Coconut Research Institute

Coconut, Sri Lanka

Coconut Research Institute

Coconut, Sri Lanka

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Yalegama L.L.W.C.,Coconut Research Institute | Nedra Karunaratne D.,University of Peradeniya | Sivakanesan R.,University of Peradeniya | Jayasekara C.,Coconut Research Institute
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The coconut kernel residues obtained after extraction of coconut milk (MR) and virgin coconut oil (VOR) were analysed for their potential as dietary fibres. VOR was defatted and treated chemically using three solvent systems to isolate coconut cell wall polysaccharides (CCWP). Nutritional composition of VOR, MR and CCWPs indicated that crude fibre, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre and hemicelluloses contents were higher in CCWPs than in VOR and MR. MR contained a notably higher content of fat than VOR and CCWPs. The oil holding capacity, water holding capacity and swelling capacity were also higher in CCWPs than in VOR and MR. All the isolates and MR and VOR had high metal binding capacities. The CCWPs when compared with commercially available fibre isolates, indicated improved dietary fibre properties. These results show that chemical treatment of coconut kernel by-products can enhance the performance of dietary fibre to yield a better product. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Siriwardena K.A.P.,Rinzen Laboratories pvt Ltd. | Fernando L.C.P.,Coconut Research Institute | Nanayakkara N.,G.H. Perera Mw. | Perera K.F.G.,Coconut Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Crop Protection | Year: 2010

Acoustic methods have been developed and used to detect insects in concealed habitats. The larvae of red palm weevil, Rynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), a serious pest of the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. feed on the soft tissues inside the stem and bud region. Detection of infested coconut palms in the early stages by the conventional method of checking for external symptoms is time consuming, labour intensive and costly. This paper describes the development of a portable and efficient acoustic device and its potential in detection of infested palms in the field. The device comprises a sensor to mount on the palm and to acquire the sounds of red palm weevil larvae, an electronic unit that processes the acquired sounds and a set of headphones to receive the output sound by the listener. It is light weight, user-friendly and powered by batteries. The highest accuracy of identifying infested palms was obtained when the palm was checked at four positions; either side of palm base and bases of the two lowermost leaves. The infested palms were detected with over 97% accuracy, while the probability of not detecting uninfested palms was over 92%. A second check increased the rate of accuracy. Many difficulties encountered with conventional methods could be overcome by the use of this device. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Narita J.P.Z.,University of Sao Paulo | De Moraes G.J.,University of Sao Paulo | De Moraes G.J.,CNPq Researcher | Fernando L.C.P.,Coconut Research Institute
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

Two species of Neocypholaelaps Vitzthum are reported from Sri Lanka. One of them, Neocypholaelaps ceylonicus Narita & Moraes, n. sp., is described based on adult females. The other, Neocypholaelaps ampullula (Berlese), originally described from Indonesia, is reported for the first time in Sri Lanka. Complementary morphological information about this species is provided based on the specimens collected in this study. A discussion is presented about the spermathecal apparatus of Neocypholaelaps species. © 2011 Magnolia Press.


Bandupriya H.D.D.,University of Reading | Bandupriya H.D.D.,Coconut Research Institute | Gibbings J.G.,University of Reading | Dunwell J.M.,University of Reading
Tree Genetics and Genomes | Year: 2013

Development of an efficient tissue culture protocol in coconut is hampered by numerous technical constraints. Thus a greater understanding of the fundamental aspects of embryogenesis is essential. The role of AINTEGUMENTA-like genes in embryogenesis has been elucidated not only in model plants but also in economically important crops. A coconut gene, CnANT, that encodes two APETALA2 (AP2) domains and a conserved linker region similar to those of the BABY BOOM transcription factor was cloned, characterized, and its tissue specific expression was examined. The full-length cDNA of 1,780 bp contains a 1,425-bp open reading frame that encodes a putative peptide of 474 amino acids. The genomic DNA sequence includes 2,317 bp and consists of nine exons interrupted by eight introns. The exon/intron organization of CnANT is similar to that of homologous genes in other plant species. Analysis of differential tissue expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction indicated that CnANT is expressed more highly in in vitro grown tissues than in other vegetative tissues. Sequence comparison of the genomic sequence of CnANT in different coconut varieties revealed one single nucleotide polymorphism and one indel in the first exon and first intron, respectively, which differentiate the Tall group of trees from Dwarfs. The indel sequence, which can be considered a simple sequence repeats marker, was successfully used to distinguish the Tall and Dwarf groups as well as to develop a marker system, which may be of value in the identification of parental varieties that are used in coconut breeding programs in Sri Lanka. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Aratchige N.S.,Coconut Research Institute | Fernando L.C.P.,Coconut Research Institute | Waidyarathne K.P.,Coconut Research Institute | Chandrasiri K.A.S.,Coconut Research Institute
Experimental and Applied Acarology | Year: 2012

Densities of coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) and its predatory mite, Neoseiulus baraki Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were monitored on coconut fruits in two coconut mite infested areas, Kalpitiya and Madurankuliya, in Sri Lanka, over a period of 3 years and were compared with local rainfall records. Significant differences in A. guerreronis densities were observed among years and months of the year. Rainfall (amount and frequency, i. e. the total number of days with rainfall of >5 mm) was not significantly correlated with the variation of A. guerreronis densities. But the drought length (i. e. the number of days without rainfall of >5 mm) significantly influenced A. guerreronis densities. Generally, peak densities of A. guerreronis were observed during February-March and June-September in both areas. The differences in the N. baraki densities were significantly different between the two areas and among the 3 years but not among months of the year. Although the amount of rainfall was not significantly correlated with the population densities of N. baraki, frequency of rainfall showed a negative significant correlation and drought length showed a positive significant correlation with the population densities. The results of this experiment indicated that the application of control methods for A. guerreronis may be more advantageous if they are carried out at the onset and during the dry seasons. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Fernando L.C.P.,Coconut Research Institute | Waidyarathne K.P.,Coconut Research Institute | Perera K.F.G.,Coconut Research Institute | De Silva P.H.P.R.,Coconut Research Institute
Biological Control | Year: 2010

In this paper, we report the first evidence for the suppression of coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) populations by augmenting the natural population of the predatory mite, Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) by an inundative release with laboratory-bred N. baraki. On each of five coconut mite infested palms in two plantations in the same agro-climatic zone of Sri Lanka, 10,000 laboratory-bred N. baraki was released once and the numbers of both N. baraki and coconut mite were assessed over a period of 6 months. Irrespective of the plantation, release of N. baraki resulted in a significant increase in its population on released palms during the post-release period of 6 months with a mean number of 8.99 ± 1.03 per fruit compared to 6.19 ± 0.80 per fruit on unreleased palms. A single release of N. baraki showed a highly significant positive impact on the coconut mite population in the released palms in both plantations. The mean numbers of coconut mites per fruit were 1264.77 ± 139.07 and 1815 ± 46 in the released and unreleased palms, respectively, during the sampling period. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Wijebandara D.M.D.I.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Wijebandara D.M.D.I.,Coconut Research Institute | Dasog G.S.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Patil P.L.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Hebbar M.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad
Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science | Year: 2011

Distribution of various fractions of soil zinc and their relationship with soil properties in paddy-growing soils of northern dry zone and hill zones in Karnataka state was studied. Though the content of different fractions varied between the soils of two zones, the order of preponderance of different zinc fractions remained same, viz. water soluble plus exchangeable zinc < organically bound zinc < amorphous sesquioxide bound zinc < crystalline bound zinc < manganese oxide bound zinc < residual zinc. Correlation data indicated that these fractions are in a state of dynamic equilibrium among different fractions and were influenced by pH, free CaCO3, CEC, organic carbon, clay and free Fe2O3.


Perera L.,Coconut Research Institute | Baudouin L.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Mackay I.,UK National Institute of Agricultural Botany
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2016

The commercial cultivation of dwarf coconut is rare in the world, representing about 5% of global population. However, Dwarfs are currently receiving more attention, particularly for the harvest of tender nut water. Dwarfs are distinguished from tall coconuts primarily by their short height with an absence of a bole at the base of the stem, their early setting of nuts, their predominantly self fertilizing mating system and by large numbers of relatively small nuts. To date, the origin and domestication of Dwarfs has not been established. This study investigates the origin and domestication of dwarf coconut using molecular markers, mainly microsatellite (SSR) data. The inheritance of height and the presence of a bole was investigated in the F2 of a cross between Dwarf and Tall palms. The data suggest that the presence of a bole results from a single codominant locus. There was no strong association between the presence of a bole and height, with height also depending on a single codominant gene. However genetic and environmental factors make it difficult to assign individuals a definite genotype. SSR allele frequency differences between dwarf and tall accessions, ethno botanical and geographic information indicate that dwarf coconut originated from a typical domestication event in Southeast Asia. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | University of Queensland, Ho Chi Minh City International University and Coconut Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB | Year: 2016

Coconut farming is not only a vital agricultural industry for all tropical countries possessing humid coasts and lowlands, but is also a robust income provider for millions of smallholder farmers worldwide. However, due to its longevity, the security of production of this crop suffers significantly from episodes of natural disasters, including cyclone and tsunami, devastating pest and disease outbreaks, while also affected by price competition for the principal products, especially the oil. In order to reduce these pressures, high-value coconut varieties (makapuno and aromatics) have been introduced in some regions, on a limited scale, but with positive outcomes. Even though these two varieties produce fruit with delicious solid or flavoursome liquid endosperm, their distinct biochemical and cellular features unfortunately prevent their in situ germination. In fact, embryo rescue and culture have been developed historically to nurture the embryo under invitro conditions, enabling effective propagation. In an attempt to provide a comprehensive review featuring these elite coconut varieties, this paper firstly introduces their food values and nutritional qualities, and then discusses the present knowledge of their biology and genetics. Further possibilities for coconut in general are also highlighted, through the use of advanced tissue culture techniques and efficient seedling management for sustainable production of these highly distinct and commercially attractive varieties of coconut.


Jayasundera J.M.M.A.,Coconut Research Institute | Kulatunga A.R.,Coconut Research Institute
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2014

We have investigated the amount of drying aid required to produce amorphous coconut treacle powder through spray-drying. Maltodextrin (DE-10) was used as the drying aid. Three different formulations of coconut treacle: maltodextrin: water (30%: 20%: 50%, 35%: 15%: 50% and 40%: 10%: 50%) were spray dried at inlet and outlet temperatures of 165°C and 65°C, respectively. Powder recovery in a pilot scale spray-dryer was used as a measure of the ease of spray-drying for a given formulation. The spray-dried coconut treacle powder was characterized for moisture content, water activity, sugar profile and particle morphology. The best powder recovery (58.6±3.5%) was obtained for the formulation of coconut treacle: maltodextrin: water in the ratio of 35%:15%:50%. The initial moisture content and water activity value of the spray-dried coconut treacle powder were 1.04±0.003% and 0.43±0.00%, respectively. It was interesting to note that both the moisture content and the water activity of treacle powder did not vary significantly (p>0.05) on storage of one year. The scanning electron micrograph of spray-dried coconut treacle powder showed that the particles were spherical in shape. The morphology of these particles apparently gives a good indication of the coconut treacle powder being amorphous. The sugar profile of this coconut treacle powder showed that it had a total sugar content of 88.2±0.05% out of which 46.6±0.02% was sucrose, 23.0±0.02% was glucose and 18.6±0.01% was fructose.

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