Calverton, MD, United States
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A new iron based alloy prepared by extremely rapid heating followed substantially immediately by extremely rapid cooling. Methods and materials made by optionally initially spheroidized annealing of raw iron based alloys into a precursor material are disclosed. After optional spheroidized annealing, the precursor material is rapidly heated to a temperature above the austenitizing temperature of the material and rapidly cooled to yield a high strength iron based alloy. Methods and materials for realizing a corrosion resistant high strength iron based alloy are disclosed, as are methods, materials and articles which exhibit the ability to form bend radii of nearly folding over itself.

Navarra A.,CMCC INGV | Kinter III J.L.,COLA | Tribbia J.,NCAR
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society | Year: 2010

Some components of the new level of organization and the method to design, select, plan, execute, and analyze numerical experiments on complex computing and data management systems. A strict application of the scientific method requires a process of isolation of constituent subsystems and experimental verification of a hypothesis. This is nly possible by using the numerical models, which have become the central pillar of the quantitative scientific approach to climate science. a new generation of computing systems will be composed of hundreds of thousands of processing elements and will enable numerical experiments on a large scale. Numerical experimentation on these systems willenhance climate research, and will also require a change in the way modeling experiments are conceived and carried. Models of the components of the climate system include the processes that determine the evolution of climate components. A detailed multilayer final implementation plan will have to be prepared for the final evaluation.

Solomon A.,COLA | Richter J.H.,NCAR | Bacmeister J.T.,NCAR
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2014

The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is the dominant mode of variability in the tropical stratosphere, which is in large part driven by upward propagating atmospheric waves. For over three decades researchers have investigated an extratropical impact due to the vacillation of the tropical winds. The choice of a single altitude to define the QBO introduces an ambiguity into the analysis of correlations between the tropical and extratropical manifestations of this wave-driven phenomenon. It has been previously demonstrated that using empirical orthogonal functions, this ambiguity can be resolved, by calculating the phase of the QBO from the first two principal components of the stratospheric zonal mean wind. As general circulation models begin to simulate the QBO, a standard and objective means of comparing simulations with observations should be adopted. This objective analysis of the extratropical QBO is presented for the ERA-Interim reanalysis and a version of the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5, which exhibits a spontaneously generated QBO. © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Zhang S.,Princeton University | Winton M.,Princeton University | Rosati A.,Princeton University | Delworth T.,Princeton University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Climate | Year: 2013

The non-Gaussian probability distribution of sea ice concentration makes it difficult to directly assimilate sea ice observations into a climate model. Because of the strong impact of the atmospheric and oceanic forcing on the sea ice state, any direct assimilation adjustment on sea ice states is easily overridden by model physics. A new approach implements sea ice data assimilation in enthalpy space where a sea ice model represents a nonlinear function that transforms a positive-definite space into the sea ice concentration subspace. Results from observation-assimilation experiments using a conceptual pycnocline prediction model that characterizes the influences of sea ice on the decadal variability of the climate system show that the new scheme efficiently assimilates "sea ice observations" into the model: while improving sea ice variability itself, it consistently improves the estimates of all "climate" components. The resulted coupled initialization that is physically consistent among all coupled components significantly improves decadal-scale predictability of the coupled model. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.

Kumar A.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Chen M.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Zhang L.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Zhang L.,Wyle | And 6 more authors.
Monthly Weather Review | Year: 2012

For long-range predictions (e.g., seasonal), it is a common practice for retrospective forecasts (also referred to as the hindcasts) to accompany real-time predictions. The necessity for the hindcasts stems from the fact that real-time predictions need to be calibrated in an attempt to remove the influence of model biases on the predicted anomalies. A fundamental assumption behind forecast calibration is the long-term stationarity of forecast bias that is derived based on hindcasts. Hindcasts require specification of initial conditions for various components of the prediction system (e.g., ocean, atmosphere) that are generally taken from a long reanalysis. Trends and discontinuities in the reanalysis that are either real or spurious can arise due to several reasons, for example, the changing observing system. If changes in initial conditions were to persist during the forecast, there is a potential for forecast bias to depend over the period it is computed, making calibration even more of a challenging task. In this study such a case is discussed for the recently implemented seasonal prediction system at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFS.v2). Based on the analysis of the CFS.v2 for 1981-2009, it is demonstrated that the characteristics of the forecast bias for sea surface temperature (SST) in the equatorial Pacific had a dramatic change around 1999. Furthermore, change in the SST forecast bias, and its relationship to changes in the ocean reanalysis from which the ocean initial conditions for hindcasts are taken is described. Implications for seasonal and other longrange predictions are discussed. © 2012 American Meteorological Society.

Jung T.,ECMWF | Miller M.J.,ECMWF | Palmer T.N.,ECMWF | Towers P.,ECMWF | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Climate | Year: 2012

The sensitivity to the horizontal resolution of the climate, anthropogenic climate change, and seasonal predictive skill of the ECMWF model has been studied as part of Project Athena-an international collaboration formed to test the hypothesis that substantial progress in simulating and predicting climate can be achieved if mesoscale and subsynoptic atmospheric phenomena are more realistically represented in climate models. In this study the experiments carried out with the ECMWF model (atmosphere only) are described in detail. Here, the focus is on the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere extratropics during boreal winter. The resolutions considered in Project Athena for the ECMWF model are T159 (126 km), T511 (39 km), T1279 (16 km), and T2047 (10 km). It was found that increasing horizontal resolution improves the tropical precipitation, the tropical atmospheric circulation, the frequency of occurrence of Euro-Atlantic blocking, and the representation of extratropical cyclones in large parts of the Northern Hemisphere extratropics. All of these improvements come from the increase in resolution from T159 to T511 with relatively small changes for further resolution increases to T1279 and T2047, although it should be noted that results from this very highest resolution are from a previously untested model version. Problems in simulating the Madden-Julian oscillation remain unchanged for all resolutions tested. There is some evidence that increasing horizontal resolution to T1279 leads to moderate increases in seasonal forecast skill during boreal winter in the tropics and Northern Hemisphere extratropics. Sensitivity experiments are discussed, which helps to foster a better understanding of some of the resolution dependence found for the ECMWF model in Project Athena. © 2012 American Meteorological Society.

A personalized tool, designed to help personnel manage their laboratories/organizations/companies and personal/professional development more efficiently. Access to the tools needed to run a more efficient laboratory/organization and improve patient care/customer satisfaction. The web portal provides a variety of helpful electronic tools, giving personnel the ability to update their laboratory/organization profile, view news alerts and survey results, prepare for upcoming compliance surveys/reviews and receive support for a wide range of laboratory/organization/company needs. Example features for laboratories include an easy-to-follow dashboard wheel that displays compliance/progress status information at a glance, a self-assessment wizard allowing managers to monitor their laboratorys quality and a dedicated section for waived laboratories. This provides a resource where professionals can update their lab/organization/company profile, view communications, see survey results, prepare for upcoming surveys and receive support for a whole range of laboratory/organization/company needs.

Compliance auditing and management is provided by defining business or enterprise assets, comprising receiving, from the business or enterprise variables that meet business needs of the business or enterprise as a user. Users, locations and audit templates are added. Questions to be provided to the user are entered and compliance criteria used in answering the questions and associating the compliance criteria with the questions are added. Compliance activity information from the user is received and the compliance activity information from the user to the questions is applied. Compliance activity for the user to generate a database of deployed compliance activities is scheduled and the database of deployed compliance activities is used to conduct compliance activity. The database of deployed compliance activities or the conducted compliance activity is used to generate files and incidents. The database of deployed compliance activities is used to generate compliance activity reporting.

PubMed | VETOPATH, TxCell Valbonne Sophia Antipolis and COLA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science | Year: 2015

To evaluate the therapeutic potential of Col-Treg, a collagen II-specific type 1 regulatory T-cell immunotherapy for the treatment of noninfectious uveitis (NIU).Col-Treg cells were produced from collagen II-specific T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice or peripheral blood of healthy donors. Phenotypic characterization was performed by flow cytometry, and cytokine secretion was evaluated with Flowcytomix or ELISA. In vitro functional characterization included ATP hydrolysis, cytotoxicity, and contact-independent T-cell suppression and plasticity assays. Col-Treg migration was assessed by quantitative PCR specific to Col-Treg TCR. Col-Treg cells were administered intravenously in mice displaying experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) induced by interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) immunizations. Efficacy of Col-Treg was assessed by ophthalmology, histology, and immunohistochemistry.Mice Col-Treg cells displayed identity features of type 1 Treg cells with expression of CD25, FoxP3, low surface expression of CD127, and cytokine secretion profile (IL-10(high), IL-4(low), IFN-(int)). In vitro functional assays demonstrated Col-Treg suppressive capacity via soluble factor-dependent immunosuppression, cytotoxicity, and ATP hydrolysis. Col-Treg cells expressed granzyme B, CD39, and glucocorticoid-induced TNF-related protein (GITR). Administration of Col-Treg in EAU mice inhibited clinical and morphologic signs of uveitis and decreased ocular leukocyte infiltration. Col-Treg cells homed in the ocular tissues 24 hours after intravenous injection. Human Col-Treg cells were comparable to mice Col-Treg cells in identity and function and did not show the capacity to differentiate into Th17 cells in vitro.These results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of Col-Treg cells as a targeted approach for the treatment of NIU and the feasibility of translating this approach to the human clinical setting.

News Article | February 24, 2017

SAN FRANCISCO--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Layer Inc. announced the acquisition of Cola, a messaging startup known for the Cola Messenger app and the Cola Bubble platform, which transforms simple communications into actionable and collaborative messages. Layer also announced a $15 million Series B round of venture capital funding led by Greycroft Partners with participation by Microsoft Ventures, Salesforce Ventures, and other previous investors. Layer’s award winning Communications Platform enables today’s businesses to engage customers through all stages of the customer lifecycle—from customer acquisition to service and support—across mobile, web, email and voice channels to deliver unique, brand consistent, customized experiences. Where email, phone and the desktop web were once sufficient channels for managing customer relationships, real-time messaging user experiences have taken hold as the default mobile communications format all over the world. Layer is the market-leading innovator enabling businesses to connect with their customers both through their products and in the customer's preferred mobile-first experience—all while embracing legacy channels such as email, voice and desktop browsers. There are many benefits to linking Layer’s ability to power customer conversations with business process flows—improved customer acquisition velocity, increased customer retention, and higher overall customer lifetime value. “With this new acquisition, Layer is extending its messaging platform to give brands access to Cola technology—interactive, stateful messages that live inside a conversation,” said Ron Palmeri, CEO of Layer. “We've seen messaging evolve from simple chat into a rich stream of events. Now, developers using Layer will have a framework to make these events interactive and collaborative. A few taps inside an interactive message can replace multiple back-and-forth texts, making the customer conversation more efficient and delivering better business results via retention, engagement, funnel velocity and conversion rates.” Examples of Cola technology include placing an order with one tap, scheduling an appointment, quickly voting on one or more options or seeing the live location of a delivery. “There’s a ton of synergy between the missions of Layer and Cola. This is a perfect place for us to join forces with a company that very much shares and understands our vision,” said Cola CEO, David Temkin. “Cola technology will be available to Layer’s entire developer ecosystem, incorporating our platform into the hundreds of apps that Layer developers are building—and that’s something of which we’re very proud.” “The consumerization of technology has brought enterprise solutions to the cloud and made them accessible on any device. We see that communication between companies and customers is the next wave of this movement,” said Mike McEvoy, COO and Co-Founder of Cola. “By embedding collaborative applications within messaging, we unite the efficiency of enterprise apps with consumers’ preferred means of communication to create an instant-connection channel with both context and meaning.” The acquisition brings Cola’s deep bench of engineering talent to Layer. Jeremy Wyld, CTO of Cola, will join Layer as Chief Architect along with other engineers from the Cola team. Wyld was a key member of Apple’s original iPhone engineering team and led development of the first iPhone’s networking and telephony software, which eventually became iOS. Hundreds of enterprises rely on Layer, the leader in this category, to embrace the new mobile messaging UX as the core format for their customer conversations. “We chose the Layer platform because fundamentally we wanted to have most of the transaction happen in the conversation itself,” said Justin Hughes, VP of Product at Trunk Club, a Nordstrom company. “It was really important to us that messaging wasn’t just this clunky thing that we used to send links to customers. Layer’s vision of powering the aggregated customer conversation aligned perfectly with ours.” Even in a hyper-connected mobile-first world, business remains about people, relationships, and communication. Layer’s award winning (TechCrunch Disrupt, San Francisco) Communications Platform powers invaluable conversations that enable brands to embed rich, engaging communications experiences directly into customer conversations across channels that boost both customer engagement and retention. Layer has raised $23 million from leading investors Microsoft Ventures, Greycroft Partners, SV Angel, AME CLoud Ventures, Promus Ventures, CrunchFund, and Fuel Capital as well as leading angel investors. Cola is the world’s first Messaging OS, designed to make texting more convenient and provide users the full functionality of their smartphone without leaving a conversation. Cola was founded by a team of seasoned Silicon Valley veterans. Investors include Tribeca Angels, Naval Ravikant and his AngelList Syndicate, which includes AOL founder Steve Case, Brad Garlinghouse, and other prominent angel investors. Cola is headquartered in San Francisco, California.

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