Collaborative Innovation Center for Advance Aerospace Engine

Beijing, China

Collaborative Innovation Center for Advance Aerospace Engine

Beijing, China

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Ba Y.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Ba Y.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Kang Q.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Liu H.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Computational Science | Year: 2016

In this study, the dynamical behavior of a droplet on topologically structured surface is investigated by using a three-dimensional color-gradient lattice Boltzmann model. A wetting boundary condition is proposed to model fluid-surface interactions, which is advantageous to improve the accuracy of the simulation and suppress spurious velocities at the contact line. The model is validated by the droplet partial wetting test and reproduction of the Cassie and Wenzel states. A series of simulations are conducted to investigate the behavior of a droplet when subjected to a shear flow. It is found that in Cassie state, the droplet undergoes a transition from stationary, to slipping and finally to detachment states as the capillary number increases, while in Wenzel state, the last state changes to the breakup state. The critical capillary number, above which the droplet slipping occurs, is small for the Cassie droplet, but is significantly enhanced for the Wenzel droplet due to the increased contact angle hysteresis. In Cassie state, the receding contact angle nearly equals the prediction by the Cassie relation, and the advancing contact angle is close to 180°, leading to a small contact angle hysteresis. In Wenzel state, however, the contact angle hysteresis is extremely large (around 100°). Finally, high droplet mobility can be easily achieved for Cassie droplets, whereas in Wenzel state, extremely low droplet mobility is identified. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Song P.,Xianning University | Song P.,Collaborative Innovation Center for Advance Aerospace Engine | Sun J.,Xianning University | Sun J.,Collaborative Innovation Center for Advance Aerospace Engine
Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Transonic axial flow fan has relatively high blade tip speed and produces higher pressure ratio than the subsonic. However, considerable losses are brought about by the shock waves close to blade tip and over part of span, leading to deteriorated overall efficiency and operating flow range. The present study is to mitigate shock wave and reduce losses through simultaneous variation of blade sectional profiles and their stacking line in blade design. Both sectional profiles and stacking line are varied simultaneously to provide more flexible blade shape tuning. To achieve a best blade shape and produce maximum performance gains, a global optimization method is incorporated in the blade shape design. It includes an improved CCEA (cooperative co-evolution algorithm) optimizer and one-stage Expected Improvement (EI) based adaptively updated Kriging surrogate model. The former has divided the high-dimension optimization problems into readily solved low-dimension ones, while the later has enabled the optimizer to jump out of from the local optima and search the solution towards the global optima. The optimization is conducted for Rotor67 at design condition with a single workstation, and considerable overall efficiency and pressure ratio gains are simultaneously obtained, while the flow range is also extended. This is supported by the significantly improved flow behavior in the optimized blade passages, where the chordwise shock wave is mitigated, leading to an increase in overall efficiency; the spanwise static pressure distribution is improved evidently and this improves the overall pressure ratio. © 2015, The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Ba Y.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Liu H.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Sun J.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Sun J.,Collaborative Innovation Center for Advance Aerospace Engine | Zheng R.,Fuzhou University
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2015

Asymmetric T-junctions have recently emerged as a promising tool in microfluidics. However, previous studies of the droplet formation mechanism are largely limited to symmetric T-junctions. In this work, the droplet formation in universal T-junctions, including both symmetric and asymmetric T-junctions, is investigated by a three-dimensional color-gradient lattice Boltzmann model. A three-dimensional color-conserving boundary condition is developed to model fluid-surface interactions, which suppresses the spurious velocities near the contact lines and improves numerical accuracy. Model verification is conducted by the partial wetting test and the droplet formation in a symmetric T-junction. Then, an in-depth study is performed for universal T-junctions. In both symmetric and asymmetric T-junctions, the droplet length is linearly dependent on flow rate ratio at low capillary number, and the droplet formation successively undergoes squeezing, dripping and jetting regimes as the capillary number increases. By investigating the local pressure and velocity field, we find that the upstream pressure and viscous force respectively dominates the droplet formation in squeezing and dripping regimes. In squeezing regime, the pressure fluctuates significantly, and the fluctuation amplitude and frequency decrease with the channel width ratio; while in dripping regime, the pressure fluctuation is negligibly small, and the viscous force is found to decrease with the channel width ratio. Consequently, the droplet size increases with the channel width ratio in both regimes. In addition, the viscosity ratio and surface wettability are found to be influential to the formation regime, droplet shape and size for various channel width ratios and capillary numbers, and play important roles in droplet formation. ©Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wang K.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Sun J.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Sun J.,Collaborative Innovation Center for Advance Aerospace Engine | Song P.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Song P.,Collaborative Innovation Center for Advance Aerospace Engine
Cryogenics | Year: 2015

A cryogenic liquid turbine expander is developed as a replacement for traditional Joule-Thomson valves used in the cryogenic systems for the purpose of energy saving. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the turbine expander and is the subject of this paper. The test rig comprises a closed-loop liquefied nitrogen system, cryogenic liquid turbine expander unit, and its auxiliary and measuring systems. The test operating parameters of the turbine expander are determined on the basis of flow similarity rules. Pre-cooling of the liquid nitrogen system is first performed, and then the tests are conducted at different flow rates and speed ratios. The turbine expander flow rate, inlet and outlet pressure and temperature, rotational speed and shaft torque were measured. Experimental results and their uncertainties were analyzed and discussed. The following are demonstrated: (1) For both test cases, turbine expander peak isentropic efficiency is respectively 78.8% and 68.4% obtained at 89.6% and 92% of the design flow rate. The large uncertainties in isentropic efficiency are caused by the large enthalpy variations subjected to small measurement uncertainties in temperature and pressure. (2) Total efficiency and hydraulic efficiency of the turbine expander are obtained. They are essentially the same, since both include flow-related effects and also bearing losses. Comparisons of total efficiency and hydraulic efficiency were used to justify measurement uncertainties of different quantities, since the former involves the measured mass flow rate and enthalpy drop (being dependant on inlet and outlet temperature and pressure), while the latter involves the actual shaft power, volume flow rate, and inlet and outlet pressure. (3) Losses in flow passages and the shaft-bearing system have been inferred based on the measured turbine expander total efficiency, isentropic efficiency, and mechanical efficiency, which are respectively 57.6-74.8%, 62.1-78.8% and 89.5-96.4%. Uncertainty analysis is conducted for experimental isentropic efficiency, hydraulic efficiency, and total efficiency. The hydraulic efficiency seems to be the best measure for assessing the performance of cryogenic liquid turbine expander. (4) Isentropic efficiency versus speed ratio is obtained from the experimental data. The experimental isentropic efficiency increases with the speed ratio, and it reaches 78.8% at the largest experimental speed ratio. A higher efficiency would be achieved if the speed ratio could reach a larger value. This provides some guidance for an optimal operation of the turbine expander in the future. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Song P.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Song P.,Collaborative Innovation Center for Advance Aerospace Engine | Sun J.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Sun J.,Collaborative Innovation Center for Advance Aerospace Engine | Wang K.,Xi'an Jiaotong University
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy | Year: 2015

A single-stage cryogenic liquid turbine expander is developed as a replacement of Joule-Thompson valve in the internal compression air separation unit for energy-saving purpose. Flow analysis and optimization is conducted for the turbine expander. With the original geometry, static pressure drops gradually from the nozzle to impeller together with a 2.7 K temperature drop, which exhibits simultaneously a smooth throttling characteristic and cryogenic refrigeration effect. However, similar to the conventional hydraulic turbine, a vortex-rope is apparently formed around the draft tube centerline. It leads to considerable mechanical energy dissipation and, subsequently, a local pressure drop and temperature rise, which have made the turbine expander vulnerable to cavitation. The draft tube vortex swirling flow has been found to be sensitive to exit geometric shape of rotating impeller. To suppress the swirling flow and cavitation, design optimization of impeller geometric shape is further conducted with an efficient global optimization method developed by the authors, where in particular, an innovative optimization objective function and a simultaneous tuning of both impeller meridian profile and blade shape are incorporated. The former is a linear combination of the draft tube loss factor and normalized impeller exit static pressure. It depicts the draft tube swirling flow behavior and also captures somehow the cavitation flow physics. The latter permits a very flexible variation of the impeller geometry. Such a highly nonlinear problem is solved by the global optimization algorithm, in which the Kriging surrogate model is used but updated through adaptive sampling. It is demonstrated that with the optimized geometry, the vortex-rope like characteristics has diminished apparently and both scale and intensity of swirling region are reduced significantly. As a result, the low static pressure region has shrunk and the local temperature rise is reduced and, subsequently, the cavitation is effectively suppressed. © 2015 Institution of Mechanical Engineers.


Zheng R.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Liu H.,University of Strathclyde | Sun J.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Sun J.,Collaborative Innovation Center for Advance Aerospace Engine | Ba Y.,Xi'an Jiaotong University
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2014

The Cassie-Baxter model is widely used to predict the apparent contact angles on textured super-hydrophobic surfaces. However, it has been challenged by some recent studies, since it does not consider contact angle hysteresis and surface structure characteristics near the contact line. The present study is to investigate the contact angle hysteresis on striped textured surfaces, and its elimination through vibrating the substrate. The two-phase flow is simulated by a recently proposed lattice Boltzmann model for high-density-ratio flows. Droplet evolutions under various initial contact angles are simulated, and it is found that different contact angles exist for the same textured surface. The importance of the contact line structure for droplet pinning is underlined via a study of droplet behavior on a composite substrate, with striped textured structure inside and flat structure outside. A "stick-jump" motion is found for the advancing contact line on the striped textured surface. Due to hysteresis, the contact angles after advancing are not consistent with the Cassie-Baxter model. The stable equilibrium is obtained through properly vibrating the substrate, and the resulted contact angles are consistent with Cassie's predictions. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Song P.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Song P.,Collaborative Innovation Center for Advance Aerospace Engine | Sun J.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Sun J.,Collaborative Innovation Center for Advance Aerospace Engine | Wang K.,Xi'an Jiaotong University
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy | Year: 2014

The present study is to explore potential benefits of axial flow compressor blade optimization through a flexible tuning. Modifications of blade sectional profiles and their stacking line can control spanwise blade loading distribution, reduce shock losses, and extend operating flow range. Most previous studies focused on tuning either sectional profiles or stacking line, but little work was conducted by collaboratively varying both, which may be due to abrupt rise of optimization variables and complexity. An efficient optimization method is developed to handle highly nonlinear high-dimension blade optimization problem with simultaneous variation of both sectional profiles and stacking line. It incorporates an improved cooperative co-evolution algorithm optimizer and one-stage expected improvement based adaptive surrogate model. The former decomposes the high-dimension problem into low-dimension subproblems and they can be readily solved; the latter enables the optimizer to jump out of the local minima and conduct the aim-oriented optimal search toward global optimum. A coarse surrogate model is firstly constructed with some DOE samples but it is refined during optimization process with newly identified and evaluated samples. The model prediction accuracy is gradually improved, thus it captures the distinct features (especially global optimum) of optimization problem. Both blade sectional profiles and their spatial positions are simultaneously varied. Four sectional profiles of hub, 33% span, 67% span, and shroud are parameterized, and each is defined by a mean camber line and thickness distribution. Both of them are represented, respectively, by a third-order B-Spline curve. Spatial position of each profile varies in term of sweep and lean. Blade design optimization is conducted for Rotor67 at design flow on a single workstation of Dell 7500. Performance gains are significant: at design flow, overall efficiency and pressure ratio are increased, respectively, by 1.44 and 7.24%; off-design performances are also improved over the entire flow range. © IMechE 2014.


Ba Y.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Ba Y.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Liu H.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Li Q.,Central South University | And 3 more authors.
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2016

In this paper we propose a color-gradient lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for simulating two-phase flows with high density ratio and high Reynolds number. The model applies a multirelaxation-time (MRT) collision operator to enhance the stability of the simulation. A source term, which is derived by the Chapman-Enskog analysis, is added into the MRT LB equation so that the Navier-Stokes equations can be exactly recovered. Also, a form of the equilibrium density distribution function is used to simplify the source term. To validate the proposed model, steady flows of a static droplet and the layered channel flow are first simulated with density ratios up to 1000. Small values of spurious velocities and interfacial tension errors are found in the static droplet test, and improved profiles of velocity are obtained by the present model in simulating channel flows. Then, two cases of unsteady flows, Rayleigh-Taylor instability and droplet splashing on a thin film, are simulated. In the former case, the density ratio of 3 and Reynolds numbers of 256 and 2048 are considered. The interface shapes and spike and bubble positions are in good agreement with the results of previous studies. In the latter case, the droplet spreading radius is found to obey the power law proposed in previous studies for the density ratio of 100 and Reynolds number up to 500. © 2016 American Physical Society.

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