Hausfather Z.,C3 Energy |
Menne M.J.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration |
Williams C.N.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration |
Masters T.,University of California at Los Angeles |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2013
An assessment quantifying the impact of urbanization on temperature trends from the U.S. Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) is described. Stations were first classified as urban and nonurban (rural) using four different proxy measures of urbanity. Trends from the two station types were then compared using a pairing method that controls for differences in instrument type and via spatial gridding to account for the uneven distribution of stations. The comparisons reveal systematic differences between the raw (unadjusted) urban and rural temperature trends throughout the USHCN period of record according to all four urban classifications. According to these classifications, urbanization accounts for 14-21% of the rise in unadjusted minimum temperatures since 1895 and 6-9% since 1960. The USHCN version 2 homogenization process effectively removes this urban signal such that it becomes insignificant during the last 50-80 years. In contrast, prior to 1930, only about half of the urban signal is removed. Accordingly, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies urban-correction procedure has essentially no impact on USHCN version 2 trends since 1930, but effectively removes the residual urban-rural temperature trend differences for years before 1930 according to all four urban proxy classifications. Finally, an evaluation of the homogenization of USHCN temperature series using subsets of rural-only and urban-only reference series from the larger U.S. Cooperative Observer (Coop) Network suggests that the composition of Coop stations surrounding USHCN stations is sufficiently "rural" to limit the aliasing of urban heat island signals onto USHCN version 2 temperature trends during homogenization. © 2012. American Geophysical Union.
PubMed | Scientific Support Branch of the Secretariat of the Basel, Code Climate and Masaryk University
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2016
In Oman, DDT was sprayed indoors during an intensive malaria eradication program between 1976 and 1992. DDT can remain for years after spraying and is associated with potential health risk. This raises the concern for human exposure in areas where DDT was used for indoor spraying. Twelve houses in three regions with a different history of DDT indoor spraying were chosen for a sampling campaign in 2005 to determine p,p-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p-DDT), p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p-DDE) and p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p-DDD) levels in indoor air, dust, and outdoor soil. Although DDT was only sprayed indoor, p,p-DDT, p,p-DDE and p,p-DDD were also found in outdoor soil. The results indicate that release and exposure continue for years after cessation of spraying. The predicted cancer risk based on concentrations determined in 2005, indicate that there was still a significant cancer risk up to 13 to 16years after indoor DDT spraying. A novel approach, based on region-specific half-lives, was used to predict concentrations in 2015 and showed that more than 21years after spraying, cancer risk for exposure to indoor air, dust, and outdoor soil are acceptable in Oman for adults and young children. The model can be used for other locations and countries to predict prospective exposure of contaminants based on indoor experimental measurements and knowledge about the spraying time-schedule to extrapolate region-specific half-lives and predict effects on the human population years after spraying.
Zhang Q.,Universities Space Research Association |
Zhang Q.,NASA |
Cheng Y.-B.,NASA |
Cheng Y.-B.,Sigma Space Corporation |
And 7 more authors.
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2014
Photosynthesis (PSN) is a pigment level process in which antenna pigments (predominately chlorophylls) in chloroplasts absorb photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for the photochemical process. PAR absorbed by foliar non-photosynthetic components is not used for PSN. The fraction of PAR absorbed (fAPAR) by a canopy/vegetation (i.e., fAPARcanopy) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images, referred to as MOD15A2 FPAR, has been used to compute absorbed PAR (APAR) for PSN (APARPSN) which is utilized to produce the standard MODIS gross primary production (GPP) product, referred to as MOD17A2 GPP. In this study, the fraction of PAR absorbed by chlorophyll throughout the canopy (fAPARchl) was retrieved from MODIS images for three AmeriFlux crop fields in Nebraska. There are few studies in the literature that compare the performance of MOD15A2 FPAR versus fAPARchl in GPP estimation. In our study MOD15A2 FPAR and the retrieved fAPARchl were compared with field fAPARcanopy and the fraction of PAR absorbed by green leaves of the vegetation (fAPARgreen). MOD15A2 FPAR overestimated field fAPARcanopy in spring and in fall, and underestimated field fAPARcanopy in midsummer whereas fAPARchl correctly captured the seasonal phenology. The retrieved fAPARchl agreed well with field fAPARgreen at early crop growth stage in June, and was less than field fAPARgreen in late July, August and September. GPP estimates with fAPARchl and with MOD15A2 FPAR were compared to tower flux GPP. GPP simulated with fAPARchl was corroborated with tower flux GPP. Improvements in crop GPP estimation were achieved by replacing MOD15A2 FPAR with fAPARchl which also reduced uncertainties of crop GPP estimates by 1.12-2.37gCm-2d-1. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Barnes N.,Code Climate |
Jones D.,Code Climate
IEEE Software | Year: 2011
The Clear Climate Code project rewrote GISTEMP, a legacy software system used to produce an important global surface temperature dataset. The focus of the project is on clarity: making the source code as clear as possible to interested people, to improve public understanding. The result is a Python package that's easy to understand, run, and change, which allows any interested person to pose and answer novel research questions. In the process, the project's founders also discovered and fixed some inconsequential bugs and hopefully improved online discussion of global warming. © 2011 IEEE.
Code Climate | Date: 2013-02-14
Computer software to detect defects in security system software and reliability; software for design and development of computer systems and software applications; software for analysis and production of programming code in the field of software development; software development tools; software for visualization of software and design of computer systems; software for design and development of software programs; software for the management and development of computer systems; software for assisting developers in creating program code for use in multiple application programs. Teaching and training in the fields of information technology, design and development of software programs, management and development of computer systems, creating program code for use in multiple application programs, software design, computer software development, computer software integration, verification of computer software, and maintenance of computer software. Consultation services in the field of development and testing of computer software; computer software consultation, namely, providing an online, automated, on-demand service for analyzing software source code; software design, development, integration, installation, verification and updating and maintenance services; computer software risk assessment services; providing quality assurance services in the field of computer software.
News Article | November 6, 2014
Dublin’s Web Summit has accelerated into SXSW territory this year, scaling to over 22,000 attendees. Unlike other tech conferences, which put the startups centre stage, Web Summit has gone for scale, with side stages where 200 companies pitched over the three days of the conference. Portuguese company Codacy won the BETA Award for its platform, which automatically reviews software code, saving time and frustration for software companies. Competitors to it include Code Climate and Scritiniser. Codacy claims they are better because they “provide flexibility to adjust the code analysis experience” and support a lot of programming languages. The company is based in London, but its tech team operates in Lisbon. This is worth noting because Lisbon is emerging as a genuinely new tech ecosystem in Europe, with Berlin-levels of cheapness but with Southern European weather. Last week, Codacy recently announced a “freemium” model, plus a significant upgrade that introduces extensive code monitoring, quality insights and a number of customisable features. Backed by Faber Ventures, Seedcamp and Espirito Santo Ventures, Codacy serves over 3,000 developers worldwide and its customers range from individual freelancers to Fortune 500 companies. Meanwhile, BaseStone, from the UK, won the ALPHA Award for its company, which aims to streamline communication and speed up the design-review process. Judges of this year’s competition included John O’Farrell of Andreessen Horowitz and Alfred Lin of Sequoia. This year the competition saw over 1,500 entries. Both winners will receive 10,000 euros in cash for the business and a meeting at Coca-Cola in Atlanta, which sponsored the pitch competition. I’m not exactly sure how useful that will be, but hey ….
News Article | September 18, 2014
News Article | June 19, 2015
News Article | June 23, 2015
Replicated, a company that wants to help SaaS vendors ship an on-premises version of their applications more easily, made a series of announcements today including a $1.5M seed round and several Beta customers. The company is taking advantage of Docker containerization technology to build a solution that enables developers to code once and ship two identical versions of the product — one that gets installed in the cloud per usual and one for customers who prefer to maintain the application in a private cloud or their own data centers. In addition, the company released a Beta of its product and announced several beta customers including Travis-CI, Code Climate and NPM. All in a good week for the nine-month old company. First the cash: the round was led by BoldStart with participation from Founder Collective, Mucker Capital, TenOneTen, WonderVC and WTI. In addition several well known angel investors participated including David Lee (formerly of SV Angel), Tom McInerney and GitHub founder Tom Preston-Werner. Replicated is the second startup for founders Grant Miller and Marc Campbell, who previously launched Look.io, a mobile customer service chat app bought by LivePerson in 2012 for an undisclosed amount of cash. After their first company was sold Miller and Campbell worked at LivePerson for a couple of years and they observed a problem. Big companies sometimes didn’t want to use a SaaS application, but they might like what the SaaS provider was offering. Most SaaS companies don’t have the resources to build a separate on-premises version and then maintain a code base for two versions, Miller explained to TechCrunch. At the same time containerization technology from Docker and others was beginning to take off. Containers have enabled companies to create portable applications. “If applications become more portable, a company like LivePerson [or anyone else] could ship a Docker image to host behind the firewall,” Miller said. Without containers you would be forced to create a second product for customers looking for an on-premises version — and that could prove time-consuming, costly and not always successful. The container approach solved a huge problem and Miller and Campbell took advantage. Yet Replicated is more than just a simple installation tool. Once it’s installed, it helps integrate with company credential systems such as Active Directory or LDAP, provides information about the instance in a dashboard, informs the user when an update is available, offers auditing tools and even backup services. Companies have found Replicated so useful because it solved this huge problem of maintaining two code bases. As angel funder and GitHub founder Tom Preston-Warner wrote in his personal blog last week: Replicated solves all of these issues and lets customers create an enterprise instance surprisingly fast. A demo on the company website claims it can be done in around eight minutes. Real world installations may take longer, but the point is it’s within in reach without a huge amount of effort. (It’s worth noting that Preston-Warner is no longer with GitHub and his former company is not a Replicated customer.) Yesterday’s announcement at DockerCon that the major container players would be creating an open container standard was music to Miller’s ears. With a standard, his company doesn’t have to create tools tuned to Docker, CoreOS and others. Replicated can create one product for the standard and it should work across all participating vendor products. Replicated is just getting started, but if it can replicate the success of its first startup, it should work out fine.