Cognosco

Morrinsville, New Zealand
Morrinsville, New Zealand
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McDougall S.,Cognosco | LeBlanc S.J.,University of Guelph | Heiser A.,Agresearch Ltd.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2017

Treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) increases polymorphonuclear cell (neutrophil) count and enhances neutrophil function in the periparturient cow. Prepartum undernutrition was hypothesized to reduce the effect of a commercially available recombinant bovine G-CSF product (pegbovigrastim) on neutrophil count and function. Hence this study was undertaken to test the effect of undernutrition for approximately 1 mo before calving on the innate immune response to pegbovigrastim. Cows (n = 99) on pasture were blocked by expected calving date and body condition score and randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The first factor was that cows were fed to exceed energy requirements prepartum (full feeding) or restricted to approximately 85% of prepartum energy requirements (restricted feeding). The second factor was that at approximately 7 d before expected calving date, half the cows in each feed group were injected with pegbovigrastim and the remaining half were injected with saline. Treatments were repeated on the day of calving. Blood samples were collected pre- and postcalving for complete blood count, biochemistry, and in vitro assessment of neutrophil function including phagocytosis, myeloperoxidase release, and oxidative burst. Prepartum energy restriction resulted in lower body weight, a higher proportion of cows with elevated concentrations (i.e., > 0.4 mmol/L) of fatty acids, and higher average β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations before calving relative to fully fed cows. Treatment with pegbovigrastim increased the total white cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts. Pegbovigrastim treatment resulted in increased release of myeloperoxidase by neutrophils. Prepartum feeding group did not have an effect, and no feeding group × treatment interaction was observed for any of the white cell counts or functional tests. We concluded that pegbovigrastim treatment results in significant increases in neutrophil count and enhances neutrophil function as indicated by increased myeloperoxidase release. The response to pegbovigrastim was not affected by restricted prepartum energy intake. © 2017 American Dairy Science Association.


Cuttance E.L.,VetEnt | Mason W.A.,VetEnt | McDermott J.,VetEnt | Laven R.A.,Massey University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2017

The aims of this study were to (1) estimate the perinatal (birth to 24 h) and postnatal (∼24 h to the mean weaning age of 13 wk) mortality risk in pasture-based dairy calves until weaning, and (2) identify associated risk factors in the 2015 calving season. A prospective survey of 32 seasonal calving dairy farms was undertaken. Farmers recorded (daily) the number and sex of the calves alive or dead in the paddocks where cows calved. All daily animal movements in and out of the calf rearing facilities, including death and euthanasia, and the identification of the animals (if applicable) were recorded, and a survey of the farm management practices was undertaken. Individual and farm-level risk factors for perinatal mortality were modeled separately using generalized logistic mixed models with a random effect fitted for herd. Postnatal mortality incidence risk was calculated using time at risk for each calf from 24 h of age, collapsed into weeks, and multiplying the incidence risk by the mean weaning age of the study population. Farm-level risk factors contributing to postnatal mortality in the first week of life were assessed using a multivariable logistic mixed regression model. The mean perinatal mortality risk was 5.7% (95% confidence interval 5.4 to 6.1%) with a range from 2.2 to 8.6% (18,437 calves, 30 farms). Perinatal calf mortality was greater for male relative to female calves (odds ratio 1.39; 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.59), calves born in the first week of the calving period in comparison to wk 2 to 11 (odds ratio 0.32 to 0.66), and those born on days with greater rainfall (odds ratio 1.01 per 1 mm increase; 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.02). At the farm level, perinatal mortality increased for every extra week of calving period length (odds ratio 1.12; 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.17). The mean postnatal mortality risk was 4.1% (95% confidence interval 3.6 to 4.6%) with a range of 0 to 11% between farms. Farm-level risk factors contributing to mortality in the first week of life included farmer-reported disease problems in calves (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.62 to 2.96), or calves hand-fed colostrum in the first 12 h of life (odds ratio 1.66; 95% confidence interval 1.26 to 2.19), which was assumed to be associated with poor colostrum quality and bacterial contamination. Regional differences were also observed in both perinatal and postnatal mortality risks, indicating that weather conditions, herd size, and management variations contribute to mortality incidence. In summary, the mortality risk of perinatal calves and postnatal calves until weaning on pasture-based farms is comparable with data published from other dairying systems despite the notable management differences. Several risk factors were identified that could be managed to reduce mortality incidence of dairy calves. © 2017 American Dairy Science Association.


McDougall S.,Cognosco | Hillerton J.E.,DairyNZ Ltd | Pegram D.,Fonterra Co operative Group | Pegram D.,Farm IQ Systems Ltd
New Zealand Veterinary Journal | Year: 2016

AIM: To determine the concentration of the anti-theilerial drug buparvaquone in the milk and tissue of dairy cattle following treatment with two different formulations, and to assess the effect of clinical theileriosis on the concentration of buparvaquone in milk. METHODS: Healthy lactating dairy cows (n=25) were injected once (Day 0) I/M with 2.5 mg/kg of one of two formulations of buparvaquone (Butalex; n=12 or Bupaject; n=13). Milk samples were collected from all cows daily until Day 35. Five cows were slaughtered on each of Days 56, 119, 147, 203 and 328, and samples of liver, muscle and injection site tissue collected. Milk samples were also collected from cows (n=14) clinically affected with theileriosis for up to 21 days after treatment with buparvaquone. Milk and tissue samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; limits of detection (LOD) were 0.00018 mg/kg for muscle and 0.00023 mg/L for milk. Concentrations of buparvaquone in milk and tissues were log10-transformed for analysis using multivariate models. RESULTS: In healthy cows, concentrations of buparvaquone in milk declined with time post-treatment (p<0.001), but were above the LOD in 11 of 25 cows at Day 35. Concentration in milk was higher one day after treatment in cows treated with Butalex than in cows treated with Bupaject, but not different thereafter (p=0.007). Concentrations of buparvaquone in muscle were below the LOD for four of five animals at Day 119 and for all animals by Day 147, but were above the LOD at the injection site of one cow, and in the liver of three cows at Day 328. Tissue concentrations did not differ with formulation nor was there a formulation by time interaction (p>0.3). Concentrations of buparvaquone in the milk of clinically affected animals were not different from those of healthy animals at 1 and 21 days post-treatment (p=0.72). Between 21 and 25 days post-treatment concentrations were below the LOD in 9/14 milk samples from clinically affected cows. CONCLUSIONS: Detectable concentrations of buparvaquone were found in the milk of some cows for at least 35 days and in the liver and injection site of some cows until at least 328 days after injection. There were no biologically meaningful differences in milk or tissue concentrations between the formulations, or in the milk concentrations for cows that were clinically affected compared with those that were healthy at the time of treatment. © 2016 New Zealand Veterinary Association.


McDougall S.,Cognosco | Abbeloos E.,Boehringer Ingelheim | Piepers S.,Ghent University | Rao A.S.,University of Liège | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2016

A blinded, negative controlled, randomized intervention study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that addition of meloxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to antimicrobial treatment of mild to moderate clinical mastitis would improve fertility and reduce the risk of removal from the herd. Cows (n = 509) from 61 herds in 8 regions (sites) in 6 European countries were enrolled. Following herd-owner diagnosis of mild to moderate clinical mastitis within the first 120 d of lactation in a single gland, the rectal temperature, milk appearance, and California Mastitis Test score were assessed. Cows were randomly assigned within each site to be treated either with meloxicam or a placebo (control). All cows were additionally treated with 1 to 4 intramammary infusions of cephalexin and kanamycin at 24-h intervals. Prior to treatment and at 14 and 21 d posttreatment, milk samples were collected for bacteriology and somatic cell count. Cows were bred by artificial insemination and pregnancy status was subsequently defined. General estimating equations were used to determine the effect of treatment (meloxicam versus control) on bacteriological cure, somatic cell count, the probability of being inseminated by 21 d after the voluntary waiting period, the probability of conception to first artificial insemination, the number of artificial insemination/conception, the probability of pregnancy by 120 or 200 d postcalving, and the risk of removal by 300 d after treatment. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to test the effect of treatment on the calving to first insemination and calving to conception intervals. Groups did not differ in terms of age, clot score, California Mastitis Test score, rectal temperature, number of antimicrobial treatments given or bacteria present at the time of enrollment, but cows treated with meloxicam had greater days in milk at enrollment. Cows treated with meloxicam had a higher bacteriological cure proportion than those treated with the placebo [0.66 (standard error = 0.04) versus 0.50 (standard error = 0.06), respectively], although the proportion of glands from which no bacteria were isolated posttreatment did not differ between groups. No difference was observed in the somatic cell count between groups pre- or posttreatment. The proportion of cows that underwent artificial insemination by 21 d after the voluntary waiting period was unaffected by treatment. Treatment with meloxicam was associated with a higher proportion of cows conceiving to their first artificial insemination (0.31 versus 0.21), and a higher proportion of meloxicam-treated cows were pregnant by 120 d after calving (0.40 versus 0.31). The number of artificial inseminations required to achieve conception was lower in the meloxicam compared with control cows (2.43 versus 2.92). No difference was observed between groups in the proportion of cows pregnant by 200 d after calving or in the proportion of cows that were culled, died, or sold by 300 d after calving (17% versus 21% for meloxicam versus control, respectively). It was concluded that use of meloxicam, in conjunction with antimicrobial therapy, for mild to moderate cases of clinical mastitis, resulted in a higher probability of bacteriological cure, an increased probability of conception. to first artificial insemination, fewer artificial inseminations, and a greater proportion of cows pregnant by 120 d in milk. © 2016 American Dairy Science Association.


PubMed | University Utrecht, L.E.S.S., Cognosco, RAFT Solutions Ltd. and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2016

A blinded, negative controlled, randomized intervention study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that addition of meloxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to antimicrobial treatment of mild to moderate clinical mastitis would improve fertility and reduce the risk of removal from the herd. Cows (n=509) from 61 herds in 8 regions (sites) in 6 European countries were enrolled. Following herd-owner diagnosis of mild to moderate clinical mastitis within the first 120 d of lactation in a single gland, the rectal temperature, milk appearance, and California Mastitis Test score were assessed. Cows were randomly assigned within each site to be treated either with meloxicam or a placebo (control). All cows were additionally treated with 1 to 4 intramammary infusions of cephalexin and kanamycin at 24-h intervals. Prior to treatment and at 14 and 21 d posttreatment, milk samples were collected for bacteriology and somatic cell count. Cows were bred by artificial insemination and pregnancy status was subsequently defined. General estimating equations were used to determine the effect of treatment (meloxicam versus control) on bacteriological cure, somatic cell count, the probability of being inseminated by 21 d after the voluntary waiting period, the probability of conception to first artificial insemination, the number of artificial insemination/conception, the probability of pregnancy by 120 or 200 d postcalving, and the risk of removal by 300 d after treatment. Coxs proportional hazards models were used to test the effect of treatment on the calving to first insemination and calving to conception intervals. Groups did not differ in terms of age, clot score, California Mastitis Test score, rectal temperature, number of antimicrobial treatments given or bacteria present at the time of enrollment, but cows treated with meloxicam had greater days in milk at enrollment. Cows treated with meloxicam had a higher bacteriological cure proportion than those treated with the placebo [0.66 (standard error=0.04) versus 0.50 (standard error=0.06), respectively], although the proportion of glands from which no bacteria were isolated posttreatment did not differ between groups. No difference was observed in the somatic cell count between groups pre- or posttreatment. The proportion of cows that underwent artificial insemination by 21 d after the voluntary waiting period was unaffected by treatment. Treatment with meloxicam was associated with a higher proportion of cows conceiving to their first artificial insemination (0.31 versus 0.21), and a higher proportion of meloxicam-treated cows were pregnant by 120 d after calving (0.40 versus 0.31). The number of artificial inseminations required to achieve conception was lower in the meloxicam compared with control cows (2.43 versus 2.92). No difference was observed between groups in the proportion of cows pregnant by 200 d after calving or in the proportion of cows that were culled, died, or sold by 300 d after calving (17% versus 21% for meloxicam versus control, respectively). It was concluded that use of meloxicam, in conjunction with antimicrobial therapy, for mild to moderate cases of clinical mastitis, resulted in a higher probability of bacteriological cure, an increased probability of conception to first artificial insemination, fewer artificial inseminations, and a greater proportion of cows pregnant by 120 d in milk.


Cuttance E.,VetEnt | Mason W.,VetEnt | Denholm K.,Cognosco | Laven R.,Massey University
New Zealand Veterinary Journal | Year: 2016

AIM: To evaluate the level of agreement of three indirect testing methods with concentrations of IgG in serum, and to determine their test characteristics for diagnosing failure of passive transfer (FPT), in dairy calves in New Zealand. METHODS: From 17 July to 30 November 2015, 471 blood samples were collected from dairy calves aged 0–8 days, from 19 different commercial dairy farms in the Waikato region of New Zealand. All serum samples were tested for concentrations of IgG and total protein (TP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity, and 138 samples were tested using a digital Brix refractometer. The diagnostic tests were assessed for level of agreement with concentrations of IgG using Bland-Altman plots. FPT was defined as concentration of IgG ≤10.0 g/L and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine optimal cut-points for correctly predicting FPT. The test characteristics for TP, GGT and Brix for predicting FPT were determined using the optimal cut-points. The effect of age on the relationship between test results and concentrations of IgG was also assessed. RESULTS: Based on the limits of agreement plots, the agreement with concentrations of IgG was greatest for concentrations of TP, followed by Brix, with the lowest being GGT activity. There was an interaction between age at sampling and the association between concentrations of IgG and GGT activity (p<0.001); in calves 5–8 days of age there was a greater increase in concentrations of IgG associated with a unit increase in GGT activity than in calves <5 days of age. The optimal cut-points for diagnosis of FPT were 52 g/L for concentrations of TP, 8.8% for Brix, 250 IU/L for GGT activity in calves <5 days old, and 210 IU/L for GGT activity in calves 5–8 days old. Accuracy for predicting FPT was greatest for TP (0.95), followed by GGT in calves <5 days old (0.94) and Brix (0.92). Specificities were high for all three tests, however sensitivity varied greatly. CONCLUSION: Measurement of concentrations of TP in serum was the most accurate alternative to measuring concentrations of IgG for diagnosing FPT in non-dehydrated calves. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Veterinary practitioners in New Zealand now have confidence in using a test that is more accurate and practical than GGT and considerably cheaper than IgG to screen for FPT. © 2016 New Zealand Veterinary Association

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