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Ladang Seri Kundang, Malaysia

Chin C.-Y.,National University of Malaysia | Hara Y.,Malaysia Genome Institute | Hara Y.,INTI International University | Ghazali A.-K.,Codon Genomics SB | And 9 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2015

Background: Chronic bacterial infections occur as a result of the infecting pathogen's ability to live within a biofilm, hence escaping the detrimental effects of antibiotics and the immune defense system. Burkholderia pseudomallei, a gram-negative facultative pathogen, is distinctive in its ability to survive within phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells, to persist in vivo for many years and subsequently leading to relapse as well as the development of chronic disease. The capacity to persist has been attributed to the pathogen's ability to form biofilm. However, the underlying biology of B. pseudomallei biofilm development remains unresolved. Results: We utilised RNA-Sequencing to identify genes that contribute to B. pseudomallei biofilm phenotype. Transcriptome analysis of a high and low biofilm producer identified 563 differentially regulated genes, implying that expression of ~9.5 % of the total B. pseudomallei gene content was altered during biofilm formation. Genes involved in surface-associated motility, surface composition and cell wall biogenesis were over-expressed and probably play a role in the initial attachment of biofilms. Up-regulation of genes related to two component signal transduction systems and a denitrification enzyme pathway suggest that the B. pseudomallei high biofilm producer is able to sense the surrounding environmental conditions and regulate the production of extracellular polymeric substance matrix, a hallmark of microbial biofilm formation. Conclusions: The transcriptome profile described here provides the first comprehensive view of genes that contribute to the biofilm phenotype in B. pseudomallei. © 2015 Chin et al. Source

Chow K.-S.,Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia | Ghazali A.-K.,Codon Genomics SB | Hoh C.-C.,Codon Genomics SB | Mohd-Zainuddin Z.,Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2014

Background: One of the concerns of assembling de novo transcriptomes is determining the amount of read sequences required to ensure a comprehensive coverage of genes expressed in a particular sample. In this report, we describe the use of Illumina paired-end RNA-Seq (PE RNA-Seq) reads from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree) bark to devise a transcript mapping approach for the estimation of the read amount needed for deep transcriptome coverage. Findings. We optimized the assembly of a Hevea bark transcriptome based on 16 Gb Illumina PE RNA-Seq reads using the Oases assembler across a range of k-mer sizes. We then assessed assembly quality based on transcript N50 length and transcript mapping statistics in relation to (a) known Hevea cDNAs with complete open reading frames, (b) a set of core eukaryotic genes and (c) Hevea genome scaffolds. This was followed by a systematic transcript mapping process where sub-assemblies from a series of incremental amounts of bark transcripts were aligned to transcripts from the entire bark transcriptome assembly. The exercise served to relate read amounts to the degree of transcript mapping level, the latter being an indicator of the coverage of gene transcripts expressed in the sample. As read amounts or datasize increased toward 16 Gb, the number of transcripts mapped to the entire bark assembly approached saturation. A colour matrix was subsequently generated to illustrate sequencing depth requirement in relation to the degree of coverage of total sample transcripts. Conclusions: We devised a procedure, the "transcript mapping saturation test", to estimate the amount of RNA-Seq reads needed for deep coverage of transcriptomes. For Hevea de novo assembly, we propose generating between 5-8 Gb reads, whereby around 90% transcript coverage could be achieved with optimized k-mers and transcript N50 length. The principle behind this methodology may also be applied to other non-model plants, or with reads from other second generation sequencing platforms. © 2014 Chow et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Yew S.M.,University of Malaya | Chan C.L.,University of Malaya | Kuan C.S.,University of Malaya | Toh Y.F.,University of Malaya | And 6 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2016

Background: Ochroconis mirabilis, a recently introduced water-borne dematiaceous fungus, is occasionally isolated from human skin lesions and nails. We identified an isolate of O. mirabilis from a skin scraping with morphological and molecular studies. Its genome was then sequenced and analysed for genetic features related to classification and biological characteristics. Results: UM 578 was identified as O. mirabilis based on morphology and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based phylogeny. The 34.61Mb assembled genome with 13,435 predicted genes showed less efficiency of this isolate in plant cell wall degradation. Results from the peptidase comparison analysis with reported keratin-degrading peptidases from dermatophytes suggest that UM 578 is very unlikely to be utilising these peptidases to survive in the host. Nevertheless, we have identified peptidases from M10A, M12A and S33 families that may allow UM 578 to invade its host via extracellular matrix and collagen degradation. Furthermore, the lipases in UM 578 may have a role in supporting the fungus in host invasion. This fungus has the potential ability to synthesise melanin via the 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin pathway and to produce mycotoxins. The mating ability of this fungus was also inspected in this study and a mating type gene containing alpha domain was identified. This fungus is likely to produce taurine that is required in osmoregulation. The expanded gene family encoding the taurine catabolism dioxygenase TauD/TdfA domain suggests the utilisation of taurine under sulfate starvation. The expanded glutathione-S-transferase domains and RTA1-like protein families indicate the selection of genes in UM 578 towards adaptation in hostile environments. Conclusions: The genomic analysis of O. mirabilis UM 578 provides a better understanding of fungal survival tactics in different habitats. © 2016 Yew et al. Source

Kuan C.S.,University of Malaya | Yew S.M.,University of Malaya | Toh Y.F.,University of Malaya | Chan C.L.,University of Malaya | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Peritonitis is the leading complication of peritoneal dialysis, which is primarily caused by bacteria rather than fungi. Peritonitis is responsible for approximately 18% of the infectionrelated mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients. In this paper, we report the isolation of a rare fungus, Quambalaria cyanescens, from the peritoneal fluid of a man after he switched from continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis to nocturnal intermittent peritoneal dialysis. Based on the morphological examination and multigene phylogeny, the clinical isolate was confirmed as Q. cyanescens. This pathogen exhibited low sensitivity to all tested echinocandins and 5-flucytosine. Interestingly, morphological characterization revealed that Q. cyanescens UM 1095 produced different pigments at low temperatures (25°C and 30°C) on various culture media. It is important to monitor the emergence of this rare fungus as a potential human pathogen in the tropics. This study provides insight into Q. cyanescens UM 1095 phenotype profiles using a Biolog phenotypic microarray (PM). Of the 760 nutrient sources tested, Q. cyanescens UM 1095 utilized 42 compounds, and the fungus can adapt to a broad range of osmotic and acidic environments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of Q. cyanescens from peritoneal fluid, revealing this rare fungus as a potential human pathogen that may be misidentified using conventional methods. The detailed morphological, molecular and phenotypic characterization of Q. cyanescens UM 1095 provides the basis for future studies on its biology, lifestyle, and potential pathogenicity. © 2015 Kuan et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Ng K.P.,University of Malaya | Yew S.M.,University of Malaya | Chan C.L.,University of Malaya | Soo-Hoo T.S.,University of Malaya | And 6 more authors.
Eukaryotic Cell | Year: 2012

Pleosporales is the largest order in the fungal class Dothideomycetes. We report the 36,814,818-bp draft genome sequence and gene annotation of UM1110, a Pleosporales isolate associated with unclassified genera that is potentially a new fungal species. Analysis of the genome sequence led to the finding of genes associated with fungal adhesive proteins, secreted proteases, allergens, and pseudohyphal development. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

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