Collaborating Center for Prevention and Treatment of Human Echinococcosis

Besançon, France

Collaborating Center for Prevention and Treatment of Human Echinococcosis

Besançon, France
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van Kesteren F.,University of Salford | Qi X.,Xinjiang Medical University | Tao J.,Xinjiang Medical University | Feng X.,Xinjiang Medical University | And 7 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2015

The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwest China is one of the world's most important foci for cystic echinococcosis. Domestic dogs are the main source for human infection, and previous studies in Xinjiang have found a canine Echinococcus spp. coproELISA prevalence of between 36% and 41%. In 2010 the Chinese National Echinococcosis Control Programme was implemented in Xinjiang, and includes regular dosing of domestic dogs with praziquantel. Six communities in Hobukesar County, northwest Xinjiang were assessed in relation to the impact of this control programme through dog necropsies, dog Echinococcus spp. coproantigen surveys based on Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) and dog owner questionnaires. We found that 42.1% of necropsied dogs were infected with Echinococcus granulosus, and coproELISA prevalences were between 15% and 70% in the communities. Although approximately half of all dog owners reported dosing their dogs within the 12 months prior to sampling, coproELISA prevalence remained high. Regular praziquantel dosing of owned dogs in remote and semi-nomadic communities such as those in Hobukesar County is logistically very difficult and additional measures should be considered to reduce canine echinococcosis. © 2015.


PubMed | University of Salford, Collaborating Center for Prevention and Treatment of Human Echinococcosis, Xinjiang Medical University and Peoples Hospital of Hobukesar County
Type: | Journal: Acta tropica | Year: 2015

The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwest China is one of the worlds most important foci for cystic echinococcosis. Domestic dogs are the main source for human infection, and previous studies in Xinjiang have found a canine Echinococcus spp. coproELISA prevalence of between 36% and 41%. In 2010 the Chinese National Echinococcosis Control Programme was implemented in Xinjiang, and includes regular dosing of domestic dogs with praziquantel. Six communities in Hobukesar County, northwest Xinjiang were assessed in relation to the impact of this control programme through dog necropsies, dog Echinococcus spp. coproantigen surveys based on Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) and dog owner questionnaires. We found that 42.1% of necropsied dogs were infected with Echinococcus granulosus, and coproELISA prevalences were between 15% and 70% in the communities. Although approximately half of all dog owners reported dosing their dogs within the 12 months prior to sampling, coproELISA prevalence remained high. Regular praziquantel dosing of owned dogs in remote and semi-nomadic communities such as those in Hobukesar County is logistically very difficult and additional measures should be considered to reduce canine echinococcosis.


Caoduro C.,University of Franche Comte | Porot C.,University of Franche Comte | Vuitton D.A.,Collaborating Center for Prevention and Treatment of Human Echinococcosis | Bresson-Hadni S.,Collaborating Center for Prevention and Treatment of Human Echinococcosis | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2013

18F-FDG PET has already proved its usefulness in the follow-up of patients with alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and has been proposed as a surrogate marker for therapeutic decisions on structured treatment interruption by benzimidazoles. However, standard PET acquisition (1 h after 18F-FDG injection) lacks sensitivity, and the parasite may stay viable even if 18F-FDG perilesional uptake has disappeared. The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of delayed 18F-FDG PET in the management of AE patients. Methods: During a 6-y period, 120 PET scans using 18F-FDG were obtained for 70 AE patients treated by benzimidazoles, without selection. All patients underwent whole-body imaging on a PET/CT device 1 h after 18F-FDG injection (4 MBq/kg), as well as an acquisition focused on the liver 3 h after the injection. We also analyzed the results of serologic tests. Results: Of the 57 scans considered negative at the standard acquisition, 13 (22.8%) became clearly positive at the delayed acquisition, and 6 (10.5%) became indeterminate at the delayed acquisition. Furthermore, 20 of 22 scans interpreted as indeterminate at the standard acquisition were considered positive because of clear perilesional 18F-FDG uptake at the delayed acquisition. Thus, delayed acquisition changed the interpretation in 32.5% of cases. Moreover, of 44 patients treated by benzimidazoles and followed for more than 2 y by regular 18FFDG PET scans and specific AE serology, 11 (25%) presented pathologic 18F-FDG uptake at the delayed acquisition but not at the standard one. In these patients, the treatment was continued despite negative results on standard 18F-FDG PET and negative serologic findings. On the other hand, in 7 patients with negative delayed 18F-FDG PET and negative serology, the treatment was safely interrupted with no evidence of disease recurrence during 8-37 mo (mean, 23 mo). Conclusion: Our study clearly demonstrated that delayed 18F-FDG PET greatly facilitated the differentiation between active and inactive liver lesions in AE patients. Also, our results strongly suggested that the combination of delayed 18F-FDG PET and specific serology would prevent most of the recurrences observed after premature interruption of the treatment based only on standard 18F-FDG PET. COPYRIGHT © 2013 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.


Knapp J.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Knapp J.,Collaborating Center for Prevention and Treatment of Human Echinococcosis | Sako Y.,Asahikawa University | Grenouillet F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 12 more authors.
Parasite | Year: 2014

Serological diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a key element for efficient patient treatment management. A rapid immunochromatography test kit (ICT) using the recombinant Em18 antigen (rEm18) was recently developed. The aim of our study was to assess this test on a panel of sera from French patients with alveolar echinococcosis and control patients. In a blind test, a total of 112 serum samples were tested including samples of AE (n = 30), cystic echinococcosis [CE] (n = 15), and polycystic echinococcosis [PE] (n = 1). For the comparison, 66 sera from patients with hepatocarcinoma, fascioliasis, toxocariasis, Caroli's disease, or autoimmune chronic active hepatitis were used. The diagnostic test sets we used were the rEm18-ICT and two validated ELISAs with rEm18 and Em2-Em18 antigens, respectively. For the ICT, 27/30 sera from AE patients, 4/15 sera from CE patients and the PE patient serum were positive. One serum from the control panel (toxocariasis) was positive for the ICT. The rEm18-ICT sensitivity (90.0%) and specificity (92.7%) for detection of Em18-specific antibodies confirmed it as a relevant tool for AE diagnosis. The rEm18-ELISA had a sensitivity of 86.7% and specificity of 91.5%, and the Em2-Em18-ELISA had a sensitivity of 96.7% and specificity of 87.8%. However, when AE patient sera are recorded as weak in intensity with the ICT, we recommend a double reading and use of a reference sample if the ICT is used for patient follow-up. © J. Knapp et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.


Grenouillet F.,Collaborating Center for Prevention and Treatment of Human Echinococcosis | Grenouillet F.,University Hospital | Grenouillet F.,University of Franche Comte | Frider B.,Cosme Argerich Hospital | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2013

Polycystic echinococcosis due to Echinococcus vogeli is a rare parasitic infection that occurs in rural areas of Central and South America. Only molecular identification performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded liver tissue samples gave an unequivocal diagnosis of this disease in a Paraguayan immigrant in Argentina. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Azizi A.,University Hospital | Blagosklonov O.,University Hospital | Blagosklonov O.,University of Franche Comte | Lounis A.,University Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Abdominal Imaging | Year: 2015

Objective: To correlate the appearance of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) hepatic lesions in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as defined by Kodama, to the metabolic activity visualized in 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT). Materials and methods: Forty-two patients diagnosed with AE and who underwent both MRI and PET/CT were included. The forty-two hepatic lesions were divided into five types according to Kodama’s classification by three independent readers blinded with regard to the PET/CT information. Concerning PET/CT, two independent readers, unaware of the MRI information, considered the results as positive when an increased FDG-uptake was observed at 1 or 3 h after FDG-injection, and as negative when no increased uptake was noted. Inter-observer agreement was assessed by using κ statistics. Results: Forty-two lesions were counted and the mean diameter of overall evaluated lesions was 6.3 cm. One lesion (2.4%) was categorized as type 1, 11 (26.2%) as type 2, 24 (57.1%) as type 3, 3 (7.1%) as type 4, and 3 (7.1%) as type 5. The inter-observer analysis found a κ coefficient of 0.96. All type-1, 90.9% of type-2 and 87.5% of type-3 lesions showed an increased FDG-uptake on PET/CT images. All non-microcystic AE liver lesions (types 4 and 5) showed no abnormal increased FDG-uptake on PET/CT images. The inter-observer analysis at 1 and 3 h found a κ coefficient of 0.95 and 0.92, respectively. Conclusions: In patients with AE liver lesions, the absence of microcysts on MRI is strongly correlated to a metabolically inactive disease. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


PubMed | Collaborating Center for Prevention and Treatment of Human Echinococcosis and Center Hospitalier University
Type: | Journal: Infection | Year: 2016

The prognosis of vertebral alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is poor. We report on the unique outcome of a patient with preexisting liver cirrhosis, in whom a diagnosis of vertebral AE was established on vertebral histopathology (D4 corporectomy in 2010 for paraplegia). Therapeutic drug monitoring of albendazole (ABZ) showed that a low dosage was appropriate. The patient recovered and ABZ withdrawal was decided in 2014, with no relapse 18months later. In this patient, infection was purely or mainly localized in the dorsal spine, and this may have been favored by liver cirrhosis. A longer follow-up is, however, needed to confirm cure.

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