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Veterinary, India

Pankaj,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Sharma A.,College Central Laboratory | Sindhu N.,J.C.B. Station
Buffalo Bulletin

This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis, its etiological agents and their antibiogram in Murrah buffaloes at an organized farm. A total of 326 quarter milk samples were screened from 82 apparently healthy buffaloes. The percent prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis was found to be lower on the basis of SCC (>5x105/ml) alone (23.17) as compared to cultural examination (29.26). However, the quarter-wise percent prevalence on the basis of SCC (11.04) was similar to bacteriological examination (11.65). On the basis of International Dairy Federation criteria, 7.05% of the quarters (SCC above 500,000/ml of milk and culturally positive), 4.60% quarters (SCC below 500,000/ml of milk but culturally positive) and 3.98% (culturally negative and SCC above 500,000/ml) were found to suffer from sub-clinical, latent and non-specifi c mastitis, respectively. Out of 38 culturally positive quarters, a total of 44 organisms were recovered. Of these, 15.90% were coagulase positive staphylococci and 47.72% were coagulase negative staphylococci followed by Streptococcus dysgalactiae 25%, Streptococcus agalactiae 9.09% and Streptococcus uberis 2.27%. and 13.63% of the quarters revealed mixed infections with Staphylococcus spp. + Streptococcus spp. Among Staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus haemolyticus were the main isolates followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus hyicus, Staphylococcus pasteuri, Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus, Staphylococcus arlettae and Staphylococcus gallinarum. All the strains of staphylococci and streptococci were found sensitive to cloxacillin, ceftriaxone and cefoperazone. Streptococci revealed 100 percent sensitivity towards penicillin, enrofl oxacin, ciprofl oxacin, lincomycin and cephalexin. Source

Chand P.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Chand P.,College Central Laboratory | Chhabra R.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Chhabra R.,College Central Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences

Brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus is a serious threat to dairy farming particularly when the area is endemic with no effective vaccination programme. Abortion is the main outcome of brucellosis in pregnant animals with further complication of retention of placenta, reduced milk yield, metritis, temporary or permanent infertility, cost of veterinary services, increased inter-calving period and maintenance of unproductive animal. Owing to abortions, a contaminated environment with a high antigenic load of B. abortus is created on the farm in which vaccination of calves alone is not sufficient to control brucellosis. Vaccination of adult animals including calves would be an effective strategy to control abortions and bring down incidence of the disease. In the present study, attempts were made to control brucellosis on a Murrah buffalo farm where brucellosis entered about 5 years ago, and since then 86 abortions had occurred resulting into colossal losses. The strategy of testing of all animals, segregation of positive population, and decontamination of farm premises coupled with vaccination with B. abortus S19 vaccine of adult buffaloes as well as calves (4-8 months) was adopted. Adult buffaloes were vaccinated with reduced dose of S19 vaccine by conjunctival route and boosted after 4 months while calves were vaccinated by single standard dose of S19 vaccine by subcutaneous route. Only 6.52% (6/ 92) adult buffaloes became serologically positive after 1 month of conjunctival vaccination, however, these animals also became negative after 2 months. The drawback of subcutaneous vaccination of adult animals that they become serologically positive with persistent antibody titres interfering in subsequent testing was circumvented by using the conjunctival route of vaccine administration. Abortions in buffaloes were not recorded after vaccination. Source

Charaya G.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Charaya G.,College Central Laboratory | Sharma A.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Sharma A.,College Central Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences

In the present study multiplex PCR assay was standardized for simultaneous detection of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae and Escherichia coli associated with mastitis. The target sequence 16S to 23S rRNA inter spacer regions was used. Primers used were chosen to have approximately same Tm value, common annealing temperature and easily differentiable specific amplified products. The performance of the assay was examined on 92 milk samples collected from subclinically and clinically infected buffaloes and the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of multiplex PCR was compared with culture examination. Out of total milk samples, 16 were diagnosed for mixed infections of Staphylococcus aureus + S. dysgalactiae (43.75%), S. aureus + S. agalactiae (12.5%), S. aureus + E. coli (25%), S. dysgalactiae + E. coli (12.5%) and S. aureus + S. dysgalactiae + E. coli (6.25%). Multiplex PCR assay was more promising option than culture methods. Milk culture method is cumbersome and more time consuming and it may yield no bacteria due to the presence of very low number of pathogens or due to residual therapeutic antibiotics concentration in milk. The assay has an added advantage over simplex PCR that it can simultaneous detect and type different species of bacteria. Multiplex PCR assay is rapid, sensitive and specific assay which can be used as a routine diagnostic tool to detect major mastitis pathogens. Source

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