College of Economy and Administration

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Iqbal U.,College of Economy and Administration | Bajwa I.S.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur
2016 6th International Conference on Innovative Computing Technology, INTECH 2016 | Year: 2016

UML is actually a standard that is used in the production of software models. Its function is to facilitate the working of visuals of software artifacts. In order to produce a UML diagram, manufacturer has to gather all the software requirements in a natural like English r semi formal like SBVR language. After that he analyzes and produces the activity diagram manually in an available case tool. One of the main advantages of converting SBVR software requirements automatically into UML is that it minimizes the burden of a system analyst which in turn increases the quality and robustness of a software modeling phase. The paper presents the challenging aspect of transformation from SBVR into UML activity diagram. This method takes the system input requirements specifically in SBVR syntax then parses the whole input specification. It then chooses the UML ingredients like Fact type, Noun, Verb etc and at last generates the visual presentation of selected information. The whole process is fully automated. It is explained through an example. © 2016 IEEE.


Hassine M.B.,College of Economy and Administration | Harrathi N.,King Saud University
International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy | Year: 2017

This paper examines the causal relationship between renewable energy consumption, real gross domestic product, trade and financial development (FD) for the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries during the period 1980-2012. Compared to the previous studies, our models are extended by including the FD as macroeconomic factor. The results indicate bidirectional causality in both short and long-run between output and exports. While, there is no evidence of causality in the short-run between output and renewable energy consumption or private sector credit and between exports and renewable energy consumption or private sector credit. Moreover, the long-run estimated results indicate that there is evidence of a statistically significant impact of renewable energy consumption, exports and private sector credit on output. Our finding indicates that renewable energy use and exports are able to increase the economic growth for the GCC countries. Nevertheless, we find negative impact of the FD on economic growth related to the deflationary monetary policy of the considered countries. © 2017, Econjournals. All rights reserved.


Jiang H.,College of Economy and Administration
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech | Year: 2017

China's economy has recently entered a transition period. An increasing number of college graduates, rural surplus laborers, and unemployed laid-off workers have flocked to the job market, thereby exacerbating the employment problem of the country. Entrepreneurs have begun to rely on computer technologies to reduce the blindness of entrepreneurship and achieve a highly scientific and reasonable business. The entrepreneurial model was analyzed in this paper based on e-commerce knowledge. After introducing the theories on and the characteristics of e-commerce, improving the feasibility of conducting e-commerce businesses was identified as the main objective of this paper. Moreover, a scientific model for entrepreneur development was constructed by analyzing the problems in the e-commerce business model. A scientific and reasonable e-commerce business model can improve entrepreneurial success rate, stimulate the interest of people in entrepreneurship, increase the proportion of employed persons in the labor market, and help entrepreneurs understand the concept of entrepreneurship in the e-commerce context.


Islam W.,College of Economy and Administration | Younis M.,University of Punjab | Raza Rizvi S.T.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Optik | Year: 2017

The optical solitons have been extracted from the model that describes the dynamics of solitons in nonlinear optics with competing weakly nonlocal nonlinearity. The diffraction coefficient and parabolic law nonlinearity are also consider in this time fractional model. The constraint conditions, for the existence of the dark and singular soliton solutions, are also listed. Additionally, a couple of other solutions known as singular periodic solutions, fall out as a by-product of this scheme. © 2016 Elsevier GmbH


Ali F.,College of Economy and Administration | Zhang J.,University of Kent
Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology | Year: 2017

Multilocus haplotype analysis of candidate variants with genome wide association studies (GWAS) data may provide evidence of association with disease, even when the individual loci themselves do not. Unfortunately, when a large number of candidate variants are investigated, identifying risk haplotypes can be very difficult. To meet the challenge, a number of approaches have been put forward in recent years. However, most of them are not directly linked to the disease-penetrances of haplotypes and thus may not be efficient. To fill this gap, we propose a mixture model-based approach for detecting risk haplotypes. Under the mixture model, haplotypes are clustered directly according to their estimated disease penetrances. A theoretical justification of the above model is provided. Furthermore, we introduce a hypothesis test for haplotype inheritance patterns which underpin this model. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated by simulations and real data analysis. The results show that the proposed approach outperforms an existing multiple testing method. © 2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.


Iqbal M.K.,CEPS a.s. | Shafiq T.,CEPS a.s. | Ahmed K.,College of Economy and Administration
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

Objective was to enquire the attributes of regionally obtainable BA (bagass, paper, peanut shell, sawdust) to inscribe the efficacy of BA at (10-40%) for moisture reduction. Sawdust was prominent in moisture reduction capability in 5-7 days. The prime physical changes in BA under various compression forces were as; by increasing compression force, BD rise and FAS decline, whereas PD had not exhibit any discrepancy. Proficient compost production entails meticulous understanding the process dynamics in terms of correlation between moisture reduction; FAS, BD and PD. FAS and moisture were negatively where as BD and moisture positively correlated. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


Su D.,University of Texas–Pan American | Li L.,College of Economy and Administration
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved | Year: 2011

In this study we seek to assess recent trends in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use based on a comparative analysis of data from the 2002 and 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The findings suggest that CAM use, in particular the use of provider-based CAM therapies such as chiropractic care, massage, and acupuncture, have grown significantly in the U.S. This growth was more pronounced among non-Hispanic Whites than among racial and ethnic minorities, increasing an already existing White-minority gap in CAM use. Findings from this study also reveal that CAM use becomes more likely when access to conventional care has been restricted. In both 2002 and 2007, having unmet needs in medical care or having delayed care due to cost were associated with a higher chance of CAM use. Copyright © 2011 Meharry Medical College.


Tang C.F.,University of Malaya | Shahbaz M.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Shahbaz M.,College of Economy and Administration
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

This study uses the annual data from 1972 to 2010 to assess the causal relationship between electricity consumption and real output at the aggregate and sectoral levels in Pakistan. This study covers three main economic sectors in Pakistan namely agricultural, manufacturing and services sectors. Our cointegration results reveal that the variables are cointegrated at the aggregate and sectoral levels. At the aggregate level, we find that there is uni-directional Granger causality running from electricity consumption to real output in Pakistan. At the sectoral level, we find that electricity consumption Granger-causes real output in the manufacturing and services sectors. However, there is no causal relationship between electricity consumption and real output in the agricultural sector. The policy implication of these results is that electricity conservation policies in general would deteriorate the process of economic growth as well as the real output in the manufacturing and services sectors in Pakistan. Nevertheless, we suggest the Pakistani government to implement the electricity conservation policies merely to the agricultural sector because such policies may have less or no adverse impact on its real output. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Shahbaz M.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Ozturk I.,Cag University | Afza T.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Ali A.,College of Economy and Administration
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

The present study deals with an empirical investigation between CO 2 emissions, energy intensity, economic growth and globalization using annual data over the period of 1970-2010 for Turkish economy. We applied unit root test and cointegration approach in the presence of structural breaks. The direction of causality between the variables is investigated by applying the VECM Granger causality approach. Our results confirmed the existence of cointegration between the series. The empirical evidence reported that energy intensity and economic growth (globalization) increase (condense) CO2 emissions. The results also validated the presence of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). The causality analysis shows bidirectional causality between economic growth and CO2 emissions. This implies that economic growth can be boosted at the cost of environment. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Tang Z.,College of Economy and Administration | Chen X.,Central South University | Luo J.,Central South University
Environment and Behavior | Year: 2011

Despite many researches on household recycling behavior, little attention has been paid to socio-psychological determinants of rural household recycling behavior in mainland China and their effect levels. On the basis of the survey data from 756 respondents applying structural equation modeling, the final results show that concern for the community, and followed by self-efficacy, subjective norm, justification, moral norm, attitude toward recycling, situation factor, and knowledge of environmental harms of nonrecycling influence household recycling behavior most significantly. The effect of justification is negative and other effects are positive. The attitude is influenced positively by perceived usefulness. Comparisons with previous researches show two significant differences in effect level of each determinant and in rank orderings of determinants. Implications of the findings as well as study limitations are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2011.

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