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Morrinsville, New Zealand
Morrinsville, New Zealand

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McDougall S.,Cognosco | Abbeloos E.,Boehringer Ingelheim | Piepers S.,Ghent University | Rao A.S.,University of Liège | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2016

A blinded, negative controlled, randomized intervention study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that addition of meloxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to antimicrobial treatment of mild to moderate clinical mastitis would improve fertility and reduce the risk of removal from the herd. Cows (n = 509) from 61 herds in 8 regions (sites) in 6 European countries were enrolled. Following herd-owner diagnosis of mild to moderate clinical mastitis within the first 120 d of lactation in a single gland, the rectal temperature, milk appearance, and California Mastitis Test score were assessed. Cows were randomly assigned within each site to be treated either with meloxicam or a placebo (control). All cows were additionally treated with 1 to 4 intramammary infusions of cephalexin and kanamycin at 24-h intervals. Prior to treatment and at 14 and 21 d posttreatment, milk samples were collected for bacteriology and somatic cell count. Cows were bred by artificial insemination and pregnancy status was subsequently defined. General estimating equations were used to determine the effect of treatment (meloxicam versus control) on bacteriological cure, somatic cell count, the probability of being inseminated by 21 d after the voluntary waiting period, the probability of conception to first artificial insemination, the number of artificial insemination/conception, the probability of pregnancy by 120 or 200 d postcalving, and the risk of removal by 300 d after treatment. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to test the effect of treatment on the calving to first insemination and calving to conception intervals. Groups did not differ in terms of age, clot score, California Mastitis Test score, rectal temperature, number of antimicrobial treatments given or bacteria present at the time of enrollment, but cows treated with meloxicam had greater days in milk at enrollment. Cows treated with meloxicam had a higher bacteriological cure proportion than those treated with the placebo [0.66 (standard error = 0.04) versus 0.50 (standard error = 0.06), respectively], although the proportion of glands from which no bacteria were isolated posttreatment did not differ between groups. No difference was observed in the somatic cell count between groups pre- or posttreatment. The proportion of cows that underwent artificial insemination by 21 d after the voluntary waiting period was unaffected by treatment. Treatment with meloxicam was associated with a higher proportion of cows conceiving to their first artificial insemination (0.31 versus 0.21), and a higher proportion of meloxicam-treated cows were pregnant by 120 d after calving (0.40 versus 0.31). The number of artificial inseminations required to achieve conception was lower in the meloxicam compared with control cows (2.43 versus 2.92). No difference was observed between groups in the proportion of cows pregnant by 200 d after calving or in the proportion of cows that were culled, died, or sold by 300 d after calving (17% versus 21% for meloxicam versus control, respectively). It was concluded that use of meloxicam, in conjunction with antimicrobial therapy, for mild to moderate cases of clinical mastitis, resulted in a higher probability of bacteriological cure, an increased probability of conception. to first artificial insemination, fewer artificial inseminations, and a greater proportion of cows pregnant by 120 d in milk. © 2016 American Dairy Science Association.


PubMed | University Utrecht, L.E.S.S., Cognosco, RAFT Solutions Ltd. and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2016

A blinded, negative controlled, randomized intervention study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that addition of meloxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to antimicrobial treatment of mild to moderate clinical mastitis would improve fertility and reduce the risk of removal from the herd. Cows (n=509) from 61 herds in 8 regions (sites) in 6 European countries were enrolled. Following herd-owner diagnosis of mild to moderate clinical mastitis within the first 120 d of lactation in a single gland, the rectal temperature, milk appearance, and California Mastitis Test score were assessed. Cows were randomly assigned within each site to be treated either with meloxicam or a placebo (control). All cows were additionally treated with 1 to 4 intramammary infusions of cephalexin and kanamycin at 24-h intervals. Prior to treatment and at 14 and 21 d posttreatment, milk samples were collected for bacteriology and somatic cell count. Cows were bred by artificial insemination and pregnancy status was subsequently defined. General estimating equations were used to determine the effect of treatment (meloxicam versus control) on bacteriological cure, somatic cell count, the probability of being inseminated by 21 d after the voluntary waiting period, the probability of conception to first artificial insemination, the number of artificial insemination/conception, the probability of pregnancy by 120 or 200 d postcalving, and the risk of removal by 300 d after treatment. Coxs proportional hazards models were used to test the effect of treatment on the calving to first insemination and calving to conception intervals. Groups did not differ in terms of age, clot score, California Mastitis Test score, rectal temperature, number of antimicrobial treatments given or bacteria present at the time of enrollment, but cows treated with meloxicam had greater days in milk at enrollment. Cows treated with meloxicam had a higher bacteriological cure proportion than those treated with the placebo [0.66 (standard error=0.04) versus 0.50 (standard error=0.06), respectively], although the proportion of glands from which no bacteria were isolated posttreatment did not differ between groups. No difference was observed in the somatic cell count between groups pre- or posttreatment. The proportion of cows that underwent artificial insemination by 21 d after the voluntary waiting period was unaffected by treatment. Treatment with meloxicam was associated with a higher proportion of cows conceiving to their first artificial insemination (0.31 versus 0.21), and a higher proportion of meloxicam-treated cows were pregnant by 120 d after calving (0.40 versus 0.31). The number of artificial inseminations required to achieve conception was lower in the meloxicam compared with control cows (2.43 versus 2.92). No difference was observed between groups in the proportion of cows pregnant by 200 d after calving or in the proportion of cows that were culled, died, or sold by 300 d after calving (17% versus 21% for meloxicam versus control, respectively). It was concluded that use of meloxicam, in conjunction with antimicrobial therapy, for mild to moderate cases of clinical mastitis, resulted in a higher probability of bacteriological cure, an increased probability of conception to first artificial insemination, fewer artificial inseminations, and a greater proportion of cows pregnant by 120 d in milk.


Cuttance E.,VetEnt | Mason W.,VetEnt | Denholm K.,Cognosco | Laven R.,Massey University
New Zealand Veterinary Journal | Year: 2016

AIM: To evaluate the level of agreement of three indirect testing methods with concentrations of IgG in serum, and to determine their test characteristics for diagnosing failure of passive transfer (FPT), in dairy calves in New Zealand. METHODS: From 17 July to 30 November 2015, 471 blood samples were collected from dairy calves aged 0–8 days, from 19 different commercial dairy farms in the Waikato region of New Zealand. All serum samples were tested for concentrations of IgG and total protein (TP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity, and 138 samples were tested using a digital Brix refractometer. The diagnostic tests were assessed for level of agreement with concentrations of IgG using Bland-Altman plots. FPT was defined as concentration of IgG ≤10.0 g/L and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine optimal cut-points for correctly predicting FPT. The test characteristics for TP, GGT and Brix for predicting FPT were determined using the optimal cut-points. The effect of age on the relationship between test results and concentrations of IgG was also assessed. RESULTS: Based on the limits of agreement plots, the agreement with concentrations of IgG was greatest for concentrations of TP, followed by Brix, with the lowest being GGT activity. There was an interaction between age at sampling and the association between concentrations of IgG and GGT activity (p<0.001); in calves 5–8 days of age there was a greater increase in concentrations of IgG associated with a unit increase in GGT activity than in calves <5 days of age. The optimal cut-points for diagnosis of FPT were 52 g/L for concentrations of TP, 8.8% for Brix, 250 IU/L for GGT activity in calves <5 days old, and 210 IU/L for GGT activity in calves 5–8 days old. Accuracy for predicting FPT was greatest for TP (0.95), followed by GGT in calves <5 days old (0.94) and Brix (0.92). Specificities were high for all three tests, however sensitivity varied greatly. CONCLUSION: Measurement of concentrations of TP in serum was the most accurate alternative to measuring concentrations of IgG for diagnosing FPT in non-dehydrated calves. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Veterinary practitioners in New Zealand now have confidence in using a test that is more accurate and practical than GGT and considerably cheaper than IgG to screen for FPT. © 2016 New Zealand Veterinary Association

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