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Zheng H.,Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai | Zheng H.,Collaborating Center for Research in Human Reproduction | Liu E.,Nihon University | Liu E.,Meiji Co. | And 5 more authors.
Biotechnology Letters

The amino acid biosynthesis pathway and proteolytic system of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038 (L. bulgaricus 2038), a mainstay of large-scale yogurt production, were modeled based on its genomic sequence. L. bulgaricus 2038 retains more potential for amino acid synthesis and a more powerful proteolytic system than other L. bulgaricus strains, but favors amino acid uptake over de novo synthesis. Free amino acids and peptides in bovine milk provide the main nitrogen sources; whey is more important than casein for L. bulgaricus during fermentation. Free amino acids are imported by amino acid permeases and by ABC-type transport systems whereas exogenous oligopeptides are imported by ABC-type proteins only. Histidine is neither synthesized nor imported singly, which might explain why L. bulgaricus cannot grow in synthetic media. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Chen J.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Wang W.-Q.,Collaborating Center for Research in Human Reproduction | Wang W.-Q.,Jilin University | Lin S.-X.,Collaborating Center for Research in Human Reproduction | Lin S.-X.,Laval University
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol (ADIOL) and 5α-androstane- 3β,17β-diol (3β-DIOL), metabolites of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), respectively, are known to possess estrogenic properties. To better understand their hormonal action and roles in the proliferation of breast cancer (BC) cells, we studied their binding to sex-hormone receptors in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (ZR-75-1 and T-47D) and ER-negative (MDA-MB-231) human BC cells. The results demonstrated that estradiol (E2), ADIOL and 3β-DIOL stimulated the proliferation of ZR-75-1 and T-47D cells, but had no effect on ER-negative cells. In the presence of estradiol, ADIOL and 3β-DIOL inhibited the estrogen-stimulated BC cell growth. This inhibition was counteracted by anti-androgens, which were unable to affect the ADIOL and 3β-DIOL stimulatory effects in E 2-free medium. On the other hand, in the presence of tamoxifen, ADIOL and 3β-DIOL showed an additional anti-proliferative activity on hormone-sensitive BC cells compared with tamoxifen treatment alone. These results are similar to previous reports obtained using MCF-7 cells, which confirmed that ADIOL and 3β-DIOL stimulated estrogen-dependent BC cell growth via ERs, but inhibited growth via androgen receptors (ARs). Several steroids bind to both ER and AR in a different preference and degree, i.e. E2 > estrone (E1) > ADIOL > 3β-DIOL > testosterone (T) > DHT for ER and DHT > T > 3β-DIOL > ADIOL > E1 > E2 for AR. The relative binding affinities of ADIOL, 3β-DIOL, and E2 corresponded well to their respective potential in stimulating cell proliferation of ZR-75-1 and T-47D cells in our results. The intrinsic relationship between cell proliferation effects and binding affinities for receptors of several steroids was revealed here by a combined binding and cell study. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Synthesis and biological testing of steroid derivatives as inhibitors'. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Miao M.,Collaborating Center for Research in Human Reproduction | Miao M.,Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research | Zhou X.,Collaborating Center for Research in Human Reproduction | Zhou X.,Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research | And 13 more authors.

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor with potentially harmful effects on humans. However, epigenetic mechanisms that modulate the effects of BPA remain unclear. Methylation of long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) is a marker of genome-wide methylation status. This study aims to examine whether BPA exposure was associated with LINE-1 methylation changes in men. Male factory workers in Hunan, China (N = 149) were studied, 77 with BPA exposure in workplace (BPA-exposed group) and 72 without BPA exposure in workplace (control group). Pre-shift and post-shift urine samples were collected from the BPA-exposed group and spot urine samples were collected from the control group. Urine samples were assessed for BPA. In addition, blood and semen samples were collected from both groups for LINE-1 methylation analysis. In multivariate analysis adjusted for age, education, smoking habits and alcohol consumption, sperm LINE-1 methylation level was significantly lower in BPA exposed workers (p < 0.001) compared to that in the unexposed workers. Linear regression analysis also showed that log-transformed urine BPA levels were inversely associated with sperm LINE-1 methylation (p < 0.0001), but not peripheral blood cell LINE-1 methylation. Moreover, the association between urine BPA level and semen quality was not attenuated after adjustments for LINE-1 level. In summary, the observed independent relationship between BPA exposure and LINE-1 methylation may have public health implications on reproductive health in men because of ubiquitous exposure to BPA. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology. Source

Ding M.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Ding M.,Collaborating Center for Research in Human Reproduction | Ding M.,Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research | Lin B.,Zhejiang University | And 22 more authors.

Androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer (PCa) causes neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) of prostatic adenocarcinomas (PAC) cells, leading to recurrence of PCa. Androgen-responsive genes involved in PCa progression including NED remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrated the importance of androgen receptor (AR)-microRNA-204 (miR-204)-XRN1 axis in PCa cell lines and the rat ventral prostate. Androgens downregulate miR-204, resulting in induction of XRN1 (5'-3' exoribonuclease 1), which we identified as a miR-204 target. miR-204 acts as a tumor suppressor in two PAC cell lines (LNCaP and 22Rv1) and as an oncomiR in two neuroendocrine-like prostate cancer (NEPC) cell lines (PC-3 and CL1). Importantly, overexpression of miR-204 and knockdown of XRN1 inhibited AR expression in PCa cells. Repression of miR-34a, a known AR-targeting miRNA, contributes AR expression by XRN1. Thus we revealed the AR-miR-204-XRN1-miR-34a positive feedback loop and a dual function of miR-204/XRN1 axis in prostate cancer. Source

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