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Maxwell G.,Unilever | Aeby P.,Colipa | Ashikaga T.,Shiseido Research Center | Bessou-Touya S.,Pierre Fabre | And 10 more authors.
Altex | Year: 2011

Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by small reactive chemicals (haptens). Currently, the sensitising potential and potency of new chemicals is usually characterised using data generated via animal studies, such as the local lymph node assay (LLNA). There are, however, increasing public and political concerns regarding the use of animals for the testing of new chemicals. Consequently, the development of in vitro, in chemico or in silico models for predicting the sensitising potential and/or potency of new chemicals is receiving widespread interest. The Colipa Skin Tolerance task force currently collaborates with and/or funds several academic research groups to expand our understanding of the molecular and cellular events occurring during the acquisition of skin sensitisation. Knowledge gained from this research is being used to support the development and evaluation of novel alternative approaches for the identification and characterisation of skin sensitising chemicals. At present three non-animal test methods (Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA), Myeloid U937 Skin Sensitisation Test (MUSST) and human Cell Line Activation Test (hCLAT)) have been evaluated in Colipa interlaboratory ring trials for their potential to predict skin sensitisation potential and were recently submitted to ECVAM for formal pre-validation. Data from all three test methods will now be used to support the study and development of testing strategy approaches for skin sensitiser potency prediction. This publication represents the current viewpoint of the cosmetics industry on the feasibility of replacing the need for animal test data for informing skin sensitisation risk assessment decisions.

Schilling K.,IRSC International Regulatory and Scientific Consulting | Bradford B.,Unilever | Castelli D.,Johnson and Johnson | Dufour E.,L'Oréal | And 6 more authors.
Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences | Year: 2010

Based on the current weight of evidence of all available data, the risk for humans from the use of nano-structured titanium dioxide (TiO2) or zinc oxide (ZnO) currently used in cosmetic preparations or sunscreens is considered negligible. There is a large body of information that when viewed in its entirety is considered as sufficient to demonstrate that these nano-structured ultraviolet (UV) filters, irrespective of various treatments (coatings) or crystalline structure, can be regarded as safe for use at concentrations up to 25% in cosmetic products to protect the skin from harmful effects of solar UV radiation. "Nano" TiO2 and ZnO formulated in topically applied sunscreen products exist as aggregates of primary particles ranging from 30-150 nm in size. These aggregates are bonded such that the force of sunscreen product application onto the skin would have no impact on their structure or result in the release of primary particles. Multiple studies have shown that under exaggerated test conditions neither nano-structured TiO2 nor ZnO penetrates beyond the stratum corneum of skin. Further, the distribution and persistence of these nano-structured metal oxides is the same compared to larger pigment-grade (i.e., >100 nm) particles, demonstrating equivalence in the recognition and elimination of such material from the body. Finally, the in vitro genotoxic and photogenotoxic profiles of these nano-structured metal oxides are of no consequence to human health. Whereas the most logical, straightforward conclusion based on data from internationally-recognized guideline studies and current 20+ year history of human use is that nano-structured TiO2 and ZnO are safe, there will continue to be questions as "nano" conjures images of technology gone awry. Despite this rather sober view, the public health benefits of sunscreens containing nano TiO2 and/or ZnO outweigh human safety concerns for these UV filters. © The Royal Society of Chemistry and Owner Societies 2010.

PubMed | Humboldt University of Berlin, Beiersdorf AG, L'Oréal, Procter and Gamble and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA | Year: 2015

In 1996, the Scientific Committee on Cosmetology of DGXXIV of the European Commission asked the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods to test eight UV filter chemicals from the 1995 edition of Annex VII of Directive 76/768/EEC in a blind trial in the in vitro 3T3 cell neutral red uptake phototoxicity (3T3 NRU PT) test, which had been scientifically validated between 1992 and 1996. Since all the UV filter chemicals on the positive list of EU Directive 76/768/EEC have been shown not to be phototoxic in vivo in humans under use conditions, only negative effects would be expected in the 3T3 NRU PT test. To balance the number of positive and negative chemicals, ten phototoxic and ten non-phototoxic chemicals were tested under blind conditions in four laboratories. Moreover, to assess the optimum concentration range for testing, information was provided on appropriate solvents and on the solubility of the coded chemicals. In this study, the phototoxic potential of test chemicals was evaluated in a prediction model in which either the Photoirritation Factor (PIF) or the Mean Photo Effect (MPE) were determined. The results obtained with both PIF and MPE were highly reproducible in the four laboratories, and the correlation between in vitro and in vivo data was almost perfect. All the phototoxic test chemicals provided a positive result at concentrations of 1/ml, while nine of the ten non-phototoxic chemicals gave clear negative results, even at the highest test concentrations. One of the UV filter chemicals gave positive results in three of the four laboratories only at concentrations greater than 100/ml; the other laboratory correctly identified all 20 of the test chemicals. An analysis of the impact that exposure concentrations had on the performance of the test revealed that the optimum concentration range in the 3T3 NRU PT test for determining the phototoxic potential of chemicals is between 0.1g/ml and 10g/ml, and that false positive results can be obtained at concentrations greater than 100g/ml. Therefore, the positive results obtained with some of the UV filter chemicals only at concentrations greater than 100g/ml do not indicate a phototoxic potential in vivo. When this information was taken into account during calculation of the overall predictivity of the 3T3 NRU PT test in the present study, an almost perfect correlation of in vitro versus in vivo results was obtained (between 95% and 100%), when either PIF or MPE were used to predict the phototoxic potential. The management team and participants therefore conclude that the 3T3 NRU PT test is a valid test for correctly assessing the phototoxic potential of UV filter chemicals, if the defined concentration limits are taken into account.

Hall B.,L'Oréal | Steiling W.,Henkel AG | Safford B.,Colworth Science Park | Coroama M.,COLIPA | And 4 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2011

Access to reliable exposure data is essential for the evaluation of the toxicological safety of ingredients in cosmetic products. This study complements the data set obtained previously (Part 1) and published in 2007 by the European cosmetic industry acting within COLIPA. It provides, in distribution form, exposure data on daily quantities of five cosmetic product types: hair styling, hand cream, liquid foundation, mouthwash and shower gel. In total 80,000 households and 14,413 individual consumers in five European countries provided information using their own products. The raw data were analysed using Monte Carlo simulation and a European Statistical Population Model of exposure was constructed. A significant finding was an inverse correlation between the frequency of product use and the quantity used per application recorded for mouthwash and shower gel. The combined results of Part 1 (7 product types) and Part 2 (5 products) reported here, bring up to date and largely confirm the current exposure parameters concerning some 95% of the estimated daily exposure to cosmetics use in the EU. The design of this study, with its relation to demographic and individual diversity, could serve as a model for studies of populations' exposure to other consumer products. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Kinsner-Ovaskainen A.,Institute for Health and Consumer Protection | Maxwell G.,Colworth Science Park | Kreysa J.,Institute for Health and Consumer Protection | Barroso J.,Institute for Health and Consumer Protection | And 25 more authors.
ATLA Alternatives to Laboratory Animals | Year: 2012

The use of Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) permits the combination of diverse types of chemical and toxicological data for the purposes of hazard identification and characterisation. In November 2008, the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA), together with the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), held a workshop on Overcoming Barriers to Validation of Non-animal Partial Replacement Methods/Integrated Testing Strategies, in Ispra, Italy, to discuss the extent to which current ECVAM approaches to validation can be used to evaluate partial replacement in vitro test methods (i.e. as potential ITS components) and ITS themselves. The main conclusions of these discussions were that formal validation was only considered necessary for regulatory purposes (e.g. the replacement of a test guideline), and that current ECVAM approaches to validation should be adapted to accommodate such test methods (1). With these conclusions in mind, a follow-up EPAA-ECVAM workshop was held in October 2009, to discuss the extent to which existing validation principles are applicable to the validation of ITS test methods, and to develop a draft approach for the validation of such test methods and/or overall ITS for regulatory purposes. This report summarises the workshop discussions that started with a review of the current validation methodologies and the presentation of two case studies (skin sensitisation and acute toxicity), before covering the definition of ITS and their components, including their validation and regulatory acceptance. The following main conclusions/recommendations were made: that the validation of a partial replacement test method (for application as part of a testing strategy) should be differentiated from the validation of an in vitro test method for application as a stand-alone replacement, especially with regard to its predictive capacity; that, in the former case, the predictive capacity of the whole testing strategy (rather than of the individual test methods) would be more important, especially if the individual test methods had a high biological relevance; that ITS allowing for flexible and ad hoc approaches cannot be validated, whereas the validation of clearly defined ITS would be feasible, although practically quite difficult; and that test method developers should be encouraged to develop and submit to ECVAM not only full replacement test methods, but also partial replacement methods to be placed as parts of testing strategies. The added value from the formal validation of testing strategies, and the requirements needed in view of regulatory acceptance of the data, require further informed discussion within the EPAA forum on the basis of case studies provided by industry.

Steiling W.,Henkel AG | Buttgereit P.,ProDERM Institute for Applied Dermatological Research | Hall B.,L'Oréal | O'Keeffe L.,Procter and Gamble | And 3 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2012

Many cosmetic products are available in spray form. Even though the principal targets of these products are the skin and hair, spraying leads to the partitioning of the product between the target and the surrounding air. In the previous COLIPA study (Hall et al., 2007) the daily use of deodorant/antiperspirant (Deo/AP) in spray form was quantified in terms of the amount of product dispensed from the spray can, without specifically quantifying the product fraction reaching the skin during use. Results of the present study provide this additional information, necessary for a reliable safety assessment of sprayed Deo/AP products. In a novel experimental approach the information obtained from real-life movement analysis (automated motion imaging) of volunteers using their own products was integrated with the aerosol cloud sampling data obtained from the same products, leading to the computation of the product deposited on the skin. The 90th percentile values, expressed as percent deposition relative to the can weight loss after spraying, are 23.5% and 11.4% for ethanol-based and non-ethanol-based products, respectively. Additionally, the study has generated data on the skin area covered by the products, spray duration time, spray angle and spray distance from the skin. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | Colipa
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA | Year: 2010

The sensitizing potential of chemicals is usually identified and characterized using one of the available animal test methods, such as the mouse local lymph node assay. Due to the increasing public and political concerns regarding the use of animals for the screening of new chemicals, the Colipa Skin Tolerance Task Force collaborates with and/or funds research groups to increase and apply our understanding of the events occurring during the acquisition of skin sensitization. Knowledge gained from this research is used to support the development and evaluation of novel alternative approaches for the identification and characterization of skin sensitizing chemicals. At present one in chemico (direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA)) and two in vitro test methods (cell based assays (MUSST and h-CLAT)) have been evaluated within Colipa inter-laboratory ring trials and accepted by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) for pre-validation. Data from all three test methods will be used to support the development of testing strategy approaches for skin sensitizer potency prediction. The replacement of the need for animal testing for skin sensitization risk assessment is viewed as ultimately achievable and the next couple of years should set the timeline for this milestone.

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