Teotitlan de Flores Magon, Mexico
Teotitlan de Flores Magon, Mexico

El Colegio de México, A.C. is a prestigious Mexican institute of higher education, specializing in teaching and research in social science and humanities. This Institution received the Prince of Asturias Award for Social science in 2001. The library of El Colegio de México is one of the largest academic libraries in Mexico, and it contains one of the most important Latin American collections in social science and humanities.The college was founded in 1940 by the Mexican Federal Government, the Bank of Mexico , the National Autonomous University of Mexico , and the Fondo de Cultura Económica. After the Spanish Civil War, the President of Mexico Lázaro Cardenas created The House of Spain in Mexico to host the Spanish intellectuals in exile in that country. Under the direction of renowned intellectual Alfonso Reyes, the House of Spain became a higher education center, and was renamed El Colegio de México in 1940. The College now operates under a 1961 charter that allows the institution to provide college-level teaching in the fields of humanistic knowledge and social and political science. In 1976, the university's campus was moved from the Colonia Roma to its current location.The college encompasses seven separate academic centers, teaching a total of three degrees, seven master's degrees and eight doctorates. The campus is located in a purpose-built and architecturally striking building on the southern fringes of Mexico City, and it was designed by the prestigious Mexican architect Teodoro González de León. Wikipedia.

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Adams R.H.,Boston Institute for Developing Economies | Cuecuecha A.,Colegio de Mexico
World Development | Year: 2013

The study has three main findings. First, when compared to what they would have spent without the receipt of remittances, households receiving remittances spend less at the margin on one key consumption good: food. Second, households receiving remittances spend more at the margin on three important investment goods: education, housing, and health. Third, the receipt of remittances greatly reduces the likelihood of household poverty. These findings support the growing view that remittances can reduce poverty and increase human and physical capital investment in developing countries. This paper analyzes the impact of internal remittances (from Ghana) and international remittances (from African or other countries) on investment and poverty in Ghana. It has three findings. First, when compared to what they would have spent without the receipt of remittances, households receiving remittances spend less at the margin on food. Second, households receiving remittances spend more at the margin on three investment goods: education, housing, and health. Third, the receipt of remittances greatly reduces likelihood of household poverty. These findings support the growing view that remittances can reduce poverty and increase investment in developing countries. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Perez P.,Colegio de Mexico | De Los Campos G.,University of Alabama at Birmingham
Genetics | Year: 2014

Many modern genomic data analyses require implementing regressions where the number of parameters (p, e.g., the number of marker effects) exceeds sample size (n). Implementing these large-p-with-small-n regressions poses several statistical and computational challenges, some of which can be confronted using Bayesian methods. This approach allows integrating various parametric and nonparametric shrinkage and variable selection procedures in a unified and consistent manner. The BGLR R-package implements a large collection of Bayesian regression models, including parametric variable selection and shrinkage methods and semiparametric procedures (Bayesian reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces regressions, RKHS). The software was originally developed for genomic applications; however, the methods implemented are useful for many nongenomic applications as well. The response can be continuous (censored or not) or categorical (either binary or ordinal). The algorithm is based on a Gibbs sampler with scalar updates and the implementation takes advantage of efficient compiled C and Fortran routines. In this article we describe the methods implemented in BGLR, present examples of the use of the package, and discuss practical issues emerging in real-data analysis. © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America All rights reserved.

Garcia-Morales A.E.,Colegio de Mexico | Elias-Gutierrez M.,Colegio de Mexico
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2013

DNA barcodes are useful tools to identify and discover new species in a wide range of taxa. Here, we report the first barcode study of monogonont rotifers from fresh and brackish waters in Mexico, and discuss the taxonomic implications of this work. We used DNA barcodes based on the sequence of cytochrome oxidase I to examine patterns of divergence among 417 specimens that represented 63 morphological taxa of rotifers. The mean sequence divergence among conspecific rotifer individuals was 0.75%, whereas the mean sequence divergence among congeneric taxa was 20.8%. The barcodes could discriminate between all the morphospecies identified. Moreover, the barcoding data revealed the presence of possible cryptic species in Ascomorpha ovalis, Lecane bulla, L. cornuta, L. curvicornis, L. crepida, L. lunaris, L. hastata, Platyias quadricornis, Keratella cochlearis, Brachionus calyciflorus and Testudinella patina, as well as in some forms and varieties such as B. quadridentatus f. brevispinus, B. quadridentatus f. cluniorbicularis and Mytilina ventralis var. macracantha. Barcode analysis also enabled some forms and varieties of common species to be identified as separate species. The results obtained support recent taxonomic revisions, such as the recognition of the genus Plationus, and the presence of cryptic speciation in L. bulla. This work shows that DNA barcoding identifies species effectively, can aid taxonomists by identifying cryptic species, and is an important tool for resolving taxonomic controversies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Perez-Lachaud G.,Colegio de Mexico
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2010

Polygynous parasitoid males may be limited by the amount of sperm they can transmit to females, which in turn may become sperm limited. In this study, I tested the effect of male mating history on copula duration, female fecundity, and offspring sex ratio, and the likelihood that females will have multiple mates, in the gregarious parasitoid Cephalonomia hyalinipennis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae: Epyrinae), a likely candidate for sperm depletion due to its local mate competition system. Males were eager to mate with the seven females presented in rapid succession. Copula duration did not differ with male mating history, but latency before a first mating was significantly longer than before consecutive matings. Male mating history had no bearing on female fecundity (number of offspring), but significantly influenced offspring sex ratio. The last female to mate with a given male produced significantly more male offspring than the first one, and eventually became sperm depleted. In contrast, the offspring sex ratio of first-mated females was female biased, denoting a high degree of sex allocation control. Once-mated females, whether sperm-depleted or not, accepted a second mating after a period of oviposition. Sperm-depleted females resumed production of fertilized eggs after a second mating. Young, recently mated females also accepted a second mating, but extended in-copula courtship was observed. Carrying out multiple matings in this species thus seems to reduce the cost of being constrained to produce only haploid males after accepting copulation with a sperm-depleted male. I discuss the reproductive fitness costs that females experience when mating solely with their sibling males and the reproductive fitness gain of males that persist in mating, even when almost sperm-depleted. Behavioural observations support the hypothesis that females monitor their sperm stock. It is concluded that C. hyalinipennis is a species with a partial local mating system. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 The Netherlands Entomological Society.

Perez-Rodriguez P.,Colegio de Mexico
G3 (Bethesda, Md.) | Year: 2012

In genome-enabled prediction, parametric, semi-parametric, and non-parametric regression models have been used. This study assessed the predictive ability of linear and non-linear models using dense molecular markers. The linear models were linear on marker effects and included the Bayesian LASSO, Bayesian ridge regression, Bayes A, and Bayes B. The non-linear models (this refers to non-linearity on markers) were reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) regression, Bayesian regularized neural networks (BRNN), and radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN). These statistical models were compared using 306 elite wheat lines from CIMMYT genotyped with 1717 diversity array technology (DArT) markers and two traits, days to heading (DTH) and grain yield (GY), measured in each of 12 environments. It was found that the three non-linear models had better overall prediction accuracy than the linear regression specification. Results showed a consistent superiority of RKHS and RBFNN over the Bayesian LASSO, Bayesian ridge regression, Bayes A, and Bayes B models.

Appendini K.,Colegio de Mexico
Journal of Agrarian Change | Year: 2014

The transition in Mexico from a maize market once characterized by heavy state intervention along the entire maize-tortilla chain to the 'free market' of today has been a long and complex process. Over two decades, the production of maize has seen a radical transition both in the geographical location of maize agriculture and the type of farmers growing maize. In this paper, I argue that the restructuring of the domestic maize supply is due to policy decisions to support private agents in the maize market; hence the state did not withdraw its involvement but, rather, has had a key role in the construction of the 'free' maize market, with the result that domestic supply for the market is concentrated in the hands of relatively few agents and in relatively few regions. I discuss the background to these policies and analyse the programmes implemented by the state agency ASERCA (Apoyos y Servicios a la Comercialización Agropecuaria) that support the commercialization of maize. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Shifting cultivation around the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve of Mexico, part of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, appears to be intensifying temporally through reductions in crop-fallow cycles, with potential impacts on species diversity in the regenerating forest patches surrounding the reserve. This paper documents the temporal intensity of shifting maize cultivation in the region and links it to the species diversity found in secondary vegetation of different ages following different crop-fallow cycles. It finds that younger secondary growth, which is increasing under intensification, has less diversity in species composition. Simultaneously, the concentration of cultivation practices appears to foster more patches in older and more species-diverse vegetation. The implications for the preservation of the region's forest remain uncertain, however, given the spatial concentration of open lands along two key axes, one which dissects the reserve. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Salazar-Vallejo S.I.,Colegio de Mexico
Zoosystema | Year: 2012

The identification and classification of flabelligerid polychaetes have been problematic due to three reasons: 1) the anterior end is rarely exposed and it carries the branchiae, whose type and arrangement are diagnostic; 2) there is no standardisation for naming chaetae; and 3) morphological delineations for most genera have been unstable. A redefinition and a revision of the type material of many species originally described in other genera but belonging to Trophoniella Hartman, 1959 are herein presented. Trophoniella together with Piromis Kinberg, 1856 and Pycnoderma Grube, 1877 share a very thick tunic and a projected branchial membrane which resembles a tongue. Their main difference is the type of neurochaetae in median and posterior chaetigers; thus, Trophoniella is redefined and restricted to include only the species with anchylosed hooks, whereas they are multiarticulated in Piromis and oligoarticulated in Pycnoderma; these two latter genera have been revised elsewhere. Therochaetella Hartman, 1967 is being regarded as a junior synonym of Trophoniella. The species of Trophoniella are further separated in two groups by the start of the anchylosed neurohooks (from about the chaetiger 10 or from median or posterior chaetigers). The species within each group can be separated by using the variation in the sediment cover and other attributes of noto- and neurochaetae. The genus as herein redefined contains, besides the type species, T. avicularia Caullery, 1944 from Indonesia, 26 species including 11 previously undescribed: T. americana (Monro, 1928) n. comb. from Galápagos and Panama, T. bastidai n. sp. from western Mexico, T. borealis (Hartman, 1965) n. comb. from northeastern South America, T. capitata (Nonato, 1966) n. comb. from Brazil, T. chilensis (Hartman, 1967) n. comb. from Chile, T. ehlersi (Day, 1973) n. comb. from the eastern United States, T. eliasi n. sp. from central Argentina, T. enigmatica n. sp. from the Mediterranean Sea, T. fauveli n. sp. from the Mediterranean Egyptian coast, T. fernandensis (Augener, 1918) reinstated, n. comb. from northwestern Africa, T. fiegei n. sp. from the Persian Gulf, T. grandis (Blanchard in Gay, 1849) n. comb. from central Chile, T. harrisae n. sp. from southern California, T. havaica (Kinberg, 1867) n. comb. from Hawaii, T. hospita (Fauchald, 1972) n. comb. from the Gulf of California, T. incerta (Augener, 1918) n. comb. from West Africa, T. indica (Fauvel, 1928) n. comb. from the Bay of Bengal, T. jareckiorum n. sp. from the Caribbean Sea, T. lindae n. sp. from the Caribbean Sea, T. minuta (Blanchard in Gay, 1849) n. comb. from Chile, T. orensanzi n. sp. from Uruguay, T. reishi n. sp. from the Gulf of California, T. rigida (Caullery, 1944) n. comb. from Indonesia, T. rudis (Grube & Müller in Grube, 1877) n. comb. from southern Brazil, T. salazarae n. sp. from western Mexico, and T. tumbensis (Hartmann-Schröder, 1962) n. comb. from Chile. Members of the species are marine and mainly tropical or subtropical, thriving in shallow bottoms. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.

Metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation (MSDD) is a postharvest treatment designed to control pathogens and arthropod pests on commodities that combines short cycles of low pressure/vacuum and high CO2 with ethanol vapor. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of MSDD treatment on various life stages of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Mediterranean fruit fly; Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, oriental fruit fly; and Bactrocera Cucurbitae Coquillett, melon fly, in petri dishes and in papaya, Carica papaya L., fruit. In some experiments, the ethanol vapor phase was withheld to separate the effects of the physical (low pressure/ambient pressure cycles) and chemical (ethanol vapor plus low pressure) phases of treatment. In the experiments with tephritid fruit fly larvae and adults in petri dishes, mortality was generally high when insects were exposed to ethanol and low when ethanol was withheld during MSDD treatment, suggesting that ethanol vapor is highly lethal but that fruit flies are quite tolerant of short periods of low pressure treatment alone. When papaya fruit infested with fruit fly eggs or larvae were treated by MSDD, they produced fewer pupae than untreated control fruit, but a substantial number of individuals developed nonetheless. This suggests that internally feeding insects in fruit may be partially protected from the toxic effects of the ethanol because the vapor does not easily penetrate the fruit pericarp and pulp. MSDD treatment using the atmospheric conditions tested has limited potential as a disinfestation treatment for internal-feeding quarantine pests such as fruit flies infesting perishable commodities.

Perez-Jimenez J.C.,Colegio de Mexico
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries | Year: 2014

Populations of hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna and Eusphyra) have declined in many regions of the world. Six of the eight hammerheads known to date are distributed in the Mexican Pacific: S. corona, S. lewini, S. media, S. mokarran, S. tiburo and S. zygaena. These species, with exception of S. corona, were abundant in the Gulf of California in 1960s. I analyze records from fishery-dependent and fishery-independent surveys, and records from ichthyological collections to determine the presence and frequency of hammerheads in the Mexican Pacific. The most frequent hammerheads in fishery-dependent and fishery-independent surveys were S. lewini and S. zygaena. It appears that S. media, S. mokarran and S. tiburo might have been extirpated from the Gulf of California. In the last two decades, records of S. mokarran (n = 61) were restricted to Central and Southern Mexican Pacific, and records of S. tiburo (n = 3) and S. media (n = 3) were restricted to the Southern region. Given the continued fishing pressure, inferred declines and the probable extirpation of populations, S. tiburo and S. media should be reassessed for the IUCN red list as Endangered or Critically Endangered. Sphyrna corona should be reassessed as Endangered or Critically Endangered, because it is endemic to the Eastern Pacific and recent records have been obtained only from Colombian waters. The Endangered status of S. mokarran is confirmed for this region. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

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