001) was found between BOP and CRP levels, the periodontal and systemic inflammation marker, respectively. Stepwise regression analysis models revealed that BOP was a predictor of systemic CRP levels (p < 0.0001). BOP was the only periodontal parameter significantly associated with each systemic parameter (CRP, FIB, and WBC). Conclusion: In coronary heart disease patients with periodontitis, BOP is strongly associated with systemic CRP levels; this association possibly reflects the potential significance of the local periodontal inflammatory burden for systemic inflammation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Tang C.F.,University of Malaya | Shahbaz M.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Shahbaz M.,College of Economy and Administration
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

This study uses the annual data from 1972 to 2010 to assess the causal relationship between electricity consumption and real output at the aggregate and sectoral levels in Pakistan. This study covers three main economic sectors in Pakistan namely agricultural, manufacturing and services sectors. Our cointegration results reveal that the variables are cointegrated at the aggregate and sectoral levels. At the aggregate level, we find that there is uni-directional Granger causality running from electricity consumption to real output in Pakistan. At the sectoral level, we find that electricity consumption Granger-causes real output in the manufacturing and services sectors. However, there is no causal relationship between electricity consumption and real output in the agricultural sector. The policy implication of these results is that electricity conservation policies in general would deteriorate the process of economic growth as well as the real output in the manufacturing and services sectors in Pakistan. Nevertheless, we suggest the Pakistani government to implement the electricity conservation policies merely to the agricultural sector because such policies may have less or no adverse impact on its real output. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Shahbaz M.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Ozturk I.,Cag University | Afza T.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Ali A.,College of Economy and Administration
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

The present study deals with an empirical investigation between CO 2 emissions, energy intensity, economic growth and globalization using annual data over the period of 1970-2010 for Turkish economy. We applied unit root test and cointegration approach in the presence of structural breaks. The direction of causality between the variables is investigated by applying the VECM Granger causality approach. Our results confirmed the existence of cointegration between the series. The empirical evidence reported that energy intensity and economic growth (globalization) increase (condense) CO2 emissions. The results also validated the presence of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). The causality analysis shows bidirectional causality between economic growth and CO2 emissions. This implies that economic growth can be boosted at the cost of environment. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Tang Z.,College of Economy and Administration | Chen X.,Central South University | Luo J.,Central South University
Environment and Behavior | Year: 2011

Despite many researches on household recycling behavior, little attention has been paid to socio-psychological determinants of rural household recycling behavior in mainland China and their effect levels. On the basis of the survey data from 756 respondents applying structural equation modeling, the final results show that concern for the community, and followed by self-efficacy, subjective norm, justification, moral norm, attitude toward recycling, situation factor, and knowledge of environmental harms of nonrecycling influence household recycling behavior most significantly. The effect of justification is negative and other effects are positive. The attitude is influenced positively by perceived usefulness. Comparisons with previous researches show two significant differences in effect level of each determinant and in rank orderings of determinants. Implications of the findings as well as study limitations are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2011.


Han C.-S.,College of Economy and Administration
Proceedings of the 2012 2nd International Conference on Business Computing and Global Informatization, BCGIN 2012 | Year: 2012

The ubiquity of the Internet of Things plays a strong supporting role in the development of a low carbon economy. However, there are still many problems in the China's Internet of Things such as in the law, the scale, the core and key technologies, technical standards, code site resources, business models, and environmental protection. Chinese people solve these problems to build a safe and healthy social environment through establishing laws and regulations related to it, optimizing the policy environment of this industry, making the development planning and the industrial distribution, accelerating the construction of the standards system, speeding up the breakthrough of core technology, guiding the demonstration projects of this industry actively, paying high attention to the security problems brought by this, and fostering technology and management talents. © 2012 IEEE.

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