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Coconut, Sri Lanka

Bandupriya H.D.D.,University of Reading | Bandupriya H.D.D.,Coconut Research Institute | Gibbings J.G.,University of Reading | Dunwell J.M.,University of Reading
Tree Genetics and Genomes | Year: 2013

Development of an efficient tissue culture protocol in coconut is hampered by numerous technical constraints. Thus a greater understanding of the fundamental aspects of embryogenesis is essential. The role of AINTEGUMENTA-like genes in embryogenesis has been elucidated not only in model plants but also in economically important crops. A coconut gene, CnANT, that encodes two APETALA2 (AP2) domains and a conserved linker region similar to those of the BABY BOOM transcription factor was cloned, characterized, and its tissue specific expression was examined. The full-length cDNA of 1,780 bp contains a 1,425-bp open reading frame that encodes a putative peptide of 474 amino acids. The genomic DNA sequence includes 2,317 bp and consists of nine exons interrupted by eight introns. The exon/intron organization of CnANT is similar to that of homologous genes in other plant species. Analysis of differential tissue expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction indicated that CnANT is expressed more highly in in vitro grown tissues than in other vegetative tissues. Sequence comparison of the genomic sequence of CnANT in different coconut varieties revealed one single nucleotide polymorphism and one indel in the first exon and first intron, respectively, which differentiate the Tall group of trees from Dwarfs. The indel sequence, which can be considered a simple sequence repeats marker, was successfully used to distinguish the Tall and Dwarf groups as well as to develop a marker system, which may be of value in the identification of parental varieties that are used in coconut breeding programs in Sri Lanka. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Narita J.P.Z.,University of Sao Paulo | De Moraes G.J.,University of Sao Paulo | De Moraes G.J.,CNPq Researcher | Fernando L.C.P.,Coconut Research Institute
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

Two species of Neocypholaelaps Vitzthum are reported from Sri Lanka. One of them, Neocypholaelaps ceylonicus Narita & Moraes, n. sp., is described based on adult females. The other, Neocypholaelaps ampullula (Berlese), originally described from Indonesia, is reported for the first time in Sri Lanka. Complementary morphological information about this species is provided based on the specimens collected in this study. A discussion is presented about the spermathecal apparatus of Neocypholaelaps species. © 2011 Magnolia Press. Source

Wijebandara D.M.D.I.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Wijebandara D.M.D.I.,Coconut Research Institute | Dasog G.S.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Patil P.L.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Hebbar M.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad
Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science | Year: 2011

Distribution of various fractions of soil zinc and their relationship with soil properties in paddy-growing soils of northern dry zone and hill zones in Karnataka state was studied. Though the content of different fractions varied between the soils of two zones, the order of preponderance of different zinc fractions remained same, viz. water soluble plus exchangeable zinc < organically bound zinc < amorphous sesquioxide bound zinc < crystalline bound zinc < manganese oxide bound zinc < residual zinc. Correlation data indicated that these fractions are in a state of dynamic equilibrium among different fractions and were influenced by pH, free CaCO3, CEC, organic carbon, clay and free Fe2O3. Source

Organic farming is gaining popularity all over the world, as it can diversify agricultural production systems towards attaining improved productivity, farm income and food, as well as environmental safety. Despite the global awareness of environmental degradation and climatic change that could result from the continuous practice of inorganic farming, many coconut growers in Sri Lanka are still producing coconut inorganically. Coconut growers' attitudes and perceptions are the major factors that lead to the adoption of organic farming. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the important influencing factors for adoption of organic coconut farming. The theoretical framework for the study was developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. The data were collected from 102 organic growers and 76 non-organic growers. The results showed that non-organic growers did not have strong motivation to practice organic farming as they were of the view that yields are low, even though organic coconuts have a slightly higher price. Furthermore, they were reluctant to shift from chemical fertilizers and pesticides as they have been using them for a long period of time. Conversely, organic growers practice organic farming mainly because of the marketing assistance and inputs such as organic fertilizer and technical knowledge provided by the Serandipol Company, and also their favorable attitudes towards the environment. Knowledge about organic farming and extension worker contacts greatly influence motivation towards adopting organic farming. Therefore, participatory extension programs and better extension approaches such as farmer field schools could be used to change the attitude, knowledge and skills of growers towards organic farming. Further involvement of a third party such as the government, an NGO or a private company to assist organic growers would also increase the adoptability rate of organic farming. Source

Jayasundera J.M.M.A.,Coconut Research Institute | Kulatunga A.R.,Coconut Research Institute
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2014

We have investigated the amount of drying aid required to produce amorphous coconut treacle powder through spray-drying. Maltodextrin (DE-10) was used as the drying aid. Three different formulations of coconut treacle: maltodextrin: water (30%: 20%: 50%, 35%: 15%: 50% and 40%: 10%: 50%) were spray dried at inlet and outlet temperatures of 165°C and 65°C, respectively. Powder recovery in a pilot scale spray-dryer was used as a measure of the ease of spray-drying for a given formulation. The spray-dried coconut treacle powder was characterized for moisture content, water activity, sugar profile and particle morphology. The best powder recovery (58.6±3.5%) was obtained for the formulation of coconut treacle: maltodextrin: water in the ratio of 35%:15%:50%. The initial moisture content and water activity value of the spray-dried coconut treacle powder were 1.04±0.003% and 0.43±0.00%, respectively. It was interesting to note that both the moisture content and the water activity of treacle powder did not vary significantly (p>0.05) on storage of one year. The scanning electron micrograph of spray-dried coconut treacle powder showed that the particles were spherical in shape. The morphology of these particles apparently gives a good indication of the coconut treacle powder being amorphous. The sugar profile of this coconut treacle powder showed that it had a total sugar content of 88.2±0.05% out of which 46.6±0.02% was sucrose, 23.0±0.02% was glucose and 18.6±0.01% was fructose. Source

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