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Silvestri V.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Rizzolo P.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Scarno M.,Inter University Consortium for Super Computing | Chillemi G.,Inter University Consortium for Super Computing | And 21 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer

Increasing evidence indicates that common genetic variants may contribute to the heritable risk of breast cancer (BC). In this study, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), within the 8q24.21 multi-cancer susceptibility region and within BC-associated loci widespread in the genome, may influence the risk of BC in men, and whether they may be associated with specific clinical-pathologic characteristics of male BC (MBC). In the frame of the ongoing Italian Multicenter Study on MBC, we performed a case-control study on 386 MBC cases, including 50 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, and 1105 healthy male controls, including 197 unaffected BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. All 1491 subjects were genotyped by Sequenom iPLEX technology for a total of 29 susceptibility SNPs. By logistic regression models, we found a significant association with MBC risk for five SNPs: rs1562430 (p = 0.002) and rs445114 (p = 0.026) both within the 8q24.21 region; rs1011970/9p21.3 (p = 0.011), rs614367/11q13.3 (p = 0.016) and rs1314913/14q24.1 (p < 0.0001). Differences in the distribution of rs614367/11q13.3 genotypes according to oestrogen receptor (ER) status (p = 0.006), and of rs1011970/9p21.3 genotypes according to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status (p = 0.002) emerged. Association of rs1011970/9p21.3 risk genotype with HER2+ MBC was confirmed by a multivariate analysis. rs1314913/14q24.1 was associated with increased MBC risk in analyses restricted to male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (p = 0.041). In conclusion, we provided the first evidence that the 8q24.21 region is associated with MBC risk. Furthermore, we showed that the SNPs rs1562430/8q24.21 and rs1314913/14q24.1 strongly influence BC risk in men and suggested that the SNP rs1314913/14q24.1 may act as a risk modifier locus in male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Hilbers F.S.,Leiden University | Wijnen J.T.,Leiden University | Hoogerbrugge N.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Oosterwijk J.C.,University of Groningen | And 24 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics

Background: Recently, rare germline variants in XRCC2 were detected in non-BRCA1/2 familial breast cancer cases, and a significant association with breast cancer was reported. However, the breast cancer risk associated with these variants needs further evaluation. Methods: The coding regions and exon-intron boundaries of XRCC2 were scanned for mutations in an international cohort of 3548 non-BRCA1/2 familial breast cancer cases and 1435 healthy controls using various mutation scanning methods. Predictions on functional relevance of detected missense variants were obtained from three different prediction algorithms. Results: The only protein-truncating variant detected was found in a control. Rare non-protein-truncating variants were detected in 20 familial cases (0.6%) and nine healthy controls (0.6%). Although the number of variants predicted to be damaging or neutral differed between prediction algorithms, in all instances these categories were evenly represented among cases and controls. Conclusions: Our data do not confirm an association between XRCC2 variants and breast cancer risk, although a relative risk smaller than two could not be excluded. Variants in XRCC2 are unlikely to explain a substantial proportion of familial breast cancer. Source

Manoukian S.,Unit of Medical Genetics | Verderio P.,Unit of Medical Statistics and Biometry | Tabano S.,University of Milan | Tabano S.,Anatomy Pathology Unit | And 14 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer

An association of preferential X chromosome inactivation (XCI) with BRCA gene status and breast/ovarian cancer risk has been reported. We evaluated XCI in a large group of BRCA mutation carriers compared to non-carriers and investigated associations between preferential XCI (≥90:10) and age, mutated gene, cancer development and chemotherapy. XCI was analysed by human androgen receptor (HUMARA) assay and pyrosequencing in 437 BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers and 445 age-matched controls. The distribution of XCI patterns in the two groups was compared by logistic regression analysis. The association between preferential XCI and selected variables was investigated in both univariate and multivariate fashion. In univariate analyses preferential XCI was not significantly associated with the probability of being a BRCA mutation carrier, nor with cancer status, whereas chemotherapeutic regime and age both showed a significant association. In multivariate analysis only age maintained significance (odds ratio, 1.056; 95% confidence interval, 1.016-1.096). Our findings do not support the usefulness of XCI analysis for the identification of BRCA mutation carriers and cancer risk assessment. The increasing preferential XCI frequency with ageing and the association with chemotherapy justify extending the investigation to other categories of female cancer patients to identify possible X-linked loci implicated in cell survival. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Pirie A.,University of Cambridge | Guo Q.,University of Cambridge | Kraft P.,Harvard University | Canisius S.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | And 143 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research

Introduction: Previous studies have identified common germline variants nominally associated with breast cancer survival. These associations have not been widely replicated in further studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of previously reported SNPs with breast cancer-specific survival using data from a pooled analysis of eight breast cancer survival genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Methods: A literature review was conducted of all previously published associations between common germline variants and three survival outcomes: breast cancer-specific survival, overall survival and disease-free survival. All associations that reached the nominal significance level of P value <0.05 were included. Single nucleotide polymorphisms that had been previously reported as nominally associated with at least one survival outcome were evaluated in the pooled analysis of over 37,000 breast cancer cases for association with breast cancer-specific survival. Previous associations were evaluated using a one-sided test based on the reported direction of effect. Results: Fifty-six variants from 45 previous publications were evaluated in the meta-analysis. Fifty-four of these were evaluated in the full set of 37,954 breast cancer cases with 2,900 events and the two additional variants were evaluated in a reduced sample size of 30,000 samples in order to ensure independence from the previously published studies. Five variants reached nominal significance (P <0.05) in the pooled GWAS data compared to 2.8 expected under the null hypothesis. Seven additional variants were associated (P <0.05) with ER-positive disease. Conclusions: Although no variants reached genome-wide significance (P <5 x 10-8), these results suggest that there is some evidence of association between candidate common germline variants and breast cancer prognosis. Larger studies from multinational collaborations are necessary to increase the power to detect associations, between common variants and prognosis, at more stringent significance levels. © 2015 Pirie et al. Source

Kabisch M.,German Cancer Research Center | Bermejo J.L.,University of Heidelberg | Dunnebier T.,German Cancer Research Center | Ying S.,German Cancer Research Center | And 175 more authors.

The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell division. Therefore, inherited CPC variability could influence tumor development. The present candidate gene approach investigates the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding key CPC components and breast cancer risk. Fifteen SNPs in four CPC genes (INCENP, AURKB, BIRC5 and CDCA8) were genotyped in 88 911 European women from 39 case-control studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Possible associations were investigated in fixedeffects meta-analyses. The synonymous SNP rs1675126 in exon 7 of INCENP was associated with overall breast cancer risk [per A allele odds ratio (OR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-0.98, P = 0.007] and particularly with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumors (per A allele OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83-0.95, P = 0.0005). SNPs not directly genotyped were imputed based on 1000 Genomes. The SNPs rs1047739 in the 3′ untranslated region and rs144045115 downstream of INCENP showed the strongest association signals for overall (per T allele OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06, P = 0.0009) and ER-negative breast cancer risk (per A allele OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10, P = 0.0002). Two genotyped SNPs in BIRC5 were associated with familial breast cancer risk (top SNP rs2071214: per G allele OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04-1.21, P = 0.002). The data suggest that INCENP in the CPC pathway contributes to ER-negative breast cancer susceptibility in the European population. In spite of a modest contribution of CPC-inherited variants to the total burden of sporadic and familial breast cancer, their potential as novel targets for breast cancer treatment should be further investigated. © The Author 2015. Source

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