Collaborating Center for Infectious Diseases at the Human Animal Interface

Italy

Collaborating Center for Infectious Diseases at the Human Animal Interface

Italy

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Beato M.S.,Collaborating Center for Infectious Diseases at the Human Animal Interface | Mancin M.,Viale dellUniversita 10 | Bertoli E.,Collaborating Center for Infectious Diseases at the Human Animal Interface | Buratin A.,Collaborating Center for Infectious Diseases at the Human Animal Interface | And 2 more authors.
Virology | Year: 2012

The aims of this study were to assess the infectivity of highly pathogenic (HP) and low pathogenicity (LP) H7 AI viruses at different temperatures and pH values and to investigate the persistance of HP H7 virus in chicken, turkey and duck meat. The H7 viruses tested remained infectious at +4. °C and +20. °C for 200 and >50 days, respectively. At pH 5, H7 viruses retained their infectivity for a shorter period of time compared to pH 7. The infectivity of HP H7 was detected >2 months in meat maintained at +4. °C and was higher in chicken meat compared to turkey and duck meat. Results of this study show that higher temperatures and lower pH values both reduce virus infectivity and demonstrate that HP H7 virus can remain infectious in meat for extended periods of time. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Collaborating Center for Infectious Diseases at the Human Animal Interface
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Virology | Year: 2012

The extensive circulation of Highly Pathogenic (HP) H5N1 Avian Influenza in Egypt in poultry since 2006 resulted in the emergence of distinct clades with the recent identification of a further clade: 2.2.1.1. The aim of this study was to characterize for the first time the antigenic profile of an extensive collection of genetically diverse Egyptian H5N1 HP viruses isolated between 2007 and 2010 applying antigenic cartography and principal component analysis to serological data. We identified that Egyptian H5N1 viruses have undergone significant antigenic diversification between 2007 and 2010 and two distinct antigenic clusters co-circulated in 2010. Such clusters correlated with 2.2.1 and 2.2.1.1 clades, showing for the first time that the new emerging clade 2.2.1.1 is antigenically distinct. This study highlights that the antigenic diversity of H5N1 HP Egyptian viruses may represent a potential challenge for the development of an effective vaccination programme for animal and human health in Egypt.


PubMed | Collaborating Center for Infectious Diseases at the Human Animal Interface
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical and vaccine immunology : CVI | Year: 2014

Outbreaks of low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses of the H7N3 subtype were first detected in Italy in October 2002, and the virus continued to circulate between 2002 and 2004 in a densely populated poultry area in the northeast portion of that country. This virus circulated in unvaccinated and vaccinated poultry farms, and the infection was controlled in August 2003 by culling, control of movements, improved biosecurity, and heterologous vaccination. In 2004, H7N3 reoccurred in vaccinated poultry farms in which infection had been successfully controlled by the vaccination program. To shed light on this occurrence and the temporal pattern and genetic basis of antigenic drift for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in the absence and presence of heterologous vaccination, a collection of H7N3 viruses isolated in 2002 and 2004 were characterized genetically and antigenically. Molecular analysis showed that viruses isolated in the 2004 outbreaks after the implementation of vaccination had acquired specific amino acid signatures, most of which were located at reported antibody binding sites of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. Antigenic characterization of these 2004 isolates showed that they were antigenically different from those isolated prior to the implementation of vaccination. This is the first report on antigenic and genetic evolution of H7 LPAI viruses following the application of heterologous vaccination in poultry. These findings may have an impact on control strategies to combat AI infections in poultry based on vaccination.


PubMed | Collaborating Center for Infectious Diseases at the Human Animal Interface
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Virology | Year: 2012

The aims of this study were to assess the infectivity of highly pathogenic (HP) and low pathogenicity (LP) H7 AI viruses at different temperatures and pH values and to investigate the persistance of HP H7 virus in chicken, turkey and duck meat. The H7 viruses tested remained infectious at +4C and +20C for 200 and >50 days, respectively. At pH 5, H7 viruses retained their infectivity for a shorter period of time compared to pH 7. The infectivity of HP H7 was detected >2 months in meat maintained at +4C and was higher in chicken meat compared to turkey and duck meat. Results of this study show that higher temperatures and lower pH values both reduce virus infectivity and demonstrate that HP H7 virus can remain infectious in meat for extended periods of time.

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