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Mujic I.,Colegium Fluminense Polytechnic of Rijeka | Bavcon Kralj M.,Institute for Agriculture and Forestry | Jokic S.,F. Kuhaca 20 | Jug T.,Institute for Agriculture and Forestry | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Science and Technology

The aromatic profile of volatiles in dried figs varieties Bružetka Bijela and Zimnica were characterised by headspace solid-phase (HS-SPME) procedure with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS). The volatile compounds were distributed by distinct chemical classes, including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, terpenic compounds, and other compounds. The figs were dried in a pilot plant cabinet dryer. Prior to drying process, figs were pre-treated by sulphur dioxide, immersed in solution of citric acid and ascorbic acid, respectively. Several mathematical thin-layer drying models, available in the literature, were fitted to experimental data of figs, implementing non-linear regression analysis techniques. The results showed that pre-treatments of figs decrease significantly the drying time. The best thin-layer drying model in terms of fitting performance was Wang and Singh model. The major volatile compound in dried figs was benzaldehyde. After benzaldehyde, the most abundant aldehyde in dried figs was hexanal. The comparison among dried figs showed the highest abundance of aldehydes, in general, in non-treated (control) dried figs compared to pre-treated samples. Furthermore, ascorbic acid was the most efficient in preserving esters and alcohols in case of Bružetka Bijela, whereas in case of Zimnica, sulphur dioxide was in advance compared to ascorbic acid. Ethyl acetate was the most abundant ester found in dried figs. Among other compounds, 2-butanone,3-hydroxy was the most abundant identified volatiles. Linalool, as the only identified terpen, was in case of both dried fig varieties, preserved by immersion into ascorbic acid. The immersion into citric acid has not been so successful in volatiles conservation. © 2012, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India). Source

Mujic I.,Colegium Fluminense Polytechnic of Rijeka | Zekovic Z.,University of Novi Sad | Lepojevic Z.,University of Novi Sad | Vidovic S.,University of Novi Sad | Zivkovic J.,University of Sfax
Journal of Central European Agriculture

Mushrooms have a long tradition of use in many countries. They are food full of proteins, rich in vitamin B, rich in different minerals and have almost all essential amino acids. Mushrooms have been reported as useful in preventing diseases such are hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and cancer. Objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of three edible mushroom species Lentinula edodes, Hericium erinaceus and Agrocybe aegerita. For determination of potential antioxidant activity content of antioxidant compounds, phenolics and flavonoids, and scavenging capacity on DPPH ̇ radicals have been determined. Also the reducing power of obtained extracts have been investigated. The highest extraction yield has been achieved in L. edodes extraction (20.82%). Highest total phenolics (23.07 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoids (5.04 mg CE/g) content, as well as TF/TP ratio (21.85%) have been determined for A. aegerita dry extract. Radical scavenging activity was found to exhibit IC50 value for extract concentration of 0.198 mg/ml for H. erinaceus, 0.073 mg/ml for L. edodes and lower than 0.02 mg/ml for A. aegerita dry extract. All investigated mushroom dry extracts posses reductive capabilities. Source

Mujic I.,University of Bihac | Alibabic V.,University of Bihac | Jahic S.,University of Bihac | Prgomet Z.,Colegium Fluminense Polytechnic of Rijeka | Tuzlak Z.,Una Sana forest Company
Journal of Central European Agriculture

Una-Sana Canton (USC) has a large forest areas where chestnut Castanea sativa Mill. grows as a self-sprout tree. The aim of this paper was to determine the morphological characteristics of chestnut fruits from four self-sprout locations (Bužim, Bosanska Krupa, Cazin and Velika Kladuša), and plantation where the domestic tree is grafted with Italian Marroni. Number of fruits/kg, the useless fruit, the percentage of kernel, diameter, width, height and weight of fruits were determined. The number of fruit/kg ranged from 160-222.5, percentage of useless fruit varied between 0.88-6.7%. Percentage of kernel ranged from 78.5 to 87.3%. According to the diameter classification, width, height and weight of fruits, chestnuts fruit from USC enters the category of the smallest fruits of the Mediterranean area. Statistical significant differences (p≤0.01) in the number of fruits/kg and weight of fruits was found between locations, as well in the width of the fruit (p≤0.05), while there is no difference in the diameter and height of the fruit. For grafted chestnut, all the characteristics provided better quality. Source

Mujic I.,Colegium Fluminense Polytechnic of Rijeka | Zekovic Z.,University of Novi Sad | Vidovic S.,University of Novi Sad | Radojkovic M.,University of Novi Sad | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Food

Mushrooms are useful in balancing human diet and treating different health problems. The main determinant of the fluidity of erythrocyte membranes and rheologic properties of blood is the lipid composition of the membrane, which directly depends on lipids present in the diet. Lipid profiles of 4 European wild edible mushrooms, as well as the ability of mushroom lipids to modify the fluidity of erythrocyte membrane, were examined by using gas chromatography-mass spectometry, gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, and electron paramagnetic resonance spin probing technique. Lipids from 2 species-Macrolepiota procera and Collybia platyphylla-provoked an increase in erythrocyte membrane fluidity. Therefore, introduction of these and other wild mushrooms with similar lipid profiles to the human diet could be very beneficial in the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases related to decreased fluidity of erythrocyte membranes. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 2011. Source

Velic D.,Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek | Ackar D.,Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek | Mujic I.,Colegium Fluminense Polytechnic of Rijeka | Subaric D.,Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae

The convective air-drying of two chestnut varieties was evaluated in a laboratory drying oven, at different drying air temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70°C) and airflow velocities of 2.80 m s-1. The drying kinetics were compared and the effect of different air-drying temperatures on colour stability, effective diffusivity and starch digestibility was analysed. The two varieties of chestnut used in this study were of the type Castanea sativa (Istrian marron and Italian chestnut). The kinetic equations were estimated using an exponential mathematical model (Page). The results of the estimation have exhibited correspondence to the experimental results. The rate constants, k and n, of the exponential and Page's model for thin-layer drying were established by regression analysis of the experimental data which were found to be affected by drying air temperature. It can be seen that a good agreement between the experimental data and the chosen mathematical model (Page's) exists, which is confirmed by high values of correlation coefficient (0.99) in all run. The influence of temperature on the drying process is an important aspect and should be taken into consideration when choosing the optimal operation conditions. Results show that certain temperatures had a significant effect on the drying rates of chestnut. The drying air temperature significantly influenced the total drying time, which is strongly related to the total energy requirement for drying. The values of effective diffusivity were found to vary in the range of 1,64·10-9 to 7,88·10-9 m2 s-1 for Istrian marron samples and in the range of 8,65·10-10 to 4,40·10-9 m2 s -1 for Italian chestnut samples. Colour change of both varieties was generally increased with the increase of the drying temperature, with the exception of Istrian marron, where colour change was larger after drying at 50°C than after drying at 60°C (probably due to longer exposure to elevated temperature). Digestibility of starch, determined by AOAC 2002.02 method, was increased by drying for both chestnut varieties (Istrian marron and Italian chestnut). Source

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