Gangtok, India

The College of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology , located in Ranipool, Gangtok , is one of the seven constituent colleges of the only Central Agricultural University in India, funded by the Government of India through the Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture Research and Education . This college is considered among the top three colleges under the UGC-ICAR system. It imparts education, research and extension in the field of agricultural engineering. It aims to provide qualified technical human resource in agricultural and food process engineering to the public and industrial sector of northeast India through its undergraduate and postgraduate programmes. Wikipedia.


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Mohapatra D.,Anand Agricultural University | Mishra S.,College of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology | Sutar N.,Anand Agricultural University
Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research | Year: 2010

Banana serves as an ideal and low cost food source for developing countries where most of the population rely mostly on bananas for food. Banana plant parts are useful as insecticide, antioxidant, colour absorber, in preparation of various functional foods, wine, alcohol, biogas, cattle feed etc. This review discusses usefulness of banana fruits, peel, leaves, pseudostem, sheath, pith and male bud, and prospects of using these materials in industry.


Chandra R.,College of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology | Vijay V.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Subbarao P.M.V.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Khura T.K.,College of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology
Applied Energy | Year: 2011

This paper presents the performance results of a 5.9. kW stationary diesel engine which was converted into spark ignition mode and run on compressed natural gas (CNG), methane enriched biogas (Bio-CNG) and biogas produced from biomethanation of jatropha and pongamia oil seed cakes. The performance of the engine with 12.65 compression ratio was evaluated at 30°, 35° and 40° ignition advance of TDC. The maximum brake power produced by the engine was found at ignition advance of 35° TDC for all the tested fuels. In comparison to diesel as original fuel, the power deteriorations of the engine was observed to be 31.8%, 35.6% and 46.3% on compressed natural gas, methane enriched biogas and raw biogas, respectively, due to its conversion from CI to SI mode. The methane enriched biogas showed almost similar engine performance as compared to compressed natural gas in terms of brake power output, specific gas consumption and thermal efficiency. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Chandra R.,College of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology | Vijay V.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Subbarao P.M.V.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Khura T.K.,College of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology
Applied Energy | Year: 2012

The experimental study was carried out on anaerobic digestion of jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and pongamia (Pongamia pinnata) oil seed cakes in a 20m3/d capacity floating drum biogas plant under mesophilic temperature condition. The average specific methane production potential of jatropha oil seed cake was observed as 0.394m3/kg TS and 0.422m3/kg VS. The average content of methane and carbon dioxide in the produced biogas over 30days of retention time period was found as 66.6% and 31.3%, respectively. Cumulative methane yield over 30days of retention time period was found as 131.258m3 with a 259.2kg of input volatile solids, with an average total volatile solids mass removal efficiency of 59.6%. However, in case of pongamia oil seed cake average specific methane production was observed as 0.427m3/kg TS and 0.448m3/kg VS. The average value of methane and carbon dioxide content in the produced biogas over 30days of retention was found as 62.5% and 33.5%, respectively. Cumulative methane yield over 30days of retention time period was found as 147.605m3 with a 255.9kg of input volatile solids, with an average total volatile solids mass removal efficiency of 74.9%. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Chandra R.,College of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology | Chandra R.,EcoTopia Science Institute | Takeuchi H.,EcoTopia Science Institute | Hasegawa T.,EcoTopia Science Institute
Applied Energy | Year: 2012

This paper presents the results of an experimental batch methane fermentation (at 37°C mesophilic temperature) study carried out on untreated and pretreated substrates of rice straw using NaOH and hydrothermal pretreatments. 3% NaOH pretreatment was given to ground rice straw biomass for 120h at 37°C and hydrothermal pretreatment was given for 10min at 200°C. It was observed that NaOH addition is a mandatory requirement for maintaining a suitable range of pH and starting the biogas production from hydrothermal pretreated biomass slurry of rice straw. The fed substrate concentrations were maintained at 5% TS (50g TS/L). The study revealed into 140.0L/kg VSa biogas and 59.8L/kg VSa methane from untreated rice straw substrate. However, NaOH pretreated substrate resulted into 184.8L/kg VSa biogas and 74.1L/kg VSa methane. Hydrothermal pretreated followed by 5% NaOH added substrate resulted into highest biogas and methane production yields as 315.9L/kg VSa and 132.7L/kg VSa, respectively. NaOH pretreated substrate showed an increase of 132.0% in biogas production and 123.9% in methane production relative to the untreated substrate. However, the hydrothermal pretreated substrate had resulted into an increase of 225.6% in biogas production and 222.0% in methane production relative to untreated rice straw substrate. Hydrothermal pretreatment provided an accelerated pre-hydrolysis of biomass contents during the treatment process and thereby resulted into enhanced biogas and methane production yields. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Chandra R.,College of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology | Chandra R.,EcoTopia Science Institute | Takeuchi H.,EcoTopia Science Institute | Hasegawa T.,EcoTopia Science Institute | Kumar R.,Indian Institute of Technology Indore
Energy | Year: 2012

This paper presents the results of an experimental methane fermentation study on untreated, NaOH and hydrothermal pretreated substrates of wheat straw. Experiments were conducted at 37 °C (mesophilic temperature). Substrates concentration were maintained at 4.45% VS (44.5 g VS/L). Untreated wheat straw substrate had resulted into specific methane and biogas production yields of 78.4 L/kg VS a and 188.4 L/kg VS a, respectively. The specific methane and biogas production yield of NaOH pretreated wheat straw substrate had resulted into 165.9 L/kg VS a and 353.2 L/kg VS a, respectively. Hydrothermal pretreated wheat straw substrate had resulted to yield specific methane and biogas production of 94.1 L/kg VS a and 205.7 L/kg VS a, respectively. NaOH pretreated substrate produced 87.5% higher biogas production and 111.6% higher methane production compared to the untreated wheat straw substrate. Hydrothermal pretreated substrate had resulted into an increase of 9.2% in biogas production and 20.0% in methane production compared to that of untreated wheat straw substrate. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Vashisht A.K.,College of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology
Applied Energy | Year: 2012

Traditional watermills of the Himalayan region are centuries old water-power driven small-scale industry which is serving mountain inhabitants till date. But, day by day it is becoming tough for this eco-friendly technology to keep pace with modern technologies; hence its future is dubious now. Various organizations throughout the world are trying to rejuvenate and re-popularize this environment-friendly technology for multipurpose use. However, instead of improving its existing design, stress is being given to increase the adoptability of new-design watermill. In spite of all efforts, the new-design watermill has not shown any sharp impact on its adoptability rate. Certainly, there are issues which are not considered while implementing line of action. Before commencing the study, thorough discussions on the issues affecting the watermills' existence in the region were made with the remotely residing watermill owners. Complete study is divided into two parts. In the first part, the issues that are deciding the fate of watermills' existence in the region are discussed. Keeping all discussed-issues in mind, design of various components of an in-operation watermill is reviewed and modifications are proposed for increasing its efficiency. For the purpose, analytical expressions for evaluating watermill efficiency are also derived. © 2012.


Mohapatra D.,Anand Agricultural University | Mishra S.,College of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology | Singh C.B.,University of Manitoba | Jayas D.S.,University of Manitoba
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2011

Banana has a special place in the daily diet of millions of people around the world for sustenance and nutrient enrichment. Some of the popular food uses of banana are chips, raw ripened fruit, cooked green banana, fermented and unfermented beverages, juice, puree, dried flour for bakery and infant formula food. Banana is also used as a starch source for various chemicals and packaging materials. The storability and functional properties of these products can be altered by the application of various innovative food processing technologies. This review article focuses on different banana products, their potential for non-conventional uses and associated prospective novel processing techniques for value addition and preservation. © 2010 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.


Chandra R.,College of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology | Chandra R.,EcoTopia Science Institute | Takeuchi H.,EcoTopia Science Institute | Hasegawa T.,EcoTopia Science Institute
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive review on renewable methane fuel production through the biological route of biomethanation process from major lignocellulosic agricultural crop waste biomass (maize, wheat, rice and sugarcane). Global annual approximate production of major agriculture based lignocellulosic biomass has been explored. Fundamental requirements of biomethanation process have been discussed in details for optimum production of methane. The essential properties of biomass (proximate, ultimate and compositional) conscientious for quality of derived fuel have also been presented along with the pretreatment requirements for lignocellulosic biomass. Methane generation potential of the major lignocellulosic agricultural crop biomass has been explored and presented. Furthermore, the methane production potential and its energetic analysis have also been compared with the bio-ethanol productions. The overall parametric analysis involved in anaerobic digestion and alcoholic fermentation explore that methane generation from lignocellulosic agricultural crop waste biomass is more economical and environmentally beneficial way of biomass utilization in a sustainable way of energy production. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kusre B.C.,College of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology
Journal of the Geological Society of India | Year: 2013

The Diyung river descends in Nagaon district of Assam. After its confluence with main channel Kopili it causes enormous losses to life and property due to floods. Appropriate watershed treatment measures are, therefore, required for moderating the flood damage. In the present study landscape information viz., the hypsometric integral has been analysed. The Diyung watershed has been subdivided into 23 sub-watersheds for hypsometric analysis. The hypsometric integral for the entire Diyung watershed ranged from 0.14 to 0.56. According to the present study there are two stages of geologic/geomorphologic development, namely equilibrium stage and monadnock stage. The hypsometric integral indicates that surface runoff is the dominant process. Although static, the topographic characteristics indicate response of watershed to various natural phenomenon and dominant processes such as runoff and erosion. Based on the intensity of the processes sub-watershed can be prioritized for taking up appropriate conservation measures. The study also highlights the use of hypsometric integral for prioritizing watershed for planning engineering measures to mitigate the impact. © 2013 Geological Society of India.


Gupta R.,College of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology | Tiwari G.N.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Kumar A.,Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology | Gupta Y.,College of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2012

The distribution of the incoming transmitted solar radiation (radiation which enters inside the greenhouse through canopy cover) on the floor and on the inner walls of the greenhouse has been studied to evaluated total solar fraction/solar fraction. Total solar fraction/solar fraction is required to write an energy balance equation for each component of a greenhouse. The evaluation has been done for different orientations of an even span greenhouse located at New Delhi (28.5°latitude), India. The effect of length and the width of the greenhouse on the total solar fraction have also been evaluated. Three-dimensional shadow analysis in Auto-CAD has been used for the study. A typical clear day of winter and summer has been considered and it was observed that total solar fraction was higher in winter as compared to summer. Numerically, there is not much effect of orientation on total solar fraction of a day for a greenhouse. However, an orientation of 45°clock-wise (for greenhouse initially at East-West orientation) resulted in lowest radiation loss during winter and maximum loss during summer. Total solar fraction plays an important role for smaller greenhouses. The methodology can be used for designing a greenhouse of any shape and size for any location. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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