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Anjana R.M.,Collaborating Center for Non communicable Diseases Prevention and Control | Sudha V.,Collaborating Center for Non communicable Diseases Prevention and Control | Lakshmipriya N.,Collaborating Center for Non communicable Diseases Prevention and Control | Subhashini S.,Collaborating Center for Non communicable Diseases Prevention and Control | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity | Year: 2015

Background: Measurement of physical activity in epidemiological studies requires tools which are reliable, valid and culturally relevant. We attempted to develop a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) that would measure physical activity in various domains over a year and which would be valid for use in adults of different age groups with varying levels of activity in urban and rural settings in low and middle income countries like India. The present paper aims to assess the reliability and validity of this new PAQ- termed the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation- Physical Activity Questionnaire (MPAQ). Methods: The MPAQ was administered by trained interviewers to 543 individuals of either gender aged 20 years and above from urban and rural areas in 10 states of India from May to August 2011, followed by a repeat administration within a month for assessing reliability. Relative validity was performed against the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Construct validity was tested by plotting time spent in sitting and moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) against body-mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Criterion validity was assessed using the triaxial accelerometer, in a separate subset of 103 individuals. Bland and Altman plots were used to assess the agreement between MPAQ and accelerometer. Results: The interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for total energy expenditure and physical activity levels were 0.82 and 0.73 respectively, between baseline and 1st month. The ICC between GPAQ and the MPAQ was 0.40 overall. The construct validity of the MPAQ showed linear association between sitting and MVPA, and BMI and waist circumference independent of age and gender. The Spearman's correlation coefficients for sedentary activity, MVPA and overall PA for MPAQ against the accelerometer were 0.48 (95%CI-0.32-0.62), 0.44 (0.27-0.59) and 0.46 (0.29-0.60) respectively. Bland and Altman plots showed good agreement between MPAQ and accelerometer for sedentary behavior and fair agreement for MVPA. Conclusion: The MPAQ is an acceptable, reproducible and valid instrument, which captures data from multiple activity domains over the period of a year from adults of both genders and varying ages in various walks of life residing in urban and rural India. © 2015 Anjana et al. Source


Narasimhan S.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation | Narasimhan S.,Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Narasimhan S.,Collaborating Center for Non communicable Diseases Prevention and Control | Gokulakrishnan K.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation | And 17 more authors.
Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2010

ObjectiveOur work is aimed at exploring the interrelationship of oxidative stress and insulin resistance in NAFLD subjects with and without type 2 diabetes in a population-based study. MethodsSubjects [. n= 200] were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. 1: Normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects without NAFLD; 2: NGT with NAFLD; 3: type 2 diabetic subjects [T2DM] without NAFLD and 4: T2DM with NAFLD. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PCC) and glutathione levels were measured by standard methods. Ultrasound of the liver was used to diagnose NAFLD. Results: TBARS and PCC levels were significantly elevated and GSH/GSSG ratio was significantly decreased in diabetic subjects with NAFLD compared to all other groups (p trend < 0.001). Oxidative stress markers significantly associated with NAFLD even after adjusting for age, gender, BMI and glycemic status. Conclusions: Increased oxidative stress is independently associated with NAFLD in Asian Indians without and with T2DM. © 2010 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Source

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