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Erben U.,Franklin University | Erben U.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Loddenkemper C.,Pathotres Joint Practice for Pathology | Doerfel K.,Cold Spring Harbor LaboratoryNY | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology | Year: 2014

Histomorphology remains a powerful routine evaluating intestinal inflammation in animal models. Emphasizing the focus of a given animal study, histopathology can overstate differences between established models. We aimed to systematize histopathological evaluation of intestinal inflammation in mouse models facilitating inter-study comparisons. Samples of all parts of the intestinal tract from well-established mouse models of intestinal inflammation were evaluated from hematoxylin/eosin-stained sections and specific observations confirmed by subsequent immunohistochemistry. Three main categories sufficiently reflected the severity of histopathology independent of the localization and the overall extent of an inflammation: (i) quality and dimension of inflammatory cell infiltrates, (ii) epithelial changes and (iii) overall mucosal architecture. Scoring schemata were defined along specified criteria for each of the three categories. The direction of the initial hit proved crucial for the comparability of histological changes. Chemical noxes, infection with intestinal parasites or other models where the barrier was disturbed from outside, the luminal side, showed high levels of similarity and distinct differences to changes in the intestinal balance resulting from inside events like altered cytokine responses or disruption of the immune cell homeostasis. With a high degree of generalisation and maximum scores from 4-8 suitable scoring schemata accounted specific histopathological hallmarks. Truly integrating demands and experiences of gastroenterologists, mouse researchers, microbiologists and pathologists we provide an easy-to-use guideline evaluating histomorphology in mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Standard criteria and definitions facilitate classification and rating of new relevant models, allow comparison in animal studies and transfer of functional findings to comparable histopathologies in human disease. Source


Glessner J.T.,Applied Genomics | Glessner J.T.,University of Pennsylvania | Bick A.G.,Harvard University | Ito K.,Harvard University | And 26 more authors.
Circulation Research | Year: 2014

Rationale: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is among the most common birth defects. Most cases are of unknown pathogenesis. Objective: To determine the contribution of de novo copy number variants (CNVs) in the pathogenesis of sporadic CHD. Methods and Results: We studied 538 CHD trios using genome-wide dense single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and whole exome sequencing. Results were experimentally validated using digital droplet polymerase chain reaction. We compared validated CNVs in CHD cases with CNVs in 1301 healthy control trios. The 2 complementary high-resolution technologies identified 63 validated de novo CNVs in 51 CHD cases. A significant increase in CNV burden was observed when comparing CHD trios with healthy trios, using either single nucleotide polymorphism array (P=7×10-5; odds ratio, 4.6) or whole exome sequencing data (P=6×10-4; odds ratio, 3.5) and remained after removing 16% of de novo CNV loci previously reported as pathogenic (P=0.02; odds ratio, 2.7). We observed recurrent de novo CNVs on 15q11.2 encompassing CYFIP1, NIPA1, and NIPA2 and single de novo CNVs encompassing DUSP1, JUN, JUP, MED15, MED9, PTPRE SREBF1, TOP2A, and ZEB2, genes that interact with established CHD proteins NKX2-5 and GATA4. Integrating de novo variants in whole exome sequencing and CNV data suggests that ETS1 is the pathogenic gene altered by 11q24.2-q25 deletions in Jacobsen syndrome and that CTBP2 is the pathogenic gene in 10q subtelomeric deletions. Conclusions: We demonstrate a significantly increased frequency of rare de novo CNVs in CHD patients compared with healthy controls and suggest several novel genetic loci for CHD. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc. Source


Wang E.,Cold Spring Harbor LaboratoryNY | Kawaoka S.,Cold Spring Harbor LaboratoryNY | Roe J.-S.,Cold Spring Harbor LaboratoryNY | Shi J.,Cold Spring Harbor LaboratoryNY | And 10 more authors.
eLife | Year: 2015

Most mammalian transcription factors (TFs) and cofactors occupy thousands of genomic sites and modulate the expression of large gene networks to implement their biological functions. In this study, we describe an exception to this paradigm. TRIM33 is identified here as a lineage dependency in B cell neoplasms and is shown to perform this essential function by associating with a single cis element. ChIP-seq analysis of TRIM33 in murine B cell leukemia revealed a preferential association with two lineage-specific enhancers that harbor an exceptional density of motifs recognized by the PU.1 TF. TRIM33 is recruited to these elements by PU.1, yet acts to antagonize PU.1 function. One of the PU.1/TRIM33 co-occupied enhancers is upstream of the pro-apoptotic gene Bim, and deleting this enhancer renders TRIM33 dispensable for leukemia cell survival. These findings reveal an essential role for TRIM33 in preventing apoptosis in B lymphoblastic leukemia by interfering with enhancer-mediated Bim activation. © Wang et al. Source

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