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Guildford, United Kingdom

Machiels B.,University of Liege | Lete C.,University of Liege | Guillaume A.,University of Liege | Mast J.,Coda Research | And 3 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2011

All gammaherpesviruses encode a major glycoprotein homologous to the Epstein-Barr virus gp350. These glycoproteins are often involved in cell binding, and some provide neutralization targets. However, the capacity of gammaherpesviruses for long-term transmission from immune hosts implies that in vivo neutralization is incomplete. In this study, we used Bovine Herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) to determine how its gp350 homolog - gp180 - contributes to virus replication and neutralization. A lack of gp180 had no impact on the establishment and maintenance of BoHV-4 latency, but markedly sensitized virions to neutralization by immune sera. Antibody had greater access to gB, gH and gL on gp180-deficient virions, including neutralization epitopes. Gp180 appears to be highly O-glycosylated, and removing O-linked glycans from virions also sensitized them to neutralization. It therefore appeared that gp180 provides part of a glycan shield for otherwise vulnerable viral epitopes. Interestingly, this O-glycan shield could be exploited for neutralization by lectins and carbohydrate-specific antibody. The conservation of O-glycosylation sites in all gp350 homologs suggests that this is a general evasion mechanism that may also provide a therapeutic target. © 2011 Machiels et al. Source


Thiry C.,Institute Des Science Of La Vie And Uclouvain | Ruttens A.,Coda Research | Pussemier L.,Coda Research | Schneider Y.-J.,Institute Des Science Of La Vie And Uclouvain
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

A range of Se species has been shown to occur in a variety of different foodstuffs. Depending on its speciation, Se is more or less bioavailable to human subjects. In the present study, the role of speciation as a determinant of Se bioavailability was addressed with an investigation of species-specific mechanisms of transport at the intestinal level. The present work focused on four distinct Se compounds (selenate (Se(VI)), selenite (Se(IV)), selenomethionine (SeMet) and methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys)), whose intestinal transport was mimicked through an in vitro bicameral model of enterocyte-like differentiated Caco-2 cells. Efficiency of Se absorption was shown to be species dependent (SeMet>MeSeCys>Se(VI)>Se(IV)). In the case of SeMet, MeSeCys and Se(VI), the highly polarised passage from the apical to basolateral pole indicated that a substantial fraction of transport was transcellular, whilst results for Se(IV) indicated paracellular diffusion. Passage of the organic Se species (SeMet and MeSeCys) became saturated after 3 h, but no such effect was observed for the inorganic species. In addition, SeMet and MeSeCys transport was significantly inhibited by their respective S analogues methionine and methylcysteine, which suggests a common transport system for both kinds of compounds. © 2012 The Authors. Source


Vanderhaeghen W.,Coda Research | Vanderhaeghen W.,Ghent University | Hermans K.,Ghent University | Haesebrouck F.,Ghent University | And 2 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2010

Until recently, reports on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in food production animals were mainly limited to occasional detections in dairy cattle mastitis. However, since 2005 a MRSA clone, CC398, has been reported colonizing pigs, veal calves and broiler chickens and infecting dairy cows. Many aspects of its prevalence in pigs remain unclear. In other livestock, colonizing capacity and reservoir status still require elucidation. MRSA CC398 has also been detected in meat, but, as for other MRSA, the risk this poses is somewhat unclear. Currently, the most worrying aspect of MRSA CC398 appears to be its capacity to spread to humans. This might complicate MRSA control measures in human healthcare, urging research into risk factors and transmission routes. Although infections with MRSA CC398 are much less reported than carriage, more investigation into its pathogenic potential is required. Moreover, the origin and evolution of this clone remain unknown. © Cambridge University Press 2010. Source


Van Der Zande M.,Wageningen University | Vandebriel R.J.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment | Van Doren E.,Coda Research | Kramer E.,Wageningen University | And 10 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2012

We report the results of a 28-day oral exposure study in rats, exposed to <20 nm noncoated, or <15 nm PVP-coated silver nanoparticles ([Ag] = 90 mg/kg body weight (bw)), or AgNO 3 ([Ag] = 9 mg/kg bw), or carrier solution only. Dissection was performed at day 29, and after a wash-out period of 1 or 8 weeks. Silver was present in all examined organs with the highest levels in the liver and spleen for all silver treatments. Silver concentrations in the organs were highly correlated to the amount of Ag + in the silver nanoparticle suspension, indicating that mainly Ag +, and to a much lesser extent silver nanoparticles, passed the intestines in the silver nanoparticle exposed rats. In all groups silver was cleared from most organs after 8 weeks postdosing, but remarkably not from the brain and testis. Using single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, silver nanoparticles were detected in silver nanoparticle exposed rats, but, remarkably also in AgNO 3 exposed rats, hereby demonstrating the formation of nanoparticles from Ag +in vivo that are probably composed of silver salts. Biochemical markers and antibody levels in blood, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine release, and NK-cell activity did not reveal hepatotoxicity or immunotoxicity of the silver exposure. In conclusion, oral exposure to silver nanoparticles appears to be very similar to exposure to silver salts. However, the consequences of in vivo formation of silver nanoparticles, and of the long retention of silver in brain and testis should be considered in a risk assessment of silver nanoparticles. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Rosseel T.,Coda Research | Ozhelvaci O.,Coda Research | Freimanis G.,The Pirbright Institute | Van Borm S.,Coda Research
Journal of Virological Methods | Year: 2015

Viral metagenomic approaches are increasingly being used for viral discovery. Various strategies are applied to enrich viral sequences, but there is often a lack of knowledge about their effective influence on the viral discovery sensitivity. We evaluate some convenient and widely used approaches for RNA virus discovery in clinical samples in order to reveal their sensitivity and potential bias introduced by the enrichment or amplifications steps. An RNA virus was artificially spiked at a fixed titer in serum and lung tissue, respectively, low and high nucleic acid content matrices. For serum, a simple DNase treatment on the RNA extract gave the maximum gain in proportion of viral sequences (83×), and a subsequent ribosomal RNA removal nearly doubled once more the proportion of viral sequences. For lung tissue, a ribosomal RNA depletion step on the RNA extract had the biggest gain in proportion of viral sequences (32×). We show also that direct sequencing of cDNA is recommended above an extra random PCR amplification step, and a that the virion enrichment strategy (filtration and nuclease treatment) has a beneficial effect for sequencing-based virus discovery. Our findings provide sample-dependent guidelines for targeted virus discovery strategies. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

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