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Hausfather Z.,C3 Energy | Menne M.J.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Williams C.N.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Masters T.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2013

An assessment quantifying the impact of urbanization on temperature trends from the U.S. Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) is described. Stations were first classified as urban and nonurban (rural) using four different proxy measures of urbanity. Trends from the two station types were then compared using a pairing method that controls for differences in instrument type and via spatial gridding to account for the uneven distribution of stations. The comparisons reveal systematic differences between the raw (unadjusted) urban and rural temperature trends throughout the USHCN period of record according to all four urban classifications. According to these classifications, urbanization accounts for 14-21% of the rise in unadjusted minimum temperatures since 1895 and 6-9% since 1960. The USHCN version 2 homogenization process effectively removes this urban signal such that it becomes insignificant during the last 50-80 years. In contrast, prior to 1930, only about half of the urban signal is removed. Accordingly, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies urban-correction procedure has essentially no impact on USHCN version 2 trends since 1930, but effectively removes the residual urban-rural temperature trend differences for years before 1930 according to all four urban proxy classifications. Finally, an evaluation of the homogenization of USHCN temperature series using subsets of rural-only and urban-only reference series from the larger U.S. Cooperative Observer (Coop) Network suggests that the composition of Coop stations surrounding USHCN stations is sufficiently "rural" to limit the aliasing of urban heat island signals onto USHCN version 2 temperature trends during homogenization. © 2012. American Geophysical Union.

PubMed | Scientific Support Branch of the Secretariat of the Basel, Code Climate and Masaryk University
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2016

In Oman, DDT was sprayed indoors during an intensive malaria eradication program between 1976 and 1992. DDT can remain for years after spraying and is associated with potential health risk. This raises the concern for human exposure in areas where DDT was used for indoor spraying. Twelve houses in three regions with a different history of DDT indoor spraying were chosen for a sampling campaign in 2005 to determine p,p-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p-DDT), p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p-DDE) and p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p-DDD) levels in indoor air, dust, and outdoor soil. Although DDT was only sprayed indoor, p,p-DDT, p,p-DDE and p,p-DDD were also found in outdoor soil. The results indicate that release and exposure continue for years after cessation of spraying. The predicted cancer risk based on concentrations determined in 2005, indicate that there was still a significant cancer risk up to 13 to 16years after indoor DDT spraying. A novel approach, based on region-specific half-lives, was used to predict concentrations in 2015 and showed that more than 21years after spraying, cancer risk for exposure to indoor air, dust, and outdoor soil are acceptable in Oman for adults and young children. The model can be used for other locations and countries to predict prospective exposure of contaminants based on indoor experimental measurements and knowledge about the spraying time-schedule to extrapolate region-specific half-lives and predict effects on the human population years after spraying.

Zhang Q.,Universities Space Research Association | Zhang Q.,NASA | Cheng Y.-B.,NASA | Cheng Y.-B.,Sigma Space Corporation | And 7 more authors.
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2014

Photosynthesis (PSN) is a pigment level process in which antenna pigments (predominately chlorophylls) in chloroplasts absorb photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for the photochemical process. PAR absorbed by foliar non-photosynthetic components is not used for PSN. The fraction of PAR absorbed (fAPAR) by a canopy/vegetation (i.e., fAPARcanopy) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images, referred to as MOD15A2 FPAR, has been used to compute absorbed PAR (APAR) for PSN (APARPSN) which is utilized to produce the standard MODIS gross primary production (GPP) product, referred to as MOD17A2 GPP. In this study, the fraction of PAR absorbed by chlorophyll throughout the canopy (fAPARchl) was retrieved from MODIS images for three AmeriFlux crop fields in Nebraska. There are few studies in the literature that compare the performance of MOD15A2 FPAR versus fAPARchl in GPP estimation. In our study MOD15A2 FPAR and the retrieved fAPARchl were compared with field fAPARcanopy and the fraction of PAR absorbed by green leaves of the vegetation (fAPARgreen). MOD15A2 FPAR overestimated field fAPARcanopy in spring and in fall, and underestimated field fAPARcanopy in midsummer whereas fAPARchl correctly captured the seasonal phenology. The retrieved fAPARchl agreed well with field fAPARgreen at early crop growth stage in June, and was less than field fAPARgreen in late July, August and September. GPP estimates with fAPARchl and with MOD15A2 FPAR were compared to tower flux GPP. GPP simulated with fAPARchl was corroborated with tower flux GPP. Improvements in crop GPP estimation were achieved by replacing MOD15A2 FPAR with fAPARchl which also reduced uncertainties of crop GPP estimates by 1.12-2.37gCm-2d-1. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Barnes N.,Code Climate | Jones D.,Code Climate
IEEE Software | Year: 2011

The Clear Climate Code project rewrote GISTEMP, a legacy software system used to produce an important global surface temperature dataset. The focus of the project is on clarity: making the source code as clear as possible to interested people, to improve public understanding. The result is a Python package that's easy to understand, run, and change, which allows any interested person to pose and answer novel research questions. In the process, the project's founders also discovered and fixed some inconsequential bugs and hopefully improved online discussion of global warming. © 2011 IEEE.

Code Climate | Date: 2013-02-14

Computer software to detect defects in security system software and reliability; software for design and development of computer systems and software applications; software for analysis and production of programming code in the field of software development; software development tools; software for visualization of software and design of computer systems; software for design and development of software programs; software for the management and development of computer systems; software for assisting developers in creating program code for use in multiple application programs. Teaching and training in the fields of information technology, design and development of software programs, management and development of computer systems, creating program code for use in multiple application programs, software design, computer software development, computer software integration, verification of computer software, and maintenance of computer software. Consultation services in the field of development and testing of computer software; computer software consultation, namely, providing an online, automated, on-demand service for analyzing software source code; software design, development, integration, installation, verification and updating and maintenance services; computer software risk assessment services; providing quality assurance services in the field of computer software.

News Article | November 6, 2014

Dublin’s Web Summit has accelerated into SXSW territory this year, scaling to over 22,000 attendees. Unlike other tech conferences, which put the startups centre stage, Web Summit has gone for scale, with side stages where 200 companies pitched over the three days of the conference. Portuguese company Codacy won the BETA Award for its platform, which automatically reviews software code, saving time and frustration for software companies. Competitors to it include Code Climate and Scritiniser. Codacy claims they are better because they “provide flexibility to adjust the code analysis experience” and support a lot of programming languages. The company is based in London, but its tech team operates in Lisbon. This is worth noting because Lisbon is emerging as a genuinely new tech ecosystem in Europe, with Berlin-levels of cheapness but with Southern European weather. Last week, Codacy recently announced a “freemium” model, plus a significant upgrade that introduces extensive code monitoring, quality insights and a number of customisable features. Backed by Faber Ventures, Seedcamp and Espirito Santo Ventures, Codacy serves over 3,000 developers worldwide and its customers range from individual freelancers to Fortune 500 companies. Meanwhile, BaseStone, from the UK, won the ALPHA Award for its company, which aims to streamline communication and speed up the design-review process. Judges of this year’s competition included John O’Farrell of Andreessen Horowitz and Alfred Lin of Sequoia. This year the competition saw over 1,500 entries. Both winners will receive 10,000 euros in cash for the business and a meeting at Coca-Cola in Atlanta, which sponsored the pitch competition. I’m not exactly sure how useful that will be, but hey ….

News Article | September 18, 2014

Developers could ask their bosses to check for issues in their code before they deploy it. But bosses might have better things to do. A robot might not mind, though. Think of Code Climate like that — a development team’s robot in the cloud that runs standard tests on code without actually executing it. It can uncover security vulnerabilities, potential bugs, repetition of existing code, and unnecessarily complex programming, in Ruby and JavaScript. Support for PHP is in public beta. Code Climate has done quite well for itself almost right from its 2011 beginning, founder and chief executive Bryan Helmkamp told VentureBeat in an interview. But now Helmkamp wants to make the robot smarter and work with more programming languages, like Go and Python, for example. “We’re not going to be able to reach those other languages and reach that audience nearly as quickly if we continue to do it off revenue growth from the bootstrap strategy,” Helmkamp said. And so today Code Climate is announcing its first venture funding, a $2 million seed round. The money comes a few months after a business with software for on-premises automatic code testing, Coverity, found itself being acquired by Synopsys for $375 million. Coverity and Code Climate operate in a domain known as static analysis. For those that want to run custom code tests before getting the green light for deployment, continuous-integration services in the cloud, like CircleCI and Codeship, are available. Such startups have been taking on more and more funding in recent months. And Code Climate can work right alongside such tools. Helmkamp thought up Code Climate while he was chief technology officer of energy startup Efficiency 2.0, after noticing that, over time, adding features to applications became harder and took longer. “The kind of question was, ‘Is there anything that could be done to give developers a much better chance of having higher-quality outcomes with their projects?'” he said. The technology he and co-founder (and Efficiency 2.0 colleague) Noah Davis assembled not only runs tests automatically but also provides letter grades for specific projects and overall grade-point averages for at-a-glance analysis of code quality. The service has since become increasingly popular among engineering squads. Code Climate claims more than 1,200 paying customers, including GitHub, New Relic, Kickstarter, LivingSocial, and Zendesk. NextView Ventures led the funding round after checking with chief technology officers and vice presidents of engineering to get their impression of Code Climate. NextView co-founder and partner David Beisel wrote in a blog post announcing the investment: That’s a strong positive signal. And the service has registered well with other investors Code Climate talked to. Investors would ask their firms’ developers what they thought of the service, only to find out they paid for the service, Helmkamp said. In addition to NextView Ventures, Lerer Ventures, Fuel Capital, and Trinity Ventures also participated in the funding. Angels who have backed the company include Heroku co-founder James Lindenbaum and GitHub co-founder Tom Preston-Werner. Ten people work for New York-based Code Climate, Helmkamp said. A year from now, the headcount should be between 15 and 20. Besides going into more languages, the team intends to create ways to give visibility into current code right when a bunch of people start using Code Climate, Helmkamp said.

Code Climate is pulling a gutsy move today. The startup is open-sourcing key parts of its proprietary software for performing tests on source code to determine its quality. No longer will developers be limited by the set of programming languages and frameworks that Code Climate supports. Now you can call on new engines for CoffeeScript, CSS stylesheets, Go, JavaScript, PHP, or Ruby, or write an engine for any other language based on a new specification, and then call on Code Climate’s servers to run checks. Code Climate today is also coming out with a new open-source command-line interface (CLI) through which developers can run checks locally on their own computers. In other words, you don’t have to upload your work to a remote repository like GitHub or Bitbucket to check your code if you don’t feel like it. “You can use that [the CLI] entirely for free, so it’s a pretty big shift,” Code Climate founder and chief executive Bryan Helmkamp told VentureBeat in an interview. Not only is this big for the startup, but the changes could pose a challenge to other code-testing outfits, like bitHound, Codacy, and Scrutinizer. You might think that releasing valuable technology under an open-source license would be bad for generating revenue, but Helmkamp isn’t worried about that. If anything, he said, greater revenue will come in, as more people start to rely on the startup’s technology. Currently, 50,000 developers use Code Climate to analyze around 700 billion lines of code on any given weekday, Helmkamp wrote in a blog post on today’s news. The new tools are available here.

News Article | June 23, 2015

Replicated, a company that wants to help SaaS vendors ship an on-premises version of their applications more easily, made a series of announcements today including a $1.5M seed round and several Beta customers. The company is taking advantage of Docker containerization technology to build a solution that enables developers to code once and ship two identical versions of the product — one that gets installed in the cloud per usual and one for customers who prefer to maintain the application in a private cloud or their own data centers. In addition, the company released a Beta of its product and announced several beta customers including Travis-CI, Code Climate and NPM. All in a good week for the nine-month old company. First the cash: the round was led by BoldStart with participation from Founder Collective, Mucker Capital, TenOneTen, WonderVC and WTI. In addition several well known angel investors participated including David Lee (formerly of SV Angel), Tom McInerney and GitHub founder Tom Preston-Werner. Replicated is the second startup for founders Grant Miller and Marc Campbell, who previously launched, a mobile customer service chat app bought by LivePerson in 2012 for an undisclosed amount of cash. After their first company was sold Miller and Campbell worked at LivePerson for a couple of years and they observed a problem. Big companies sometimes didn’t want to use a SaaS application, but they might like what the SaaS provider was offering. Most SaaS companies don’t have the resources to build a separate on-premises version and then maintain a code base for two versions, Miller explained to TechCrunch. At the same time containerization technology from Docker and others was beginning to take off. Containers have enabled companies to create portable applications. “If applications become more portable, a company like LivePerson [or anyone else] could ship a Docker image to host behind the firewall,” Miller said. Without containers you would be forced to create a second product for customers looking for an on-premises version — and that could prove time-consuming, costly and not always successful. The container approach solved a huge problem and Miller and Campbell took advantage. Yet Replicated is more than just a simple installation tool. Once it’s installed, it helps integrate with company credential systems such as Active Directory or LDAP, provides information about the instance in a dashboard, informs the user when an update is available, offers auditing tools and even backup services. Companies have found Replicated so useful because it solved this huge problem of maintaining two code bases. As angel funder and GitHub founder Tom Preston-Warner wrote in his personal blog last week: Replicated solves all of these issues and lets customers create an enterprise instance surprisingly fast.  A demo on the company website claims it can be done in around eight minutes. Real world installations may take longer, but the point is it’s within in reach without a huge amount of effort. (It’s worth noting that Preston-Warner is no longer with GitHub and his former company is not a Replicated customer.) Yesterday’s announcement at DockerCon that the major container players would be creating an open container standard was music to Miller’s ears. With a standard, his company doesn’t have to create tools tuned to Docker, CoreOS and others. Replicated can create one product for the standard and it should work across all participating vendor products. Replicated is just getting started, but if it can replicate the success of its first startup, it should work out fine.

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