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Dingle K.E.,University of Oxford | Blaser M.J.,New York University | Tu Z.-C.,New York University | Pruckler J.,Enteric Diseases Laboratory Branch | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2010

Reptile Campylobacter fetus isolates and closely related strains causing human disease were characterized by multilocus sequence typing. They shared ∼90% nucleotide sequence identity with classical mammalian C. fetus, and there was evidence of recombination among members of these two groups. The reptile group represents a possible separate genomospecies capable of infecting humans. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Jore S.,National Veterinary Institute | Viljugrein H.,National Veterinary Institute | Brun E.,National Veterinary Institute | Heier B.T.,Norwegian Institute of Public Health | And 13 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to examine incidences of Campylobacter in broilers and humans, and to describe seasonal variation and long-term trends by comparing longitudinal surveillance data in six Northern European countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands). Due to high degree of seasonality and autocorrelation, seasonally adjusted (de-seasonalized) and trend adjusted data (de-trended) were used for comparing incidences within and between the six countries. De-seasonalized time series were obtained by fitting the incidence time series to mean monthly temperature and then removing this effect from the data. Long-term trends were fitted to the de-seasonalized time series. The incidence of Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks and incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans showed a concordant seasonality for all the countries. There was a strong association between the incidence in both broilers and humans in a given month and the mean temperature of the northern hemisphere in the same month, as well as the preceding month, as shown by the cross-correlations and the chosen Generalized Additive Model. Denmark and Sweden showed a steadily decreasing trend for Campylobacter in broilers and human campylobacteriosis in the period 2001-2007. In Iceland, there was a decreasing trend for campylobacteriosis in humans from 1999 to 2007, whilst the broiler trend for Campylobacter was stable from 2001 to 2004, then falling thereafter. In Norway, the human campylobacteriosis trend showed a steady increase throughout the period. On the other hand, the Norwegian broiler trend for Campylobacter showed a decrease from 2001 until 2004, but was thereafter stable. There was no significant decrease or increase in incidence for human campylobacteriosis in the Netherlands, and the trend for Campylobacter in broilers was close to stable. The seasonality seen in broiler and human closely follows the temperature, and was probably caused, at least partly, by temperature related factors. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Doorduyn Y.,National Institute of Public Health and the Environment | Van Den Brandhof W.E.,National Institute of Public Health and the Environment | Van Duynhoven Y.T.H.P.,National Institute of Public Health and the Environment | Breukink B.J.,National Institute of Public Health and the Environment | And 4 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2010

A case-control study comprising 1315 Campylobacter jejuni cases, 121 Campylobacter coli cases and 3409 frequency-matched controls was conducted in The Netherlands in 2002-2003. Risk factors for both C. jejuni and C. coli enteritis were consumption of undercooked meat and barbecued meat, ownership of cats and use of proton pump inhibitors. Consumption of chicken was a predominant risk factor for C. jejuni enteritis, but many additional risk factors were identified. Unique risk factors for C. coli infections were consumption of game and tripe, and swimming. Contact with farm animals and persons with gastroenteritis were predominant risk factors for C. jejuni enteritis in young children (0-4 years). Important risk factors for the elderly (60 years) were eating in a restaurant, use of proton pump inhibitors and having a chronic intestinal illness. Consumption of chicken in spring, steak tartare in autumn and winter and barbecued meat in rural areas showed strong associations with C. jejuni infections. This study illustrates that important differences in risk factors exist for different Campylobacter spp. and these may differ dependent on age, season or degree of urbanization. Copyright © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

van Bunnik B.A.D.,Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR | van Bunnik B.A.D.,Wageningen University | Katsma W.E.A.,Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR | Wagenaar J.A.,Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR | And 5 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2012

In this study the effect of acidification of the drinking water of broiler chickens on both direct and indirect transmission of Campylobacter was evaluated. In the direct transmission experiment both susceptible and inoculated animals were housed together. In the indirect transmission experiment the susceptible animals were spatially separated from the inoculated animals and no direct animal to animal contact was possible. The transmission parameter β was estimated for the groups supplied with acidified drinking water and for the control groups. The results showed that acidification of the drinking water had no effect on direct transmission (β=3.7day-1 for both control and treatment). Indirect transmission however was influenced by acidification of the drinking water. A significant decrease in transmission was observed (p<0.05), with control vs. treatment point estimates being β=0.075day-1 vs. β=0.011day-1.Apart from providing quantitative estimations of both direct and indirect transmission of . Campylobacter in broilers, this study also demonstrates the use of an experimental setup for indirect transmission of . Campylobacter between broilers to assess the efficacy of candidate measures to reduce transmission. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Kalupahana R.S.,University of Peradeniya | Kottawatta K.S.A.,University of Peradeniya | Kanankege K.S.T.,University of Peradeniya | Van Bergen M.A.P.,Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR | And 5 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2013

The onset and prevalence of Campylobacter colonization in broilers and layers at commercial farms with low biosecurity in tropical climates were tested. Despite the presence of positive animals at the same farms, the broiler flocks tested negative until, on average, 21 days. Prelaying flocks showed a higher prevalence than laying flocks. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.

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