COISPA Tecnologia and Ricerca

Lama dei Peligni, Italy

COISPA Tecnologia and Ricerca

Lama dei Peligni, Italy

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Granger V.,Montpellier University | Fromentin J.-M.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Bez N.,IRD Montpellier | Meynard C.N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 24 more authors.
Progress in Oceanography | Year: 2015

Increasing human pressures and global environmental change may severely affect the diversity of species assemblages and associated ecosystem services. Despite the recent interest in phylogenetic and functional diversity, our knowledge on large spatio-temporal patterns of demersal fish diversity sampled by trawling remains still incomplete, notably in the Mediterranean Sea, one of the most threatened marine regions of the world. We investigated large spatio-temporal diversity patterns by analysing a dataset of 19,886 hauls from 10 to 800. m depth performed annually during the last two decades by standardised scientific bottom trawl field surveys across the Mediterranean Sea, within the MEDITS program. A multi-component (eight diversity indices) and multi-scale (local assemblages, biogeographic regions to basins) approach indicates that only the two most traditional components (species richness and evenness) were sufficient to reflect patterns in taxonomic, phylogenetic or functional richness and divergence. We also put into question the use of widely computed indices that allow comparing directly taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity within a unique mathematical framework. In addition, demersal fish assemblages sampled by trawl do not follow a continuous decreasing longitudinal/latitudinal diversity gradients (spatial effects explained up to 70.6% of deviance in regression tree and generalised linear models), for any of the indices and spatial scales analysed. Indeed, at both local and regional scales species richness was relatively high in the Iberian region, Malta, the Eastern Ionian and Aegean seas, meanwhile the Adriatic Sea and Cyprus showed a relatively low level. In contrast, evenness as well as taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional divergences did not show regional hotspots. All studied diversity components remained stable over the last two decades. Overall, our results highlight the need to use complementary diversity indices through different spatial scales when developing conservation strategies and defining delimitations for protected areas. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Carbonara P.,COISPA Tecnologia and Ricerca | Intini S.,COISPA Tecnologia and Ricerca | Modugno E.,COISPA Tecnologia and Ricerca | Spedicato M.T.,COISPA Tecnologia and Ricerca | And 2 more authors.
Aquatic Living Resources | Year: 2015

The main important reproductive aspects of Mullus barbatus, one of the most important target species for the fishery in the Mediterranean basin, have been studied on the basis of MEDITS trawl survey and sampling of commercial landing. The total length (TL) of females has been demonstrated to be positively correlated with egg sizes and plasmatic concentration of vitellogenin. The possible implications of these aspects on the management of red mullet resources are discussed in this work. Moreover, the relationship between TL and fecundity follows an exponential pattern with a temporal trend during the spawning season. These results represent an important input for more effective management measures, such as the seasonal closure of fishery in summertime. The frequency distribution of the oocytes' diameters showed an asynchronous ovarian organization with batch spawning pattern. Monthly variations in the gonadosomatic index and maturity stages percentage showed that males spawn during almost the entire year showed an increasing trend from November to June and a decreasing trend from July to October, while females in spawning phase are recorded from April to July, with peaks in May and June. The length at 50% maturity (L50) estimated respectively for females and males are 12.1 cm (±0.083) and 10.1 cm (±0.073). © EDP Sciences 2015.


Keller S.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | Bartolino V.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Hidalgo M.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | Bitetto I.,COISPA Tecnologia and Ricerca | And 19 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Species diversity is widely recognized as an important trait of ecosystems' functioning and resilience. Understanding the causes of diversity patterns and their interaction with the environmental conditions is essential in order to effectively assess and preserve existing diversity. While diversity patterns of most recurrent groups such as fish are commonly studied, other important taxa such as cephalopods have received less attention. In this work we present spatio-temporal trends of cephalopod diversity across the entire Mediterranean Sea during the last 19 years, analysing data from the annual bottom trawl survey MEDITS conducted by 5 different Mediterranean countries using standardized gears and sampling protocols. The influence of local and regional environmental variability in different Mediterranean regions is analysed applying generalized additive models, using species richness and the Shannon Wiener index as diversity descriptors. While the western basin showed a high diversity, our analyses do not support a steady eastward decrease of diversity as proposed in some previous studies. Instead, high Shannon diversity was also found in the Adriatic and Aegean Seas, and high species richness in the eastern Ionian Sea. Overall diversity did not show any consistent trend over the last two decades. Except in the Adriatic Sea, diversity showed a hump-shaped trend with depth in all regions, being highest between 200-400 m depth. Our results indicate that high Chlorophyll a concentrations and warmer temperatures seem to enhance species diversity, and the influence of these parameters is stronger for richness than for Shannon diversity. © 2016 Keller et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Rossetto M.,Polytechnic of Milan | Rossetto M.,Consorzio Interuniversitario per le Science del Mare | Bitetto I.,COISPA Tecnologia and Ricerca | Spedicato M.T.,COISPA Tecnologia and Ricerca | And 5 more authors.
Marine Policy | Year: 2015

A decision-making framework combining multi-attribute utility theory and the analytic hierarchy process is proposed to assess the performances of alternative fisheries management policies. The framework is demonstrated by applying it to a Mediterranean demersal fishery (GSA 18, Southern Adriatic Sea), for which a set of management scenarios are evaluated against their ability to cope with environmental, economic and social objectives. To this aim, (1) a suite of biological and socioeconomic indicators is identified and organized into an appropriate hierarchy; (2) a set of utility functions is defined to express the level of satisfaction associated with different values of the indicators; and (3) a set of weights, representing the relative importance of each indicator to the overall utility, is derived through a pair-wise comparison of the indicators. The proposed approach provides a practical decision-support tool to identify the management scenarios that are most desirable from the society[U+05F3]s perspective, thus providing a good compromise between the environmental, economic and social aspects of the problem. The flexible structure of the framework allows the incorporation of different management criteria and utility functions to adapt it to different decision problems. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Martinelli D.,University of Foggia | Bitetto I.,COISPA Tecnologia and Ricerca | Tafuri S.,University of Bari | Lopalco P.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 2 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2010

Temporal trends of Hepatitis A cases and vaccination coverage data against Hepatitis A Virus have been investigated to analyse the impact of the universal routine vaccination strategy more than 10 years from its introduction in Puglia (region of Southern Italy). The basic reproductive number (R0) before vaccination introduction and the effective reproductive number (Re) after introduction have been calculated. A progressive decrease in incidence has been recorded in Puglia during last 10 years. Vaccination coverage is actually 64.8% (95% CI: 52.7-76.9%) for children aged 12-24 months and of 67.6% (95% CI: 58.4-76.8%) for 12-year-old adolescents. R0 estimated in 1996 was 2.01; actually Re is 0.651. Theoretical age at infection is 31.82 years. Universal routine vaccination aimed at the control of direct transmission remains the milestone in the strategy for the containment of the disease in settings at an intermediate level of endemicity. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Martins C.I.M.,University of Algarve | Martins C.I.M.,Wageningen University | Galhardo L.,Instituto Superior Of Psicologia Aplicada | Noble C.,Nofima Marin | And 9 more authors.
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in foraging behaviour, ventilatory activity, aggression, individual and group swimming behaviour, stereotypic and abnormal behaviour have been linked with acute and chronic stressors in aquaculture and can therefore be regarded as likely indicators of poor welfare. On the contrary, measurements of exploratory behaviour, feed anticipatory activity and reward-related operant behaviour are beginning to be considered as indicators of positive emotions and welfare in fish. Despite the lack of scientific agreement about the existence of sentience in fish, the possibility that they are capable of both positive and negative emotions may contribute to the development of new strategies (e. g. environmental enrichment) to promote good welfare. Numerous studies that use behavioural indicators of welfare show that behavioural changes can be interpreted as either good or poor welfare depending on the fish species. It is therefore essential to understand the species-specific biology before drawing any conclusions in relation to welfare. In addition, different individuals within the same species may exhibit divergent coping strategies towards stressors, and what is tolerated by some individuals may be detrimental to others. Therefore, the assessment of welfare in a few individuals may not represent the average welfare of a group and vice versa. This underlines the need to develop on-farm, operational behavioural welfare indicators that can be easily used to assess not only the individual welfare but also the welfare of the whole group (e. g. spatial distribution). With the ongoing development of video technology and image processing, the on-farm surveillance of behaviour may in the near future represent a low-cost, noninvasive tool to assess the welfare of farmed fish. © 2011 The Author(s).


Frodella N.,University of Bologna | Cannas R.,University of Cagliari | Cannas R.,University of Bologna | Velona A.,University of Bologna | And 19 more authors.
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2016

The genetic structure and population connectivity of the Mediterranean endemic speckled skate Raja polystigma were investigated in 10 population samples (N = 232) at 7 exon-primed nuclear microsatellites and at 3 mitochondrial DNA sequence markers. The phylogeographic and population genetic analyses revealed that R. polystigma in the western and central Mediterranean represents a near-panmictic population, with a subtle but significant mitochondrial divergence of the Adriatic deme. Nuclear genotypes revealed that 2.5% of the total individuals exhibited an admixed ancestry with the sibling species R. montagui (spotted ray). Individuals with admixed ancestry were detected along with purebred individuals in the Algerian, southern Tyrrhenian, Sicilian and Adriatic R. polystigma population samples, but they were absent or rare in Sardinian and northern Tyrrhenian ones. Since the 2 species co-occur in the southwestern Mediterranean, we suggested that this area may act as a secondary hybrid zone. © Inter-Research 2016.


Spedicato M.T.,COISPA Tecnologia and Ricerca | Poulard J.-C.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Politou C.-Y.,Hellenic Center for Marine Research | Radtke K.,Polish National Marine Fisheries Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Aquatic Living Resources | Year: 2010

Simulation of fisheries systems is a widely used approach that integrates monitoring and assessment tools. We applied the ALADYM (age-length based dynamic model) simulation model to three different studies aimed at investigating correlations between pressure and population metrics, exploring the viability of different mortality levels in long-term scenarios and predicting the effects of combined management measures. Uncertainty was incorporated into the simulations following the Monte Carlo paradigm. Three stocks were used for these exercises: red mullet in the central-southern Tyrrhenian Sea and European hake in both the Bay of Biscay and the Aegean Sea. The analysis of the relationships between total mortality and indicators highlighted significant pairwise negative correlations for red mullet. These signals of decline were supported by the spawning potential ratio indicator (mean exploited to mean unexploited spawning-stock biomass ESSB/USSB), which was low compared to target levels. It only remained within safe bounds (> 0.2; probability: 0.90-0.95) at total mortality levels lower than 1.6. The simulation results for European hake in the Bay of Biscay showed that a sustainable exploitation rate might range from 0.87 to 1.04. The benefits of combined management measures were demonstrated for European hake in the Aegean Sea, and with a further dataset on the Eastern cod stock in the Baltic Sea. © 2010 EDP Sciences, IFREMER, IRD.


Rochet M.-J.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Trenkel V.M.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Carpentier A.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Coppin F.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2010

The development of ecosystem approaches to environmental management implies the need to account for multiple pressures on ecosystems. Trends in multiple metrics that respond differently to changes in major environmental pressures need to be combined to evaluate the impacts of fishing and environmental changes on fish communities. An exploited fish community is viewed as a three-level food chain in which the two upper levels, or functional groups, are targeted by fishing fleets, while the lowest level is subject to environmental variation. Qualitative modelling is used to predict changes at the two upper levels, that is, top-down vs. bottom-up perturbations. Abundance and length metrics are calculated from survey data for 14 Mediterranean and East-Atlantic groundfish shelf communities at both population and functional group levels. The joint likelihood of time trends in metrics is used to evaluate the evidence for different causes of changes. A wide diversity of impacts is found to have equal evidence at the population level within each community. Consistency between the impacts identified and changes in pressures known from independent information is found at the functional group and community level. The results suggest that there is some compensation between species within functional groups. Synthesis and applications. The method can be used to conduct an integrated assessment of community dynamics subject to multiple pressures. Joint trends in metrics provide evidence of which known pressures are having an impact on the community, and thus, which management actions should be taken to mitigate these changes. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Ecological Society.


Carbonara P.,COISPA Tecnologia and Ricerca | Scolamacchia M.,COISPA Tecnologia and Ricerca | Scolamacchia M.,University of Bari | Spedicato M.T.,COISPA Tecnologia and Ricerca | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2015

Groups of adult sea bass were reared at either low (10 kg m-3) or high (50 kg m-3) stocking densities respectively for 84 and 116 days. To monitor the red muscle activity, about 20 fish from both densities were surgically implanted with EMG (Electromyograms) radio transmitters, after EMG calibration during exhaustive swimming exercise (Ucrit test). Blood samples and morphometric measurements were also taken. EMG showed that the muscle activity of fish reared at 50 kg m-3 was on average twofold higher than fish kept at lower density. Cortisol was significantly more elevated at higher density and haemoglobin, haematocrit and RBCC (red blood cells count) showed the same trend, while lysozyme decreased. Patterns for glucose and lactate were less clear. The results showed that the contemporary use of functional (EMG) and physiological (haematological and biochemical) profiles could give a more comprehensive view of the fish status validating the diagnosis of fish stress induced by culture practices. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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