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Sammichele di Bari, Italy

Martinelli D.,University of Foggia | Bitetto I.,COISPA Tecnologia and Ricerca | Tafuri S.,University of Bari | Lopalco P.L.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 2 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2010

Temporal trends of Hepatitis A cases and vaccination coverage data against Hepatitis A Virus have been investigated to analyse the impact of the universal routine vaccination strategy more than 10 years from its introduction in Puglia (region of Southern Italy). The basic reproductive number (R0) before vaccination introduction and the effective reproductive number (Re) after introduction have been calculated. A progressive decrease in incidence has been recorded in Puglia during last 10 years. Vaccination coverage is actually 64.8% (95% CI: 52.7-76.9%) for children aged 12-24 months and of 67.6% (95% CI: 58.4-76.8%) for 12-year-old adolescents. R0 estimated in 1996 was 2.01; actually Re is 0.651. Theoretical age at infection is 31.82 years. Universal routine vaccination aimed at the control of direct transmission remains the milestone in the strategy for the containment of the disease in settings at an intermediate level of endemicity. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Rochet M.-J.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Trenkel V.M.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Carpentier A.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Coppin F.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2010

The development of ecosystem approaches to environmental management implies the need to account for multiple pressures on ecosystems. Trends in multiple metrics that respond differently to changes in major environmental pressures need to be combined to evaluate the impacts of fishing and environmental changes on fish communities. An exploited fish community is viewed as a three-level food chain in which the two upper levels, or functional groups, are targeted by fishing fleets, while the lowest level is subject to environmental variation. Qualitative modelling is used to predict changes at the two upper levels, that is, top-down vs. bottom-up perturbations. Abundance and length metrics are calculated from survey data for 14 Mediterranean and East-Atlantic groundfish shelf communities at both population and functional group levels. The joint likelihood of time trends in metrics is used to evaluate the evidence for different causes of changes. A wide diversity of impacts is found to have equal evidence at the population level within each community. Consistency between the impacts identified and changes in pressures known from independent information is found at the functional group and community level. The results suggest that there is some compensation between species within functional groups. Synthesis and applications. The method can be used to conduct an integrated assessment of community dynamics subject to multiple pressures. Joint trends in metrics provide evidence of which known pressures are having an impact on the community, and thus, which management actions should be taken to mitigate these changes. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Ecological Society.

Spedicato M.T.,COISPA Tecnologia and Ricerca | Poulard J.-C.,French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea | Politou C.-Y.,Hellenic Center for Marine Research | Radtke K.,Polish National Marine Fisheries Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Aquatic Living Resources | Year: 2010

Simulation of fisheries systems is a widely used approach that integrates monitoring and assessment tools. We applied the ALADYM (age-length based dynamic model) simulation model to three different studies aimed at investigating correlations between pressure and population metrics, exploring the viability of different mortality levels in long-term scenarios and predicting the effects of combined management measures. Uncertainty was incorporated into the simulations following the Monte Carlo paradigm. Three stocks were used for these exercises: red mullet in the central-southern Tyrrhenian Sea and European hake in both the Bay of Biscay and the Aegean Sea. The analysis of the relationships between total mortality and indicators highlighted significant pairwise negative correlations for red mullet. These signals of decline were supported by the spawning potential ratio indicator (mean exploited to mean unexploited spawning-stock biomass ESSB/USSB), which was low compared to target levels. It only remained within safe bounds (> 0.2; probability: 0.90-0.95) at total mortality levels lower than 1.6. The simulation results for European hake in the Bay of Biscay showed that a sustainable exploitation rate might range from 0.87 to 1.04. The benefits of combined management measures were demonstrated for European hake in the Aegean Sea, and with a further dataset on the Eastern cod stock in the Baltic Sea. © 2010 EDP Sciences, IFREMER, IRD.

Colloca F.,CNR Institute for Coastal Marine Environment | Garofalo G.,CNR Institute for Coastal Marine Environment | Bitetto I.,COISPA Tecnologia and Ricerca | Facchini M.T.,COISPA Tecnologia and Ricerca | And 23 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The identification of nursery grounds and other essential fish habitats of exploited stocks is a key requirement for the development of spatial conservation planning aimed at reducing the adverse impact of fishing on the exploited populations and ecosystems. The reduction in juvenile mortality is particularly relevant in the Mediterranean and is considered as one of the main prerequisites for the future sustainability of trawl fisheries. The distribution of nursery areas of 11 important commercial species of demersal fish and shellfish was analysed in the European Union Mediterranean waters using time series of bottom trawl survey data with the aim of identifying the most persistent recruitment areas. A high interspecific spatial overlap between nursery areas was mainly found along the shelf break of many different sectors of the Northern Mediterranean indicating a high potential for the implementation of conservation measures. Overlap of the nursery grounds with existing spatial fisheries management measures and trawl fisheries restricted areas was also investigated. Spatial analyses revealed considerable variation depending on species and associated habitat/depth preferences with increased protection seen in coastal nurseries and minimal protection seen for deeper nurseries (e.g. Parapenaeus longirostris 6%). This is partly attributed to existing environmental policy instruments (e.g. Habitats Directive and Mediterranean Regulation EC 1967/2006) aiming at minimising impacts on coastal priority habitats such as seagrass, coralligenous and maerl beds. The new knowledge on the distribution and persistence of demersal nurseries provided in this study can support the application of spatial conservation measures, such as the designation of no-take Marine Protected Areas in EU Mediterranean waters and their inclusion in a conservation network. The establishment of no-take zones will be consistent with the objectives of the Common Fisheries Policy applying the ecosystem approach to fisheries management and with the requirements of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive to maintain or achieve seafloor integrity and good environmental status. © 2015 Colloca et al.

Carbonara P.,COISPA Tecnologia and Ricerca | Scolamacchia M.,COISPA Tecnologia and Ricerca | Scolamacchia M.,University of Bari | Spedicato M.T.,COISPA Tecnologia and Ricerca | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2015

Groups of adult sea bass were reared at either low (10 kg m-3) or high (50 kg m-3) stocking densities respectively for 84 and 116 days. To monitor the red muscle activity, about 20 fish from both densities were surgically implanted with EMG (Electromyograms) radio transmitters, after EMG calibration during exhaustive swimming exercise (Ucrit test). Blood samples and morphometric measurements were also taken. EMG showed that the muscle activity of fish reared at 50 kg m-3 was on average twofold higher than fish kept at lower density. Cortisol was significantly more elevated at higher density and haemoglobin, haematocrit and RBCC (red blood cells count) showed the same trend, while lysozyme decreased. Patterns for glucose and lactate were less clear. The results showed that the contemporary use of functional (EMG) and physiological (haematological and biochemical) profiles could give a more comprehensive view of the fish status validating the diagnosis of fish stress induced by culture practices. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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