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Chiarella P.,Biomedical University of Rome | Edelmann B.,University of Kiel | Fazio V.M.,Biomedical University of Rome | Sawyer A.M.,Monoclonal Antibody Core Facility | de Marco A.,Cogentech
Biotechnology Letters | Year: 2010

An aluminium hydroxide adjuvant induced a more elevated and rapid immune responses against short peptides conjugated to the Keyhole Lympet Hemocyanin carrier than immuneasy adjuvant. Furthermore, since carrier proteins may compete with the fused or chemically linked polypeptides in eliciting antigen-specific immune response, we classified the immunogenicity of the most common carrier proteins used in molecular biology for antigen expression and mouse immunisation. The disulfide isomerase protein A gave a carrier with the lowest immunogenicity whilst disulfide isomerase protein C gave the highest immunogenicity and therefore should be avoided as a fusion partner. Using this protein as a model, we identified and located the immunodominant epitopes along its sequence. These results now enable the combination of carrier and immunisation conditions to be optimized. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Dolgikh V.V.,All Russian Institute for Plant Protection | Senderskiy I.V.,All Russian Institute for Plant Protection | Pavlova O.A.,All Russian Institute for Plant Protection | Naumov A.M.,All Russian Institute for Plant Protection | Beznoussenko G.V.,Cogentech
Eukaryotic Cell | Year: 2011

Microsporidia are a group of fungus-related intracellular parasites with severely reduced metabolic machinery. They lack canonical mitochondria, a Krebs cycle, and a respiratory chain but possess genes encoding glycolysis enzymes, a glycerol phosphate shuttle, and ATP/ADP carriers to import host ATP. The recent finding of alternative oxidase genes in two clades suggests that microsporidial mitosomes may retain an alternative respiratory pathway. We expressed the fragments of mitochondrial chaperone Hsp70 (mitHsp70), mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mitG3PDH), and alternative oxidase (AOX) from the microspo-ridium Antonospora (Paranosema) locustae in Escherichia coli. Immunoblotting with antibodies against recombinant polypeptides demonstrated specific accumulation of both metabolic enzymes inA. locustae spores. At the same time comparable amounts of mitochondrial Hsp70 were found in spores and in stages of intracellular development as well. Immunoelectron microscopy of ultrathin cryosections of spores confirmed mitosomal localization of the studied proteins. Small amounts of enzymes of an alternative respiratory chain in mero-gonial and early sporogonial stages, alongside their accumulation in mature spores, suggest conspicuous changes in components and functions of mitosomes during the life cycle of microsporidia and the important role of these organelles in parasite energy metabolism, at least at the final stages of sporogenesis.© 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Beesley J.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | Johnatty S.E.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | Chen X.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | Spurdle A.B.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research | And 7 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

ABCC11 is an ATP-binding cassette transporter responsible for the transport of a diverse range of lipophilic compounds. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) encoding an amino acid change has recently been shown to determine whether cerumen (earwax) is wet or dry. We hypothesised that this ABCC11 SNP may be associated with breast cancer risk because an association has been reported between wet earwax and increased risk of breast cancer. We therefore analysed the frequency of the functional SNP in 1342 cases and 2256 controls from two breast cancer studies of Caucasian women but found no evidence for an association with breast cancer risk. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Colombo M.,Unit of Molecular Bases of Genetic Risk and Genetic Testing | de Vecchi G.,Unit of Molecular Bases of Genetic Risk and Genetic Testing | Caleca L.,Unit of Molecular Bases of Genetic Risk and Genetic Testing | Foglia C.,Unit of Molecular Bases of Genetic Risk and Genetic Testing | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Several unclassified variants (UVs) have been identified in splicing regions of disease-associated genes and their characterization as pathogenic mutations or benign polymorphisms is crucial for the understanding of their role in disease development. In this study, 24 UVs located at BRCA1 and BRCA2 splice sites were characterized by transcripts analysis. These results were used to evaluate the ability of nine bioinformatics programs in predicting genetic variants causing aberrant splicing (spliceogenic variants) and the nature of aberrant transcripts. Eleven variants in BRCA1 and 8 in BRCA2, including 8 not previously characterized at transcript level, were ascertained to affect mRNA splicing. Of these, 16 led to the synthesis of aberrant transcripts containing premature termination codons (PTCs), 2 to the up-regulation of naturally occurring alternative transcripts containing PTCs, and one to an in-frame deletion within the region coding for the DNA binding domain of BRCA2, causing the loss of the ability to bind the partner protein DSS1 and ssDNA. For each computational program, we evaluated the rate of non-informative analyses, i.e. those that did not recognize the natural splice sites in the wild-type sequence, and the rate of false positive predictions, i.e., variants incorrectly classified as spliceogenic, as a measure of their specificity, under conditions setting sensitivity of predictions to 100%. The programs that performed better were Human Splicing Finder and Automated Splice Site Analyses, both exhibiting 100% informativeness and specificity. For 10 mutations the activation of cryptic splice sites was observed, but we were unable to derive simple criteria to select, among the different cryptic sites predicted by the bioinformatics analyses, those actually used. Consistent with previous reports, our study provides evidences that in silico tools can be used for selecting splice site variants for in vitro analyses. However, the latter remain mandatory for the characterization of the nature of aberrant transcripts. © 2013 Colombo et al. Source


Fiorino A.,Fondazione Istituto Nazionale Dei Tumori | Manenti G.,Fondazione Istituto Nazionale Dei Tumori | Gamba B.,Fondazione Istituto Nazionale Dei Tumori | Bucci G.,Cogentech | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2016

Retina-derived POU domain Factor 1 (RPF-1), a member of POU transcription factor family, is encoded by POU6F2 gene, addressed by interstitial deletions at chromosome 7p14 in Wilms tumor (WT). Its expression has been detected in developing kidney and nervous system, suggesting an early role for this gene in regulating development of these organs. To investigate into its functions and determine its role in transcriptional regulation, we generated an inducible stable transfectant from HEK293 cells. RPF-1 showed nuclear localization, elevated stability, and transactivation of promoters featuring POU consensus sites, and led to reduced cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth. By addressing the whole transcriptome regulated by its induction, we could detect a gross alteration of gene expression that is consistent with promoter occupancy predicted by genome-wide Chip-chip analysis. Comparison of bound regulatory regions with differentially expressed genes allowed identification of 217 candidate targets. Enrichment of divergent octamers in predicted regulatory regions revealed promiscuous binding to bipartite POUS and POUH consensus half-sites with intervening spacers. Gel-shift competition assay confirmed the specificity of RPF-1 binding to consensus motifs, and demonstrated that the Ser-rich region upstream of the POU domain is indispensable to achieve DNA-binding. Promoter-reporter activity addressing a few target genes indicated a dependence by RPF-1 on transcriptional response. In agreement with its expression in developing kidney and nervous system, the induced transcriptome appears to indicate a function for this protein in early renal differentiation and neuronal cell fate, providing a resource for understanding its role in the processes thereby regulated. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd Source

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