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Ladang Seri Kundang, Malaysia

Cheong W.-H.,Codon Genomics S B | Tan Y.-C.,Codon Genomics S B | Yap S.-J.,Codon Genomics S B | Ng K.-P.,University of Malaya
Bioinformatics | Year: 2015

Summary: We present ClicO Free Service, an online web-service based on Circos, which provides a user-friendly, interactive web-based interface with configurable features to generate Circos circular plots. Availability and implementation: Online web-service is freely available at http://clicofs.codoncloud.com. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.


Chan C.L.,University of Malaya | Yew S.M.,University of Malaya | Ngeow Y.F.,University Tunku Abdul Rahman | Na S.L.,University of Malaya | And 4 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2015

Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates, including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. Conclusions: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host. © 2015 Chan et al.


Tan K.-K.,University of Malaya | Tan Y.-C.,Codon Genomics S B | Chang L.-Y.,University of Malaya | Lee K.W.,Codon Genomics S B | And 6 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2015

Background: Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease that affects both humans and animals. We sequenced the full genome and characterised the genetic diversity of two Brucella melitensis isolates from Malaysia and the Philippines. In addition, we performed a comparative whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of B. melitensis strains collected from around the world, to investigate the potential origin and the history of the global spread of B. melitensis. Results: Single sequencing runs of each genome resulted in draft genome sequences of MY1483/09 and Phil1136/12, which covered 99.85% and 99.92% of the complete genome sequences, respectively. The B. melitensis genome sequences, and two B. abortus strains used as the outgroup strains, yielded a total of 13,728 SNP sites. Phylogenetic analysis using whole-genome SNPs and geographical distribution of the isolates revealed spatial clustering of the B. melitensis isolates into five genotypes, I, II, III, IV and V. The Mediterranean strains, identified as genotype I, occupied the basal node of the phylogenetic tree, suggesting that B. melitensis may have originated from the Mediterranean regions. All of the Asian B. melitensis strains clustered into genotype II with the SEA strains, including the two isolates sequenced in this study, forming a distinct clade denoted here as genotype IId. Genotypes III, IV and V of B. melitensis demonstrated a restricted geographical distribution, with genotype III representing the African lineage, genotype IV representing the European lineage and genotype V representing the American lineage. Conclusion: We showed that SNPs retrieved from the B. melitensis draft full genomes were sufficient to resolve the interspecies relationships between B. melitensis strains and to discriminate between the vaccine and endemic strains. Phylogeographic reconstruction of the history of B. melitensis global spread at a finer scale by using whole-genome SNP analyses supported the origin of all B. melitensis strains from the Mediterranean region. The possible global distribution of B. melitensis following the ancient trade routes was also consistent with whole-genome SNP phylogeny. The whole genome SNP phylogenetics analysis, hence is a powerful tool for intraspecies discrimination of closely related species. © Tan et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Ho C.-L.,University Putra Malaysia | Tan Y.-C.,University Putra Malaysia | Yeoh K.-A.,University Putra Malaysia | Ghazali A.-K.,Codon Genomics S B | And 2 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2016

Background: Basal stem rot (BSR) is a fungal disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) which is caused by hemibiotrophic white rot fungi belonging to the Ganoderma genus. Molecular responses of oil palm to these pathogens are not well known although this information is crucial to strategize effective measures to eradicate BSR. In order to elucidate the molecular interactions between oil palm and G. boninense and its biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum, we compared the root transcriptomes of untreated oil palm seedlings with those inoculated with G. boninense and T. harzianum, respectively. Results: Differential gene expression analyses revealed that jasmonate (JA) and salicylate (SA) may act in an antagonistic manner in affecting the hormone biosynthesis, signaling, and downstream defense responses in G. boninense-treated oil palm roots. In addition, G. boninense may compete with the host to control disease symptom through the transcriptional regulation of ethylene (ET) biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging. The strengthening of host cell walls and production of pathogenesis-related proteins as well as antifungal secondary metabolites in host plants, are among the important defense mechanisms deployed by oil palm against G. boninense. Meanwhile, endophytic T. harzianum was shown to improve the of nutrition status and nutrient transportation in host plants. Conclusion: The findings of this analysis have enhanced our understanding on the molecular interactions of G. boninense and oil palm, and also the biocontrol mechanisms involving T. harzianum, thus contributing to future formulations of better strategies for prevention and treatment of BSR. © 2016 Ho et al.

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