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Stein M.S.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Stein M.S.,Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research | Scherer S.C.,University of Melbourne | Ladd K.S.,Cognitive | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease

Poor vitamin D nutrition is linked with dementia, but vitamin D has not been tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nasal insulin acutely improves cognition and vitamin D upregulates insulin receptor expression and enhances insulin action. In an RCT we examined the effect of high-dose vitamin D followed by nasal insulin on memory and disability in mild-moderate AD. 63 community-dwelling individuals aged > 60 were recruited; 32 with mild-moderate disease (Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE score 12-24) met entry criteria and were randomized. All took low-dose vitamin D (1000IU/day) throughout. After run-in (8 weeks), they were randomized to additional high-dose D/placebo for 8 weeks, followed immediately by randomization to nasal insulin (60 IU qid)/placebo for 48 h. Primary outcome measures were Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) and Disability Assessment in Dementia (after high-dose D) and ADAS-cog and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Logical memory (WMS-R LM) for immediate and delayed recall (after nasal insulin). Baseline median (interquartile range, IR) age, MMSE, and ADAS-cog were 77.5 (69-80), 19.5 (17-22), and 25.5 (20-31), respectively. Median 25OHD increased from 49 to 60 nM (p < 0.01) after run-in and was 187 nM after high-dose vitamin D and 72 nM after placebo (p < 0.001). Neither cognition nor disability changed significantly after high-dose D. ADAS-cog improved by a median (IR) of 9 (1-11) with nasal insulin after placebo high-dose vitamin D (p = 0.02), but may represent regression to the mean as WLS-R LM did not change. We conclude that high-dose vitamin D provides no benefit for cognition or disability over low-dose vitamin D in mild-moderate AD. © 2011 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source

Cook R.,Cognitive | Johnston A.,Cognitive | Johnston A.,University College London | Heyes C.,University of Oxford
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

When motion is isolated from form cues and viewed from third-person perspectives, individuals are able to recognize their own whole body movements better than those of friends. Because we rarely see our own bodies in motion from third-person viewpoints, this self-recognition advantage may indicate a contribution to perception from the motor system. Our first experiment provides evidence that recognition of self-produced and friends' motion dissociate, with only the latter showing sensitivity to orientation. Through the use of selectively disrupted avatar motion, our second experiment shows that selfrecognition of facial motion is mediated by knowledge of the local temporal characteristics of one's own actions. Specifically, inverted self-recognition was unaffected by disruption of feature configurations and trajectories, but eliminated by temporal distortion. While actors lack third-person visual experience of their actions, they have a lifetime of proprioceptive, somatosensory, vestibular and first-person-visual experience. These sources of contingent feedback may provide actors with knowledge about the temporal properties of their actions, potentially supporting recognition of characteristic rhythmic variation when viewing self-produced motion. In contrast, the ability to recognize the motion signatures of familiar others may be dependent on configural topographic cues. © 2011 The Royal Society. Source

Kinsella G.J.,La Trobe University | Ames D.,National Ageing Research Institute | Ames D.,University of Melbourne | Storey E.,Monash University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease

Background: Governments are promoting the importance of maintaining cognitive health into older age to minimize risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Older people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are particularly vulnerable to memory challenges in daily activities and are seeking ways to maintain independent living. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of memory groups for improving memory strategies and memory ability of older people, especially those with aMCI. Methods: 113 healthy older adults (HOA) and 106 adults with aMCI were randomized to a six-week memory group or a waitlist control condition. Outcome was evaluated through knowledge and use of memory strategies, memory ability (self-report and neuropsychological tests), and wellbeing. Assessments included a six-month follow-up. Results: Using intention to treat analyses, there were intervention effects for HOA and aMCI groups in strategy knowledge (HOA: η2 = 0.20; aMCI: η2 = 0.06), strategy use (HOA: η2 = 0.18; aMCI: η2 = 0.08), and wellbeing (HOA: η2 = 0.11; aMCI: η2 = 0.05). There were also intervention effects in the HOA group, but not the aMCI group, in self-reported memory ability (η2 = 0.06) and prospective memory tests (η2 = 0.02). By six-month follow-up, gains were found on most HOA outcomes. In the aMCI group gains were found in strategy use, and by this stage, gains in prospective memory were also found. Conclusion: Memory groups can engage older people in techniques for maintaining cognitive health and improve memory performance, but more modest benefits are seen for older adults with aMCI. © 2016-IOS Press and the authors. Source

Perniss P.,Cognitive | Vigliocco G.,Cognitive
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences

Iconicity, a resemblance between properties of linguistic form (both in spoken and signed languages) and meaning, has traditionally been considered to be a marginal, irrelevant phenomenon for our understanding of language processing, development and evolution. Rather, the arbitrary and symbolic nature of language has long been taken as a design feature of the human linguistic system. In this paper, we propose an alternative framework in which iconicity in face-to-face communication (spoken and signed) is a powerful vehicle for bridging between language and human sensori-motor experience, and, as such, iconicity provides a key to understanding language evolution, development and processing. In language evolution, iconicity might have played a key role in establishing displacement (the ability of language to refer beyond what is immediately present), which is core to what language does; in ontogenesis, iconicity might play a critical role in supporting referentiality (learning to map linguistic labels to objects, events, etc., in the world), which is core to vocabulary development. Finally, in language processing, iconicity could provide a mechanism to account for how language comes to be embodied (grounded in our sensory and motor systems), which is core to meaningful communication. Source

Hutchens R.L.,La Trobe University | Ong B.,La Trobe University | Pike K.E.,La Trobe University | Parsons S.,La Trobe University | And 8 more authors.
Psychology and Aging

Despite the inclusion of memory strategy training in many interventions for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), little research has directly examined knowledge and use of memory strategies in aMCI and their relationship to memory performance in order to guide the development of targeted interventions. The present study aimed to compare strategy knowledge and use between an aMCI and a healthy older adult (HOA) sample, and to determine the contribution of strategy knowledge and use to memory performance in each of these groups. The sample comprised 37 aMCI and 52 HOA participants aged over 60 years. All participants completed questionnaires to assess strategy knowledge and selfreported use of internal and external strategies in everyday life. In addition, strategy use was observed on the measures of retrospective and prospective memory performance (the CVLT-II and the CAMPROMPT). The aMCI group demonstrated decreased strategy knowledge and observed use of internal strategies, although equivalent observed use of external strategies compared with the HOA group. Furthermore, they reported equivalent use of both internal and external strategies. Observed use of strategies was significantly associated with retrospective memory performance for both groups and prospective memory performance for the aMCI group, supporting the inclusion of strategy training in interventions. Source

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