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North Guwāhāti, India

Raphael K.,Coffee Research Sub Station | Velmourougane K.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Biodegradation | Year: 2011

Coffee pulp is the main solid residue from the wet processing of coffee berries. Due to presence of anti-physiological and anti-nutritional factors, coffee pulp is not considered as adequate substrate for bioconversion process by coffee farmers. Recent stringent measures by Pollution Control authorities, made it mandatory to treat all the solid and liquid waste emanating from the coffee farms. A study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of an exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and a native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis) from coffee farm for decomposition of coffee pulp into valuable vermicompost. Exotic earthworms were found to degrade the coffee pulp faster (112 days) as compared to the native worms (165 days) and the vermicomposting efficiency (77.9%) and vermicompost yield (389 kg) were found to significantly higher with native worms. The multiplication rate of earthworms (280%) and worm yield (3.78 kg) recorded significantly higher with the exotic earthworms. The percentage of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium and magnesium in vermicompost was found to increase while C:N ratio, pH and total organic carbon declined as a function of the vermicomposting. The plant nutrients, nitrogen (80.6%), phosphorus (292%) and potassium (550%) content found to increase significantly in the vermicompost produced using native earthworms as compared to the initial values, while the calcium (85.7%) and magnesium (210%) content found to increase significantly in compost produced utilizing exotic worms. Vermicompost and vermicasts from native earthworms recorded significantly higher functional microbial group's population as compared to the exotic worms. The study reveals that coffee pulp can be very well used as substrate for vermicomposting using exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis). © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Kulandaivelu V.,Coffee Research Sub Station | Bhat R.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
European Journal of Soil Biology | Year: 2012

Discharge of untreated coffee processing wastewater (CPW) into natural water bodies without adequate treatment poses serious threat to environment. In India, due to high cost incurred in construction of 'Effluent Treatment Plants', coffee growers are employing rudimentary land based wastewater storage and treatment facilities at on-farm levels, which affects the soil quality. In the present study, we investigated the effects of untreated CPW at different loading rates (250 m 3, 500 m 3, 750 m 3, and 1000 m 3 per hectare) on soil physico-chemical and biological properties. Higher loading rates of CPW (75-100 L/m 2) were found to significantly increase (p < 0.01) the electrical conductivity (EC), bulk density (BD), water holding capacity (WHC), organic carbon (OC), available nitrogen, available potassium, while the soil pH and available phosphorus were significantly reduced (p < 0.01) by higher loading rates. Application of higher volumes of CPW (75-100 L/m 2) significantly reduced the soil respiration, dehydrogenase (DHA), urease activity and Fluorescin diacetate activity (FDA) at both the soil depths (0-15 and 15-30 cm). Significant decrease in populations of pelops, eulohmannia and springtail was observed with the application of higher volumes of CPW (75-100 L/m 2). CPW at a rate of 25-50 L/m 2 found to significantly increase the population of culturable bacteria (p < 0.01), fungi (p < 0.05) yeast (p < 0.01) and actinomycetes (p < 0.01), while their populations were drastically reduced above 75 L/m 2. In functional microflora, application of CPW at a rate of 25-50 L/m 2 found to significantly increase the population of Pseudomonas fluorescence (p < 0.01), phosphorus solubilisers (p < 0.05), Azotobacter sp. (p < 0.01) and Beijerinkia sp. (p < 0.05) at 0-15 cm. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source


Raphael K.,Coffee Research Sub Station | Sureka,Kannur University | Velmourougane K.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Macromolecular Symposia | Year: 2012

Coffee pulp is the main solid residue from the wet processing of coffee berries. Recent stringent measures by Pollution Control authorities, made it mandatory to treat all the solid and liquid waste emanating from the coffee farms. A study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of an exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and a native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis) from coffee farm for decomposition of coffee pulp into valuable vermicompost. Exotic earthworms were found to degrade the coffee pulp faster (112 days) as compared to the native worms (165 days) and the vermicomposting efficiency (77.9%) and vermicompost yield (389 kg) were found to significantly higher with native worms. The multiplication rate of earthworms (280%) and worm yield (3.78 kg) recorded significantly higher with the exotic earthworms. The percentage of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium and magnesium in vermicompost was found to increase while C:N ratio, pH and total organic carbon declined as a function of the vermicomposting. Vermicompost and vermicasts from native earthworms recorded significantly higher functional microbial group's population as compared to the exotic worms. The study reveals that coffee pulp can be very well used as substrate for vermicomposting using exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Velmourougane K.,Coffee Research Sub Station | Velmourougane K.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Information related to physicochemical and microbial dynamics during coffee fermentation and effects of fermentation duration on coffee cup quality is lacking in India. Hence, the present study was taken up with an objective to understand the physicochemical and microbial dynamics during fermentation of arabica and robusta coffee. The pH of the fermenting mass decreased from 5.43 to 4.71 and from 5.54 to 4.05 in arabica and robusta respectively. An increase in the temperature of the fermenting mass was recorded in both arabica (24-29 C) and robusta coffee (25.3-25.8 C). Good cup characteristics were obtained after 20 and 96 h of fermentation for arabica and robusta respectively. Yeast has been found to be the dominant microflora of freshly pulped beans followed by bacteria, as the fermentation proceeded; both bacteria and yeast have been displaced by fungal colonization. Naturally fermented coffee is found to produce slightly higher cup quality compared to the coffee processed by enzyme; alkali wash and machine wash. © 2012 The National Academy of Sciences, India. Source


Velmourougane K.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Bhat R.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Gopinandhan T.N.,Coffee Research Sub Station | Panneerselvam P.,Indian Institute of Horticultural Research
Biological Control | Year: 2011

Global occurrence of Ochratoxin-A (OTA) in coffee has gained enormous apprehension in the coffee world trade market. Biological control has been proposed as an alternative for chemicals to reduce mold growth and mycotoxin production. It is hypothesized that yeast species can inhibit ochratoxigenic molds and OTA production in coffee. To test this hypothesis, we undertook a field study with natural and artificial contamination trials, wherein commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were used during processing of arabica parchment (AP), arabica cherry (AC), robusta parchment (RP) and robusta cherry (RC) coffee. The yeast strain was inoculated to arabica and robusta coffee at a concentration of 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% with appropriate control. Inoculation of yeast during coffee processing was found to significantly reduce total mold incidence (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus) and OTA contamination in both the parchment and cherry of arabica and robusta without affecting the cup quality in both natural and artificial contamination trials. Significant correlation occurred in the incidence of A. ochraceus and OTA contamination in AP (r=0.99), AC (r=0.93), RP (r=0.93) and RC (r=0.94) as compared to total molds and incidence of A. niger and OTA level. The results of the present study clearly indicates a promising antagonistic and biocontrol potential of commercial yeasts in reducing the ochratoxigenic mold incidence and OTA contamination in coffee beans during on-farm processing. Use of yeast culture in coffee processing was found to be an affordable and cost effective approach in the management of A. ochraceus and OTA in parchment and cherry coffee preparation. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

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