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Sarkodie P.A.,College of Agriculture Science and Education
Chemistry | Year: 2015

Learning chemical concepts at the submicroscopic and symbolic levels has been identified as a difficult task for science students. Studies have shown that IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds, which is at the symbolic level of learning chemical concepts, is a difficult concept when it comes to students' learning. The current study involved a pre-service teacher and 60 high school students and investigated how students could improve upon their performance in naming and writing of structural formulae of hydrocarbons with the aid of ball-and-stick models. The pre-service teacher and the students were purposively selected to participate in the study. After seven weeks of teaching and learning of IUPAC naming and writing of structural formulae of hydrocarbons where the students physically manipulated the models, it was found that the students' performance and attitude improved after the intervention. It is therefore recommended that science educators should continuously use already existing and newly developed models in teaching chemical concepts to help students to actively conceptualise such concepts at the symbolic level.

Goo Y.-M.,Sancheong Oriental Medicinal Herb Institute | Han E.-H.,Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology | Jeong J.C.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Kwak S.-S.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | And 4 more authors.
Comptes Rendus - Biologies | Year: 2015

In a previous study, we have evidenced that the overexpression of the IbOr gene isolated from sweet potato conferred a tolerance activity against salinity and methyl viologen (MV) treatment in transgenic sweet potato calli along with an enhanced carotenoid content. In this study, to further examine the function of the IbOr gene in heterologous organism, we transformed the IbOr gene into potato under the direction of SWPA2 promoter, a strong inducible promoter upon treatment with various environmental stresses. Consistently with ourprevious study of sweet potato calli, the level of total carotenoid was elevated up to 2.7-fold (38.1 μgg 1DW) compared to the non-transgenic control, Atlantic cultivar. However, the composition of carotenoid was not influenced by the overexpression of the IbOr gene since only pre-existing carotenoids in the non-transgenic control including violaxanthin, lutien and β-carotene were elevated at a similar level of total carotenoids. In general, the transcript levels for most of carotenogenesis-related genes were elevated in transgenic tuber, whereas they remained at similar levels in transgenic leaf tissues compared to those of non-transgenic controls. The increased levels of carotenoid content in the leaf or tuber tissue of transgenic lines were correlated with the enhanced tolerance activity against salt-or MV-mediated oxidative stresses and DPPH radical-scavenging activity. Our preliminary results suggest that further investigation is required for the development of a crop tolerant to salinity and other environmental stresses through the overexpression of the IbOr gene. © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

PubMed | College of Agriculture Science and Education and Jiangnan University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food science and technology | Year: 2016

In this study, the effect of gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid 0-4 % composite films was investigated. Molecular weight distribution analysis was carried out to confirm gallic acid induced cross linking through change in molecular weight in fraction containing zein proteins. Results revealed that gallic acid treatment increased tensile strength from 17.9MPa to 26.0MPa, decreased water vapour permeability from 0.60 (gmmm(-2)h(-1) kPa(-1)) to 0.41 (gmmm(-2)h(-1) kPa(-1)), increased solubility from 6.3% to 10.2% and marginally increased elongation at break from 3.7% to 4.2% in zein films only. However, gallic acid treatment in zein-oleic composite films did not significantly influence mechanical and water barrier properties and in most instances irrespective of oleic acid concentration, the properties were negatively affected. Results from scanning electron microscopy showed that both gallic acid treated and untreated zein films and composite films containing 3% oleic acid had a compact and homogeneous structure while those containing 4% oleic acid had inhomogeneous structure. The findings have demonstrated that gallic acid treatment can significantly improve mechanical and water barrier properties especially in zein films only as opposed to when used in composite films using zein and oleic acid.

PubMed | TU Munich, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, University of Florida, College of Agriculture Science and Education and Zhejiang University
Type: | Journal: Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences | Year: 2016

Previous published methods for the analysis of folates are time consuming because of lengthy sample extraction, clean-up and total running time. This study details the development and validation of a rapid, sensitive and robust method that combines a simple extraction step with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry. Here, we reported application of a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer to analyze maximum seven vitamers of folate from plant origin. The analytical performance was evaluated by linearity, sensitivity, precision, recovery test and analysis of certified reference materials. The limit of detection and limit of quantification ranged between 0.003 and 0.021g/100g FW and between 0.011 and 0.041g/100g FW, respectively; the recovery and precession ranged from 71.27 to 99. 01% and from 1.7 to 7.8% RSD, respectively, depending upon folate vitamers. This newly developed and validated method is rapid (a chromatographic run time of 5min), easy to be performed (no laborious and time consuming clean-up) and can be used to simultaneously analyze seven vitamers of folate from plant sources.

Nyadanu D.,College of Agriculture Science and Education | Lowor S.T.,Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2014

Ghana is endowed with a lot of indigenous leaf and fruit vegetables which are nutritious and are used in the treatment of many ailments. However, current changes in food habits in both rural and urban households have led to overdependence on energy-rich but nutrient poor staple crops. Most of these non-indigenous staple crops are not adapted to local conditions in Ghana as compared to indigenous vegetables making their production and consumption expensive and therefore worsening malnutrition and food insecurity issues. To promote consumption of indigenous vegetables and conservation of their genetic resources in Ghana, proximate, mineral and vitamins composition and medicinal properties of five indigenous leaf (Amaranthus cruentus, Corchorus olitorius, Solanum macrocarpon, Xanthosoma sagittifolium, Adasonia digitata) and three fruit vegetables (Solanum torvum, Solanum aethiopicum, Solanum macrocarpon) vegetables were evaluated using recommended methodologies. Proximate, mineral and vitamins composition varied significantly among the species analyzed. Nutritional composition of indigenous leaf and fruit vegetables were compared with that of exotic vegetables and significant differences were noted. In general, proteins, carbohydrates, dietary fibers, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, Vitamin A, Vitamin C and Vitamin E were significantly higher in indigenous vegetables than their exotic counterparts. The results highlight nutritional importance of indigenous vegetables and the need to promote their consumption and safeguard their genetic resources. For further promotion, some urgent research directions are suggested. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

PubMed | Southwest UniversityChongqing, College of Agriculture Science and Education, Southwest University and Purdue University
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in plant science | Year: 2016

Flavonoids, the compounds that impart color to fruits, flowers, and seeds, are the most widespread secondary metabolites in plants. However, a systematic analysis of these loci has not been performed in Brassicaceae. In this study, we isolated 649 nucleotide sequences related to flavonoid biosynthesis, i.e., the

Li A.L.,College of Agriculture Science and Education
Xi bao yu fen zi mian yi xue za zhi = Chinese journal of cellular and molecular immunology | Year: 2011

To analyse the effect of 7 Lactobacillus species on proliferation and cytokine production of primary lymphocytes, and explored the effect on the Th1/Th2 cells balance. The mouse spleen cells were stimulated with active/heat-killed Lactobacillus strains at different species and concentrations. After be cultured with bacteria 60 hours, the proliferation of splenocytes were tested by MTT colorimetry, and IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β were detected by ELISA. (1) Both alive and heat-killed Lactobacillus species could accelerate the proliferation of spleen cells in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05), the immuneological activity of heat-killed L.fermentum and L.acidophilu were not inferior to the live strains, especially when treated at higher dose(10(7);CFU/mL, bacteria: cell ratio of 10:1). Furthermore, these two heat-killed bacterial strains suppressed IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β production by stimulating IL-12 and IFN-γ production, and their IFN-γ/IL-4 value which represent the Th1/Th2 balance were higher than ConA control group significantly(P<0.05). The results indicate that Lactobacillus strains may differ in their respective ability to improve Th1/Th2 cells balance toward Th1 dominance via increasing the secretion ratio of IFN-γ/IL-4 (Th1/Th2) by splenocytes.

Liu Z.,College of Agriculture Science and Education
BioTechnology: An Indian Journal | Year: 2014

Baseball is a worldwide sports event; its high ornamental and competitiveness charm the people. And baseball game is also a game relies on apparatus, therefore bat some physical properties will have great effects on batters' abilities. This paper targeted market two kinds of textures (allwood and all aluminum) bats hitting effects, it makes deeply research from the two aspects. By deeply researching and analysis of bat hitting process and establishing physical model, it gets bat maximum delivery speed expression, therefore it gets aluminum bat maximum delivery speed is obviously larger than wood bat. Aluminum bat speed change curve is more smoothly than wood bat, which means hitting point position influences on hitting speed is not obvious so that cannot reflect batters' levels. By establishing bat elastic beam model, through analyzing, it gets wood bat and aluminum bat force status. © 2014 Trade Science Inc. - INDIA.

Li A.,College of Agriculture Science and Education
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2012

We investigated the correlation between the in vitro immune profiling of 5 lactobacilli strains and their in vivo protective effect in a mouse beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) allergy model for selecting the candidate strains with potential anti-allergy activity. In vitro immunomodulation was assessed by measuring interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) release by primary lymphocytes stimulated with 5 active/heat-killed lactobacilli. A mice model of beta-lactoglobulin allergy was then used to evaluate the alleviating allergy capacity of the same set of strains. The rats were randomly divided into blank group, BLG allergy group and different lactobacilli strains group. The total IgE and BLG-specific IgE contents in the serum of rats were measured with ELISA. Splenic lymphocytes were isolated and cultured in vitro, the levels of Thl/Th2 type cytokine were detected by ELISA. Protection of BLG-induced allergy was strain-specific. The strains displaying an in vitro capacity to induce higher levels of the Thl type cytokine (IFN-gamma) and lower levels of the Th2 type cytokine (IL-4), significantly decreased the levels of total IgE and BLG-IgE in allergic rat serum (P<0.05). In contrast, strains leading to a low IFN-gamma/IL-4 cytokine ratio could not significantly attenuate allergic symptoms. We could predict the in vivo protective capacity of the studied lactobacilli strains based on the cytokine profile established in vitro. Oral consumption of specific strain may be effective in preventing and alleviating BLG allergic symptoms by the improvement of the Th1/Th2 cell balance toward Th1 dominance, and the inhibition of IgE production.

PubMed | College of Agriculture Science and Education
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Phytopathology | Year: 2016

The Pi-ta gene in rice is effective in preventing infections by Magnaporthe oryzae strains that contain the corresponding avirulence gene, AVR-Pita1. Diverse haplotypes of AVR-Pita1 have been identified from isolates of M. oryzae from rice production areas in the United States and worldwide. DNA sequencing and mapping studies have revealed that AVR-Pita1 is highly unstable, while expression analysis and quantitative resistance loci mapping of the Pi-ta locus revealed complex evolutionary mechanisms of Pi-ta-mediated resistance. Among these studies, several Pi-ta transcripts were identified, most of which are probably derived from alternative splicing and exon skipping, which could produce functional resistance proteins that support a new concept of coevolution of Pi-ta and AVR-Pita1. User-friendly DNA markers for Pi-ta have been developed to support marker-assisted selection, and development of new rice varieties with the Pi-ta markers. Genome-wide association studies revealed a link between Pi-ta-mediated resistance and yield components suggesting that rice has evolved a complicated defense mechanism against the blast fungus. In this review, we detail the current understanding of Pi-ta allelic variation, its linkage with rice productivity, AVR-Pita allelic variation, and the coevolution of Pi-ta and AVR-Pita in Oryza species and M. oryzae populations, respectively. We also review the genetic and molecular basis of Pi-ta and AVR-Pita interaction, and its value in marker-assisted selection and engineering resistance.

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