Mou Y.,Macau University of Science and Technology |
Atkin D.,University of Connecticut |
Fu H.,Colby-Sawyer College |
Lin C.A.,University of Connecticut |
Lau T.Y.,University of Southern California
Telematics and Informatics | Year: 2013
Echoing the significance of mobile online networks in fueling the Arab Spring, the present study seeks to better understand social media influences in China by studying political activity among Chinese netizens. A survey of Chinese college students examines the influence of online social networks in the context of political attitudes and political participation. Study results reveal a moderate but positive impact of online forum and social networking site use on online political discussion. Implications for political change in the social networking era, particularly in regimes that practice Internet censorship like China's, are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goldberg S.L.,Colby-Sawyer College |
Mawn B.E.,University of Massachusetts Lowell
Public Health Nursing | Year: 2015
Objective: Food insecurity among U.S. households is a national concern. Since 2010, the U.S. Healthy People goal has been to reduce food insecurity to 6%. Despite this goal, 14.5% of households remained food insecure in 2013 (U.S. Department of Agriculture). The purpose of this study was to examine the antecedents of food insecurity among older adults through the lens of the social ecological model. Design and Sample: This retrospective cross-sectional study utilized secondary data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from the years 2007 and 2008 from a sample that included 2,045 adults 60 years of age and older. Measures: Variables related to the constructs of the social ecological model were examined using descriptive, chi-square, and logistic regression analyses. Results: Analyses of the model indicated that the severity of depression, reports of financial support, and having ever received household food stamp benefits had statistically significant main effects on food insecurity among older adults. Conclusions: The study findings have implications for nursing practice, education, and research and could facilitate the development of screening methods, interventions, and policy evaluation that focus on food insecurity at multiple spheres of influence among the targeted population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Haudry A.,University of Toronto |
Haudry A.,CNRS Biometry and Evolutionary Biology Laboratory |
Platts A.E.,McGill University |
Vello E.,McGill University |
And 27 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2013
Despite the central importance of noncoding DNA to gene regulation and evolution, understanding of the extent of selection on plant noncoding DNA remains limited compared to that of other organisms. Here we report sequencing of genomes from three Brassicaceae species (Leavenworthia alabamica, Sisymbrium irio and Aethionema arabicum) and their joint analysis with six previously sequenced crucifer genomes. Conservation across orthologous bases suggests that at least 17% of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome is under selection, with nearly one-quarter of the sequence under selection lying outside of coding regions. Much of this sequence can be localized to approximately 90,000 conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs) that show evidence of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Population genomics analyses of two crucifer species, A. thaliana and Capsella grandiflora, confirm that most of the identified CNSs are evolving under medium to strong purifying selection. Overall, these CNSs highlight both similarities and several key differences between the regulatory DNA of plants and other species. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.
Pine H.J.,Auburn University |
Pine H.J.,Colby-Sawyer College |
Boyd C.E.,Auburn University
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society | Year: 2010
Low-salinity (2.0-9.0 g/L) well waters used for inland culture of marine shrimp in Alabama are imbalanced with respect to ionic composition. Inputs of potassium (muriate of potash) and potassium-magnesium sulfate (Kmag®) fertilizers are used to correct these imbalances. Potassium is lost in overflow and intentional discharge, seepage, and through adsorption by bottom soils by exchangeable and non-exchangeable processes. This study was initiated to determine if bottom soils removed magnesium in the same manner as potassium. Laboratory soil-water mesocosms revealed that soils strongly adsorbed magnesium. The rate of adsorption tended to decline over time, indicating establishment of the equilibrium. Magnesium losses for the three soils ranged from 1405 to 1713 mg/tank (average = 1568 mg/tank). The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soils varied from 10.4 to 44.0 cmolc/kg (average = 24.6cmolc/kg). The decline in magnesium increased with higher soil CEC. In another trial, repeated exposures of soils to solutions of 40 mg Mg2+/L failed to saturate exchange sites, but rather maintained equilibrium with other base cations on soil adsorption sites. Dissolved sulfate resulting from additions of magnesium with magnesium sulfate heptahydrate (MgSO4·7H2O) was also monitored. Although difficulties of analysis occurred, sulfate was not adsorbed appreciably by the soils. © Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2010.
Roy L.A.,Auburn University |
Davis D.A.,Auburn University |
Saoud I.P.,American University of Beirut |
Boyd C.A.,Mississippi State University |
And 2 more authors.
Reviews in Aquaculture | Year: 2010
Inland aquaculture of shrimp in low salinity waters is widespread in many regions worldwide. Owing to its ability to grow and survive in low salinity environments the Pacific white shrimp, (Litopenaeusvannamei Boone) has become the candidate of choice for low salinity culture. Remediation techniques have been developed to improve the osmoregulatory capacity of shrimp reared in low salinity waters. These techniques have evaluated water modification strategies that improve low salinity waters used for production by adding potassium and magnesium fertilizers and dietary approaches that involve modification of the feeds offered to shrimp with supplements that might improve osmoregulatory capacity. Based on our own experience as well as what we found predominantly in the literature, it appears that modification of the rearing medium with potassium and magnesium fertilizers is more effective than dietary modification techniques at improving the growth, survival and osmoregulatory capacity of shrimp reared in low salinity waters. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Ost M.,Novia University of Applied Sciences |
Steele B.B.,Colby-Sawyer College
Oecologia | Year: 2010
Variation in nest concealment is puzzling given the expected strong selection for safe nest sites. Selecting a concealed nest may decrease the risk of clutch predation but hinder parents from escaping predators, providing a possible solution to this paradox. Because the relative value of current versus future reproduction may vary with breeder age or state, nest concealment may also vary as a function of these attributes. We tested four predictions of the female and clutch safety trade-off hypothesis in eiders (Somateria mollissima): (1) nest concealment is negatively related to escape possibilities, (2) our capture rate of females is higher in covered nests, (3) egg predation is higher in open nests, and (4) overall nest success is unrelated to nest habitat. We also analysed nest microhabitat preferences and nest success relative to breeder age and body condition, controlling for nest spatial centrality. As expected, nest concealment and potential escape angle were negatively related, and capture by us, indicating female predation vulnerability, increased with nest cover. Clutch size was smaller in open nests, suggesting higher partial clutch predation, while it was larger among experienced and good-condition breeders. The probability of successful hatching was unrelated to nest habitat, positively associated with breeder experience, and negatively associated with hatching date. Experienced females selected more concealed and centrally located nests without sacrificing potential escape angles. The age-specific spatial distribution of nests on islands was unrelated to nest initiation dates, indicating no apparent competition. The age-specific preference of eiders for concealed nests may reflect declining reproductive value with age or confidence in surviving despite selecting a concealed nest. The apparently positive relationship between female age and survival and fecundity in eiders refutes the former alternative. Individual improvement in choosing safe nest sites, coupled with differential survival of individuals performing well, most likely explains age-specific nest-site preference and success. © Springer-Verlag 2009.
Miller T.R.,Arizona State University |
Minteer B.A.,Arizona State University |
Malan L.-C.,Colby-Sawyer College
Biological Conservation | Year: 2011
In this paper we provide an analysis of the "new conservation debate," a still-evolving dispute in which conservation scientists and advocates defending a strong protected-areas approach (" nature protectionists" ) have become pitted against more development-oriented conservationists (" social conservationists" ) intent on reforming the dominant protected areas model to embrace sustainable use and poverty alleviation efforts. We focus in particular on identifying and clarifying the divergent normative and descriptive claims made by the two camps in the debate, an activity that we suggest will improve communication and understanding among conservationists. We suggest that more explicit discussion of the value and ethical dimensions of this debate is needed, and describe efforts to reduce value conflict and harmonize ethical positions. We conclude with a discussion of emerging planning and policy models that may facilitate a convergence of values in the new conservation debate on a common policy of eco-social sustainability. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Fredericks R.,Colby-Sawyer College
Environmental Ethics | Year: 2014
We should give courage a more significant place in our understanding of how familiar virtutes can and should be reshaped to capture what it is to be virtuous relative to the environment. Matthew Pianalto's account of moral courage helps explain what a specifically environmental form of moral courage would look like. There are three benefits to be gained by recognizing courage as an environmental virtue: (1) it helps us to recognize the high stakes nature of much environmental activism and to act accordingly; (2) it can make environmental activism (or tolerance of it) more appealing to a broader audience by helping us dismantle stereotypes associated with environmentalism, including sexist and homophobic ones; and (3) it aides in the de-militarization of the concept of courage.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 28.09K | Year: 2012
The Quantitative Literacy Reasoning Assessment (QLRA) project is developing a non-proprietary QLR instrument, piloting it at several participating institutions across the country to begin the creation of a database of QLR abilities, and establishing an online resource portal for QLR assessment. Quantitative Literacy/Reasoning is a relatively new and growing field, with many institutions replacing traditional math requirements with various introductory QLR-requirements such as Liberal Arts Mathematics and Finite Math. The current developmental/introductory math program in this country is undergoing a profound paradigm shift, as focus moves from traditional algebra based curricula to the development of the quantitative skills and habits of mind required for decision making in our personal, civic and workplace lives. Underrepresented groups in STEM (minorities and women) are often disproportionately overrepresented in these traditional developmental courses. The mathematics point-of-entry for these underrepresented groups is a crucial time to nurture interest and engagement with mathematics that could lead to further STEM involvement. The QLRA project provides the needed assessment for curriculum innovation and coherence of these point-of-entry courses. Dissemination via the online portal allows institutions to easily adapt the non-proprietary instrument to their own needs. The QLRA Project provides the necessary assessment infrastructure and a collaborative platform as QLR requirements evolve around the nation.
La Barbera C.,Colby-Sawyer College
Ethics and Medicine | Year: 2012
Prescription drug advertising has flourished in recent years; consequently, so has our consciousness of the availability and variety of prescription medications. But just as the direct-to-consumer advertising of prescriptions becomes ubiquitous in our media culture, so too do many of the dangers of manipulative marketing, dangers that enhance demand beyond necessity and pose hazards to consumers. This article provides a historical overview of the primary ethical problems posed by direct-to-consumer advertising of prescriptions, and points to one form of legally permissible advertisement, "reminder advertisements," as particularly prone to deceptive marketing. Three case studies (examining ads from Vioxx, Levitra, and Rozerem) demonstrate the potential for ethical problems specific to reminder ads. Recent changes in advertising have pointed to the industry's self-regulation, yet reminder advertisements for prescription drugs continue to be lawfully utilized. I argue that only by eliminating reminder advertisements and replacing them with full, product- claim advertisements will we have the prospect of ethical marketing of prescription drugs to consumers.